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PRACTICAL, THEORETICAL, AND HISTORICAL,
COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION.
J. R. M’CULLOCH, ESQ.
HENRY VETHAKE, LL.D.
ONE OF THE PROFESSORS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA ; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN
PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ; AUTHOR OF A TREATISE ON POLITICAL ECONOMY, ETC.
Tutte le invenzioni le più benemerite del genere umano, e che hanno svillupato l'ingegno e la
NEW EDITION, IN TWO VOLUMES.
CARE Y AND HART.
STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON,
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by
THOMAS WARDLE, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
I. AND J. JALAP,
ALAP, OR JALOP (Ger. Jalapp; Fr. Jalap ; It. Sciarappa ; Sp. Jalapa), the root of a sort of convolvulus, so named from Xalapa, in Mexico, whence we chiefly import it. The root, when brought to this country, is in thin transverse slices, solid, hard, weighty, of a blackish colour on the outside, and internally of a dark grey, with black circular striæ. The hardest and darkest coloured is the best; that which is light, spongy, and pale coloured, should be rejected. The odour of jalap, especially when in powder, is very characteristic. Its taste is exceedingly nauseous, accompanied by a sweetish bitterness.-(Lewis's Mat. Med.; Brande's Pharmacy.) The entries of jalap for home consumption amounted, at an average of 1831 and 1832, to 47,816 lbs. a year.
JAMAICA PEPPER. See PIMENTO.
JAPANNED WARES (Ger. Japanische ware ; Du. Japansch lakwerk ; Fr. Marchandises de Japon), articles of every description, such as tea-trays, clock-dials, candlesticks, snuff-boxes, &c. covered with coats of japan, whether plain, or embellished with painting or gilding. Birmingham is the grand staple of this manufacture, which is there carried on to a great extent. Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, was formerly famous for japanning; but it is at present continued there on a very small scale only. It is prosecuted with spirit and success at Bilston and Wolverhampton.
JASPER (Ger. Jaspiss ; Du. Jaspis ; Fr. Jaspe ; It. Diaspro ; Sp. Jaspe ; Rus. Jaschma). This stone is an ingredient in the composition of many mountains. It occurs usually in large amorphous masses, sometimes in round or angular pieces; its fracture is conchoidal; specific gravity from 2 to 2.7. Its colours are various; when heated it does not decrepitate: it is usually divided into four species, denominated Egyptian jasper, striped jasper, porcelain asper, and common jasper. It is sometimes employed by jewellers in the formation of seals. JERSEY. See GUERNSEY.
JET, OR PITCH COAL (Du. Git, Zwarte barnsteen ; Fr. Jais, Jayet ; Ger. Gagat ; It. Gagata, Lustrino ; Lat. Gagus, Gagates), of a black velvet colour, occurs massive, in plates; sometimes in the shape of branches of trees, but without a regular woody texture. Internal lustre shining, resinous, soft; rather brittle; easily frangible ; specific gravity 1.3. It is used for fuel, and for making vessels and snuff-boxes. In Prussia it is called black amber, and is cut into rosaries and necklaces. It is distinguished by its brilliancy, and conchoidal fracture.—(Thomson's Chemistry.)
JETSAM. See Flotsam.
IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION, the bringing of commodities from and sending them to other countries. A very large portion of the revenue of Great Britain being derived from customs duties, or from duties on commodities imported from abroad; and drawbacks being given on many, and bounties on a few articles exported; the business of importation and exportation is subjected to various regulations, which must be carefully observed by those * who would avoid incurring penalties, and subjecting their property to confiscation. The regulations referred to, have been embodied in the act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52., which is subjoined
GENERAL REGULATIONS. No Goods to be landed nor Bulk broken before Report and Entry.- No goods shall be unladen from any ship arriving from parts beyond the scas at any port or place in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, nor shall bulk be broken after the arrival of such ship within 4 leagues of the coast thereof, before due report of such ship and due entry of such goods shall have been made, and warrant granted, in manier herein-after directed; and no goods shall be so unladen except at such times and places, and in such manner, and by such persons, and under the care of such officers, as is and are hereinafter directed; and all goods not duly reported, or which shall be unladen contrary hereto, shall be forfeited; and if bulk be broken contrary hereto, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1001.; and if, after the arrival of any ship within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the Isle of Man, any alteration be made in the stowage of the cargo of such ship, so as to facilitale the unlading of any part of such cargo, or if any part be staved, destroyed, or thrown overboard, or any package be opened, such ship shall be deemed to have broken bulk: provided always, that the several articles herein-after enuinerated may be landed in the United Kingdom without report, entry, or warrant; (that is to say,) diamonds and bullion, fresh fish of British taking, and imported in British ships, turbots and lobsters fresh, however taken or imported. — 2.
MANIFEST. All British Ships, and all Ships with Tobacco, to have Manifests.- No goods shall be imported into the United Kingdom, or into the Ísle of Man, froin parts beyond the seas, in any British ship, nor any lobacco in any ship, inless the master shall have on board a manifest of such goods or of such tobacco, made out; dated, and signed by him at the place or respective places where ihe same or the different parts of the same was or were iaken on board, and authenticated in the manner herein-after provided; and every such manifest shall set forth the name and the tonnage of the shin, the name of the master and of the place to which the ship belongs, and of the place, or places where the goods were taken on beard respectively, and of the place or places for which they are destined respectively, and shall contain a particular account and description of all the packages on board, with the marks and numbers thereon, and the sorts of goods and different kinds of each sort contained therein, to the best of the master's knowledge, and of the particulars of such goods as are stowed loose, and the names of the respective shippers and consignees, as far as the same can be known to the master; and to such particular account shall be subjoined a general account or recapitulation of the total number of the packages of each sort, describing the same by their usual names, or by such descriptions as the same can best be known by, and the different goods therein, and also the total quantities of the different goods stowed loose: provided always, that every manifest for tobacco shall be a separate manifest distinct from any manifest for any other goods, and shall, without fail, contain the particular weight of tobacco in each hogshead, cask, chest, or case, with the lare of the same; and if such tobacco be the produce of the dominions of the Grand Seignior, then the number of parcels or bundles within any such hogshead, cask, chest, or case, shall be stated in such manifest.-3.
To be produced to Officers in Colonies, fc.-Before any ship shall be cleared out or depart from any place in any of the British possessions abroad, or from any place in China, with any goods for the United Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest to the collector or comptroller of the customs, or other proper officer, who shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to him: provided always, that in all places within the ierritorial possessions of the Easi India Company the servant of the said Company by whom the last despatches of such ship shall be delivered shall be the proper officer to authenticate the manifest as aforesaid; and in all places in China the chief supercargo of the said Company shall be the proper officer for such purpose. – 4.
To be produced to Consuls.-Before the departure of any ship from any place beyond the seas not under the British dominions, where any tobacco has been taken on board such ship for the United Kingdom or for the Isle of Man, the master of'such ship shall produce the manifest of such tobacco to the British consul or other chief British officer, if there be any such resident at or near such place; and such consul or other officer shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to him. -- 5.
If wanting, Master to forfeit 1001.- If any goods be imported into the United Kingdom or into the Isle of Man, in any British ship, or any tobacco in any ship, without such a manifest, or if any goods contained in such manifest be not on board, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1001.-6.
Manifest to be produced within 4 Leagues.- The master of every ship required to have a manifest on board shall produce such manifest to any officer of the customs who shall come on board his ship after her arrival within 4 leagues of the coast of the United Kingdom or of the coast of the Isle of Man, and who shall demand the same, for his inspection; and such inaster shall also deliver to any such officer who shall be the first to demand it, a true copy of such manifest signed by the master; and shall also deliver another copy to any other officer of the customs who shall be ihe first to demand the same within the limits of the port to which such ship is bound; and thereupon such officers respectively shall notify on such manifest and on such copies the date of the production of such inanitest and of the receipt of such copies, and shall transmit such copies to the collector and comptroller of the port to which such vessel is first bound, and shall return such manifest to the master; and if such master shall not in any case produce such manifest, or deliver such copy, he shall forfeit the sum of 1001. -87.
REPORT Master, within 24 Hours, and before breaking Bulk, shall report.—The master of every ship arriving from parts beyond the seas at any port in the United Kingdonı or in the Isle of Man, wheiher laden or in ballast, shall, within 24 hours aiter such arrival, and before bulk be broken, make due report of such ship, and shall make and subscribe a declaration to the truth of the same, before the collector or comptroller of such port; and such report shall contain an account of the particular marks, nunibers, and contents of all the different packages or parcels of the goods on board such ship, and the particuJars of such goods as are stowed loose, to the best of his knowledge, and of the place or places where sich goods were respectively taken on board, and of the burden of such ship, and of the country where such ship was built, or, if British, of the port of registry, and of the country of the people to whom such ship belongs, and of the name and country of the person who was master during the voyage, and of the nunber of ihe people by whoin such ship was navigated, stating how many are subjects of the country 10 which such ship belongs, and how many are of some other country; and in such report it shall be further declared, whether and in what cases such ship has broken bulk in the course of her voyage, and what part of the cargo, if any, is intended for importation at such port, and what part, if any, is intended for importation at another port in the United Kingdom, or ai another port in the Isle of Man respectively, and what part, if any, is prohibited to be imported, except to be warehoused for exportation only, and what pari, if any, is intended for exportation in such ship to parts beyond the seas, and what surplus stores or stock remain on board such ship, and, if a British ship, what foreign-made sails or cordage, not being standing or running rigging, are in use on board such ship; and the master of any ship, who shall fail to make such report, or who shall make a false report, shall forfeit the sum of 1001. - 08.
Masters of Vessels coming from Africa to report how many Natives they have on board.-The master of every vessel coming from ihe coast of Africa, and having taken on board at any place in Africa any person or persons being or appearing to bo natives of Africa, shall, in addition to all other matters, state, in the report of his vessel, how many such persons have been taken on board by him in Africa; and any such master failing herein shall forfeit ihe sum of 1001. : provided also, that the master or owner or owners of such vessel, or some one of them, at the time of making such report, be required to enter into bond to his Majesty in the sum of 1001., conditioned to keep harmless any parish; or any extra-parochial or other place maintaining its own poor, against any expense which such parish or other place may be put to in supporting any such person during their siay in the United Kingdom; and any such mister, owner or owners refusing or neglecting to enter into such bond shall forfeit the sum of 2001. - 9.
Packages reported“ Contents unknown," may be opened and examined. --If the contents of any packages so intended as aforesaid for exportation in the same ship to parts beyond the seas shall be reported by the master as being unknown to him, it shall be lawful for the officers of the customs to open and examine such package on board, or to bring the same to the king's warehouse for that purpose; and if there be found in such package any goods which may not be entered for home use, such goods shall be forfeited; or if the goods be such as may be entered for home use, the same shall be chargeable with the duties of importation; unless in either case the commissioners of his Majesty's customs, in consideration of the sort or quality of such goods, or the small rate of duty payable thereon, shall see fit to deliver the same for exportation. - 10.
Master to deliver Manifest, fc.-- The master of every ship shall, at the time of making such report, deliver to the collector or comptroller the manifest of the cargo of such ship, where a manifest is required, and, if required by the collector or comptroller, shall produce to him any bill or bills of lading, or a true copy thereof, for any and every part of the cargo laden on board; and shall answer all such questions relating to the ship and cargo, and crew and voyage, as shall be put to him by such collector or comptrolier; and in case of failure or refusal to produce such manifest, or to answer such questions, or to answer them truly, or to produce such bill of lading or copy, or if such manifest, or bill of lading, or copy, shall be false, or if any bill of lading be uttered by any master, and the goods expressed therein shall not have been bona fide shipped on board such ship, or if any bill of lading uttered or produced by any master shall not have been signed by him, or any such copy shall not have been received or made by hiin previously to his leaving the place where the goods expressed in such bill of lading or copy were shipped, then and in every such case such master shall forfeit the sum of 1001. - 11.
Part of Cargo reported for another Port.-If any part of the cargo of any ship for which a manifest is required be reported for importation at some other port in the United Kingdom, or at some other port in the Isle of Man, the collector and comptroller of the port at which some part of the cargo has been delivered shall notify such delivery on the manifest, and return the same io the master of such ship.-12.
Ship to come quickly to Place of unlading, &c.—Every ship shall come as quickly up to the proper place of mooring or unlading as the nature of the port will admit, and without touching at any other place; and in proceeding to such place shall bring to at stations appointed by the conimissioners of customs for the boarding of ships by the officers of the customs; and after arrival at such place of mooring or unlading such ship shall not remove from such place except directly to same other proper place, and with the knowledge of the proper officer of the customs, on penalty of 1001., to be paid by the master of such ship: provided always, that it shall be lawful for the commissioners of customs to appoint places to be the proper places for the mooring or unlading of ships importing tobacco, and where such ships only shall be moored or unladen; and in case the place so appointed for the unlading of such ships shall not be within some dock surrounded with walls, if any such ship after having been discharged shall remain at such place, or if any ship not importing tobacco shall be moored at such place, the inaster shall in either case forfeit and pay the sum of 201. - 13.
Officers to board Ships.-It shall be lawful for the proper officers of the customs to board any ship arriving at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man, and freely to stay on board until all the goods laden therein shall have been duly delivered from the same; and such officers shall have free access to every part of the ship, with power to fasten down hatchways, and to mark any goods before landing, and to lock up, seal, mark, or otherwise secure any goods on board such ship; and if any place, or any box or chesi, be locked, and the keys be withheld, such officers, if they be of a degree superior lo tidesmen or watermen, may open any such place, box, or chest in the best manner in their power; and if they be tidesmen or watermen, or only of that degree, they shall send for their superior officer, who may open or cause to be opened any such place, box, or chest in the best manner in his power; and if any goods be found concealed on board any such ship, they shall be forfeited; and if the officers shall place ar lock, mark, or seal upon any goods on board, and such lock, mark, or seal be wilfully opened, altered, or broken before due delivery of such goods, or if any of such goods be secretly conveyed away, or if the hatchways, after having been fastened down by the officer, be opened, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1001.- 14.
National Ships, British or Foreign, haring Goods on board, Person in charge to delirer an Account, or forfeit 1001. --If any ship (having commission from his Majesty, or from any foreign prince or state) arriving as aforesaid at any port in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man shall have on board any goods laden in parts beyond the seas, the captain, master, purser, or other person having the charge of such ship or of such goods for that voyage, shall, before any part of such goods be taken out of such ship, or when called upon so to do by any officer of the customs, deliver an account in writing under his hand, to the best of his knowledge, of the quality and quantity of every package or parcel of such goods, and of the marks and numbers thereon, and of the names of the respective shippers and consignees of the saine, and shall make and subscribe a declaration at the foot of such account, declaring to the truth thereof, and shall also truly answer to the collector or comptroller such questions concerning such goods as shall be required of him; and on failure thereof, such captain, master, purser, or other person shall forfeit the sum of 1001.; and all such ships shall be liable to such searches as merchant ships are liable to; and the officers of tbe customs may freely enter and go on board all such ships, and bring from thence on shore into the king's warehouse any goods found on board any such ship as aforesaid; subject nevertheless to such regulations in respect of ships of war belonging to his Majesty as shall from time to time be directed in that respect by the commissioners of his Majesty's treasury of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. - 15.
Master to deliver List of Crou of Ships from West Indies. The master of every British ship arriving at any port in the United Kingdom, on her return from any British possessions in the West Indies, shall, within 10 days of such arrival, deliver to the collector or comptroller a list, containing the names and descriptions of the crew which was on board at the time of clearing from the United Kingdom, and of the crew on board at the time of arrival in any of the said possessions, and of every seaman who lias deserted or died during the voyage, and also ihe amount of wages due at the time of his death to each seaman so dying, and shall make and subscribe a declaration at the foot of such list, declaring in the truth thereof; and every master omitting so to do, shall forfeit the sum of 501. ; avil such list shall be kept by the collector for the inspection of all persons interested therein. - 16.