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OF THE

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT

OF

THE VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI,

BY
THE THREE GREAT EUROPEAN POWERS,

SPAIN, FRANCE, AND GREAT BRITAIN,

THE SUBSEQUENT OCCUPATION, SETTLEMENT, AND EXTENSION OP
CIVIL GOVERNMENT BY

THE UNITED STATES,

UNTIL THE YEAR 1846.
BY

JOHN Vv. M 0 N E T T E, M.D.

"Westward the star of empire takes its way."
IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

82 CLIFF STREET, NEW YORK.

1848.

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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846,

By Harper & Brothers,

In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New York.

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CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

BOOK V.

THE UNITED STATES IN THE VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

CHAPTER I.

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE FRONTIER POPULATION EAST AND

SOUTH OF THE OHIO RIVER. A.D. 1770 TO 1810.

Argument.—Condition of the frontier Settlements of western Pennsylvania and Vir-

ginia.— Characteristic Traits of the Pioneers generally. — Manners and Customs:

1. Costume of the Hunters: the Hunting-shirt; Pantaloons; Breech-cloth and Leg-

gins; Moccasin. — 2. Habitation: the Log Cabin; its Location; internal Appear-

ance.—3. Employments: the respective Duties of Man and Wife.—4. Diet: Meats;

wild Game; Bread; Pane l Journey-cake; Hog and Hommony; Substitutes for Tea

and Coffee.—5. Settlement Rights: Nature and Extent; tomahawk Improvements.

—6. Fort, or Station: Form and Construction; its Location and Use; Stations in

Kentucky.—7. Hunters: Science of Hunting; a hunting camp ; Game; Hides; Pel-

tries.—8. Caravans: annual Trips to Baltimoro and Frederic; Equipment of Cara-

van; solitary Route across the Mountains; Order of March; Farm —9. The moral

Sense: state of Morals; natural Honesty and Sense of Honor the supreme Law;

force of Public Opinion; "Lynch Law;" "Regulators."—10. Social Virtues: Hos-

pitality; Sociality; Conviviality; a marriage Party; Sports and Amusements —11.

Boatmen: general Character; Costume; Habits; peculiar Traits of Character.—12.

National Character: Diversity of People and Languages blended; Peculiarities of

Feelings and Habits neutralized; Influence of free Government upon the Enterprise

and moral Character.—13. Religious Traits: Religion disconnected with civil Pow-

er; Ministers dependent for Support upon their own Merit; religious "Awakenings,"

or "Revivals," in the West; "Camp-meeting" Scene; Origin of Camp Meetings in

Kentucky and Tennessee; Camp Meeting at Cane Ridge; at Desha's Creek; at

Cabin Creek; astonishing Influence of sylvan Preaching, and the attendant Circum-

stances; extraordinary Conversions; Disturbance of mental and nervous Systems

Page 1

CHAPTER II.

INDIAN WARFARE, AND ITS EFFECTS UPON THE FRONTIER PEOPLE.

EMINENT PIONEERS OF KENTUCKY. A.D. 1775 TO 1794.

Argument.—Man in his natural Condition the Creature of Circumstances, in Habits,

Feeling, and Character.—The hostile Attitude and Jealousy of the Six Nations.—

Their Neutrality secured by " Treaty of German Flats," in 1776.—Indians paid to

violate treaty Stipulations by the British Commissioners at Oswego in 1777, and take

up Arms against the frontier People.—The frontier People become daring and vin-

dictive.—Influence of Indian Warfare upon Manners and Usages of the Whites.—

Compelled to adopt the Indian Revenge.—Volunteer Defense of the West.—Person-

al Characteristics of frontier Soldiers. — Athletic Form and Strength.— Patience of

Toil and Privation.—Recuperative Powers of the System.—State of Feeling on the

Frontiers.—Exterminating Policy of Indians.—Cruelty of British Tories.—Spirit of

Revenge in the People.—Their domestic Enjoyments.—Indian scalping Parties on

the Frontier.—Their cautions and dcstrucF* Movements-—Renegade white Men

associated with Indians

Indian Implements of War.—The Rtfi**-The Scalping-knife.—Tomahawk.—Battle-

ax.—War-club.—Declaration of WV-—Torture.—Running the Gauntlet.— Torture at

the Stake by Fire.

Eminent Pioneers of Kentucky.^-- Daniel Boone.—His Nativity and early Habits.—

Personal Traits of Character. His first Acquaintance with Kentucky in 1769 and

1771.—At Watouga in 1?"•-Opens a Road from Holston to Kentucky River.—

Captain at Boonesborough until 1778.—Captured by Indians at Blue Licks.—His

Captivity and Escape.—An active Defender of Kentucky until 1783.—Abandons

Kentucky in 1800.—Settles in Missouri.—His Remains and those of his Wife re-

moved to Kentucky in 1845.—2. Simon Kenton.—His Character as a fearless Pio-

neer.—Nativity and Early Habits.—Youthful Indiscretion and subsequent Hardships.

—A Hunter is Kentucky.—A Hunter in Western Virginia.—Attached to Dunmorc's

Army.—Becomes "a Hunter of Kentucky."—His personal Appearance at the Age

of twenty-one Years.—His benevolent Disposition.—Attached to Kentucky Stations.

—Accompanies Colonel Clark to Kaskaskia.—Returns to Harrod's Station.—Visits

the Paint Creek Towns.—Captured by Indians.—Wild Horse Torture.—Divers Tor-

tures and Punishments suffered during his Captivity.—Sold in Detroit.—Escapes to

Kentucky.—Serves under Colonel Clark in 1780 and 1782.—An active partisan War-

rior until 1792.—Encounters Tecumseh. —Serves in Wayne's Army.—Abandons Ken-

tucky in 1802.—Removes to Ohio.—Serves under Colonel Shelby in 1813.—Died in

1836.—3. Robert Patterson.—Nativity, early Life, and Habits.—Serves in Dunmorc's

Army.—A prominent Pioneer of Kentucky in 1776.—Erects a Station on the Site of

Lexington in 1779.—Active Defender of Kentucky during the Indian War.—4. Ma-

jor George Rogers Clark.—His early frontier Services.—His Character and Military

Genius.—Superintends the Defense of Kentucky from 1776 to 1782.—Reduction of

British Posts in 1778, 1779 Page 30

CHAPTER III.

EXTENSION OF VIRGINIA SETTLEMENTS AND JURISDICTION TO THE

MISSISSIPPI. INDIAN HOSTILITIES UPON THE OHIO. A.D. 1776

TO 1780.

Argument.—Retrospect of the frontier Settlements of Western Virginia, Pennsylva-

nia, North Carolina, and Kentucky in 1776.—Check to these Settlements by hostile

Cherokees.—Cherokee War.—Threefold Invasion of Cherokee Country.—" Treaty of

Dewett's Corner."—" Treaty of Long Island," on Holston.—Cherokees retire from

ceded Territory.—Hostilities of Northwestern Tribes.—Kentucky Stations supplied

with Powder by Major Clark.—Posts on the Ohio.—Attack on M'Clellan's Station,

December, 1776.—Hostilities in West Augusta. — County of Kentucky erected.—

Militia Organization in 1777.—District of West Augusta divided into three Counties.

—Ohio County organized.—Settlements in West Augusta.—The Indians attack Har-

rod's Station; also, Logan's Fort and Boonesborough.—Militia organization in Ohio

County.—Memorable Siege of Boonesborough from July 4th to September.—Captain

Logan's Re-enforcement from North Carolina.—Colonel John Bowman's Re-enforce-

ment.—County of Kentucky organized.—Militia Organization.—Extent of Kentucky

County.—Colonel Henderson indemnified for Loss of Transylvania.—Indian Hostili-

ties near the Ohio.—Cornstalk, EUinipsico, and Red Hawk killed at Point Pleasant.

—Condition of Wheeling Fort.—" Fort Henry."—Situation and Importance of this

Fort.—Attacked by four hundred Indians, under Simon Girty.—Loss of the Garrison

near the Fort—Incidents of Indian Warfare.—Major M'Cullock.—Captain Mason.—

Major Clark plans the Reduction of Kaskaskia.—The Expedition proceeds from "the

Falls."—Surprise and Capture of Kaskaskia aud "Fort Gage."—Suspension of Civil

Government in West Augusta.—Martial Law suspended.—Courts organized.—At-

torneys and Attorney general.— Daniel Boone and twenty-seven Men captured at

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Blue Licks.—His Captivity among the Indians.—His Escape and Return toBooncs-

borough.—Makes an Incursion to Paint Creek.—Boonesborough invested by large

Indian Force, August, 1778.—Defense and Incidents of the Siege.—" Fort M'Intosh"

erected.—"Fort Laurens" erected.—Protracted Siege of Fort Laurens.—Court of

Land Commissioners established in Kentucky, 1779.—First Settlement at Lexington,

Bryant's Station, Forks of Licking, and on Sources of Salt River.—Massacre of Col-

onel Rodgers and ninety Men on the Ohio.—Colonel Bowman's unsuccessful Expe-

dition to the Miami Towns..-- Emigration to Kentucky-- Arrival of Immigrants in 1779.

—Scarcity of Provisions.—Depreciation of Paper Currency.—Distress of Emigrants

until 1780.—Defenses on the Ohio.—"Fort Nelson."—Colonel Slaughter.—Landed

Interest in Kentucky.—The Indians capture Ruddle's and Martin's Stations, and re-

tire.—Destruction of the Moravian Towns on the Coshocton,—Massacre of Captives

and friendly Moravians.—Colonel Clark invades the Shawanese Country in 1780.—

Militia Organization in 1780.—Colonel Clark erects "Fort Jefferson" on the Mis-

sissippi.—Southern Boundary of Virginia extended to the Mississippi . Page 80

CHAPTER IV.

INDIAN WARS ON THE OHIO. EXTENSION OF THE AMERICAN

SETTLEMENTS EAST AND SOUTH OF THE OHIO. A.D. 1781 TO

1784.

Argument.—Severe Winter of 1780-81.—Scarcity in Kentucky.—Kentucky divided into

three Counties.—Indian Hostilities on Bear-grass Creek.—Attack on Boone's and

M'Afee's Stations. — Indiana contemplate utter Destruction of Kentucky Settle-

ments.—Cbickasas attack Fort Jefferson in 1780.—Counties of Kentucky organized.

—General Clark's gun-boat Defense on the Ohio River.—Abundant Crops of 1781.

—Indian Hostilities renewed in the Spring of 1782.—Estill's Defeat.—Last Survivor

of his Party.—Indian Hostilities continued.—Laherty's Defeat.—Indian Invasion, un-

der Simon Girty, on Bryant's Station.—Disastrous Battle of Blue Licks.—Colonel Lo-

gan buries the Dead. Upper Ohio.—Settlements of West Augusta harassed.—

Wheeling Campaign against the Moravian Towns.—Horrible Massacre of peaceable

Indians.—Former Position of the Moravian Towns.—Previous Admonitions neglected.

—Disastrous Campaign against Moravians on Sandusky.—Colonel Crawford and Dr.

Knight captured.—Execution and horrid Torture of Colonel Crawford. — British

Agency the Source of Indian Hostilities.—Attack on Wheeling Fort, and on Rice's

Fort. Lower Ohio.—General Clark invades the Indian Country in 1782.—Effects of

this Invasion.—Domestic Prosperity of Kentucky.—Settlements extend North of

Licking" —Flood of Emigration sets into Kentucky.—The "District of Kentucky" or-

ganized.—Peace with Great Britain announced.—Extent of the Kentucky Settle-

ments in 1783.—Population and Moral Condition of the Settlements.—Settlements

extend North of Licking River in 1784-85.—Settlements in Western Virginia . 119

CHAPTER V.

INDIAN HOSTILITIES ON THE OHIO. PREDATORY INCURSIONS INTO

KENTUCKY, AND PARTISAN WARFARE. A.D. 1785 TO 1793.

Argument.—The Shawanese resume predatory incursions. —Indian Horse-stealing.—

Object and Extent of these Depredations.—The Continuance of them provokes In-

vasion of the Indian Country in 1786.—Plan of Campaign under General Clark and

Colonel Logan.—Colonel Logan destroys Scioto and Mad River Towns.—General

Clark advances to the Wabash.—His further Operations frustrated for Want of Sup-

plies.—A Mutiny ensues.—He returns inglorious to Kentucky.—His Sun sets.—Vir-

ginia comes to his Relief.—The Shawanese commence active Hostilities.—Exposed

Condition of Settlements in Mason County in 1787.—Colonel Todd invades the Paint

Creek Towns.—Simon Kenton as a Partisan Warrior.—Emigration in 1788.—Indians

harass the Ohio Frontier of Kentucky and Western Virginia.—Depredations and

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