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PRACTICAL, THEORETICAL, AND HISTORICAL,
COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION.
BY J. R. M'CULLOCH, Esq.
EDITED BY HENRY VETHAKE, LL. D.
ONE OF THE PROFESSORS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN
WITH AN APPENDIX, CONTAINING
THE NEW TARIFF OF 1846,
THE TARIFF OF 1842,
REDUCED TO AD VALOREM RATES AS FAR AS PRACTICABLE.
THE SUB-TREASURY, WAREHOUSING, AND THE CANADIAN
THE NEW BRITISH TARIFF,
AS AMENDED BY THE PASSAGE OF THE NEW CORN LAW AND SUGAR DUTIES.
A TABLE OF ALL FOREIGN GOLD AND SILVER COIN,
IN TWO VOLUMES.-VOL. II.
A. HART, LATE CAREY AND HART,
126 CHESTNUT STREET.
"Though immediately and primarily written for the merchants, this Commercial Dictionary will be of use to every man of business or of curiosity. There is no man who is not in some degree a merchant; who has not something to buy and something to sell, and who does not therefore want such instructions as may teach him the true value of possessions or commodities. The descriptions of the productions of the earth and water which this volume contains, may be equally pleasing and useful to the speculatist with any other Natural History. The descriptions of ports and cities may instruct the geographer as well as if they were found in books appropriated only to his own science; and the doctrines of funds, insurances, currency, monopolies, exchanges, and duties, is so necessary to the politician, that without it he can be of no use either in the council or the senate, nor can speak or think justly either on war or trade.
"We, therefore, hope that we shall not repent the labour of compiling this work, nor flatter ourReives unreasonably, in predicting a favourable reception to a book which no condition of life can render useless, which may contribute to the advantage of all that make or receive laws, of all that buy or sell, of all that wish to keep or improve their possessions, of all that desire to be rich, and all that desire to be wise." JOHNSON, Preface to Rolt's Dict.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins.
ALAP, OR JALOP (Ger. Jalapp; Fr. Jalap; It. Sciarappa; Sp. Jalapa), the root of a sort of convolvulus, so named from Xalapa, in Mexico, whence we chiefly import it. The root, when brought to this country, is in thin transverse slices, solid, hard, weighty, of a blackish colour on the outside, and internally of a dark grey, with black circular striæ. The hardest and darkest coloured is the best; that which is light, spongy, and pale coloured, should be rejected. The odour of jalap, especially when in powder, is very characteristic. Its taste is exceedingly nauseous, accompanied by a sweetish bitterness.-(Lewis's Mat. Med.; Brande's Pharmacy.) The entries of jalap for home consumption amounted, at an average of 1831 and 1832, to 47,816 lbs. a year.
JAMAICA PEPPER. See PIMENTO.
JAPANNED WARES (Ger. Japanische ware; Du. Japansch lakwerk; Fr. Marchandises de Japon), articles of every description, such as tea-trays, clock-dials, candlesticks, snuff-boxes, &c. covered with coats of japan, whether plain, or embellished with painting or gilding. Birmingham is the grand staple of this manufacture, which is there carried on to a great extent. Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, was formerly famous for japanning; but it is at present continued there on a very small scale only. It is prosecuted with spirit and success at Bilston and Wolverhampton.
JASPER (Ger. Jaspiss; Du. Jaspis; Fr. Jaspe; It. Diaspro; Sp. Juspe; Rus. Jaschma): This stone is an ingredient in the composition of many mountains. It occurs usually in large amorphous masses, sometimes in round or angular pieces; its fracture is conchoidal; specific gravity from 2 to 27. Its colours are various; when heated it does not decrepitate: it is usually divided into four species, denominated Egyptian jasper, striped jasper, porcelain asper, and common jasper. It is sometimes employed by jewellers in the formation of seals. JERSEY. See GUERNSEY.
JET, OR PITCH COAL (Du. Git, Zwarte barnsteen; Fr. Jais, Jayet; Ger. Gagat; It. Gagata, Lustrino; Lat. Gagus, Gagates), of a black velvet colour, occurs massive, in plates; sometimes in the shape of branches of trees, but without a regular woody texture. Internal lustre shining, resinous, soft; rather brittle; easily frangible; specific gravity 1.3. It is used for fuel, and for making vessels and snuff-boxes. In Prussia it is called black amber, and is cut into rosaries and necklaces. It is distinguished by its brilliancy, and conchoidal fracture.-(Thomson's Chemistry.)
JETSAM. See FLOTSAM.
IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION, the bringing of commodities from and sending them to other countries. A very large portion of the revenue of Great Britain being derived from customs duties, or from duties on commodities imported from abroad; and drawbacks being given on many, and bounties on a few articles exported; the business of importation and exportation is subjected to various regulations, which must be carefully observed by those who would avoid incurring penalties, and subjecting their property to confiscation. The regulations referred to, have been embodied in the act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52., which is subjoined
No Goods to be landed nor Bulk broken before Report and Entry.-No goods shall be unladen from any ship arriving from parts beyond the seas at any port or place in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, nor shall bulk be broken after the arrival of such ship within 4 leagues of the coast thereof, before due report of such ship and due entry of such goods shall have been made, and warrant granted, in manner herein-after directed; and no goods shall be so unladen except at such times and places, and in such manner, and by such persons, and under the care of such officers, as is and are hereinafter directed; and all goods not duly reported, or which shall be unladen contrary hereto, shall be forfeited; and if bulk be broken contrary hereto, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1007; and if, after the arrival of any ship within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the Isle of Man, any alteration be made in the stowage of the cargo of such ship, so as to facilitate the unlading of any part of such cargo, or if any part be staved, destroyed, or thrown overboard, or any package be opened, such ship shall be deemed to have broken bulk provided always, that the several articles berein-after enumerated may be landed in the United Kingdom without report, entry, or warrant; (that is to say,) diamonds and bullion, fresh fish of British taking, and imported in British ships, turbots and lobsters fresh, however taken or imported.-2.
All British Ships, and all Ships with Tobacco, to have Manifests.-No goods shall be imported into the United Kingdom, or into the Isle of Man, from parts beyond the seas, in any British ship, nor any tobacco in any ship, unless the master shall have on board a manifest of such goods or of such tobacco, made out; dated, and signed by him at the place or respective places where the same or the different parts of the same was or were taken on board, and authenticated in the manner herein-after provided; and every such manifest shall set forth the name and the tonnage of the ship, the name of the master and of the place to which the ship belongs, and of the place or places where the goods were taken on heard respectively, and of the place or places for which they are destined respectively, and shall contain a particular account and description of all the packages on board, with the marks and numbers thereon, and the sorts of goods and different kinds of each sort contained therein, to the best of the master's knowledge, and of the particulars of such goods as are stowed loose, and the names of the respective shippers and consignees, as far as the same can be known to the master; and to such particular account shall be subjoined a general account or recapitulation of the total number of the packages of each sort, describing the same by their usual names, or by such descriptions as the same can best be known by, and the different goods therein, and also the total quantities of the different goods stowed loose provided always, that every manifest for tobacco shall be a separate manifest distinct from any manifest for any other goods, and shall, without fail, contain the particular weight of tobacco in each hogshead, cask, chest, or case, with the tare of the same; and if such tobacco be the produce of the dominions of the Grand Seignior, then the number of parcels or bundles within any such hogshead, cask, chest, or case, shall be stated in such manifest.—3.
To be produced to Officers in Colonies, &c.—Before any ship shall be cleared out or depart from any place in any of the British possessions abroad, or from any place in China, with any goods for the United Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest to the collector or comptroller of the customs, or other proper officer, who shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to him: provided always, that in all places within the territorial possessions of the East India Company the servant of the said Company by whom the last despatches of such ship shall be delivered shall be the proper officer to authenticate the manifest as aforesaid; and in all places in China the chief supercargo of the said Company shall be the proper officer for such purpose. — § 4. To be produced to Consuls.-Before the departure of any ship from any place beyond the seas not under the British dominions, where any tobacco has been taken on board such ship for the United Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest of such tobacco to the British consul or other chief British officer, if there be any such resident at or near such place; and such consul or other officer shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to him.-5.
If wanting, Master to forfeit 1001.-If any goods be imported into the United Kingdom or into the Isle of Man, in any British ship, or any tobacco in any ship, without such a manifest, or if any goods contained in such manifest be not on board, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1007. § 6. Manifest to be produced within 4 Leagues.-The master of every ship required to have a manifest on board shall produce such manifest to any officer of the customs who shall come on board his ship after her arrival within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the coast of the Isle of Man, and who shall demand the same, for his inspection; and such master shall also deliver to any such officer who shall be the first to demand it, a true copy of such manifest signed by the master; and shall also deliver another copy to any other officer of the customs who shall be the first to demand the same within the limits of the port to which such ship is bound; and thereupon such officers respectively shall notify on such manifest and on such copies the date of the production of such manifest and of the receipt of such copies, and shall transmit such copies to the collector and comptroller of the port to which such vessel is first bound, and shall return such manifest to the master; and if such master shall not in any case produce such manifest, or deliver such copy, he shall forfeit the sum of 1001. — § 7.
Master, within 24 Hours, and before breaking Bulk, shall report.-The master of every ship arriving from parts beyond the seas at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, whether laden or in ballast, shall, within 24 hours after such arrival, and before bulk be broken, make due report of such ship, and shall make and subscribe a declaration to the truth of the same, before the collector or comptroller of such port; and such report shall contain an account of the particular marks, numbers, and contents of all the different packages or parcels of the goods on board such ship, and the particulars of such goods as are stowed loose, to the best of his knowledge, and of the place or places where such goods were respectively taken on board, and of the burden of such ship, and of the country where such ship was built, or, if British, of the port of registry, and of the country of the people to whom such ship belongs, and of the name and country of the person who was master during the voyage, and of the number of the people by whom such ship was navigated, stating how many are subjects of the country to which such ship belongs, and how many are of some other country; and in such report it shall be further declared, whether and in what cases such ship has broken bulk in the course of her voyage, and what part of the cargo, if any, is intended for importation at such port, and what part, if any, is intended for importation at another port in the United Kingdom, or at another port in the Isle of Man respectively, and what part, if any, is prohibited to be imported, except to be warehoused for exportation only, and what part, if any, is intended for exportation in such ship to parts beyond the seas, and what surplus stores or stock remain on board such ship, and, if a British ship, what foreign-made sails or cordage, not being standing or running rigging, are in use on board such ship; and the master of any ship, who shall fail to make such report, or who shall make a faise report, shal forfeit the sum of 1007.-8.