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more accurate spelling of modern scholarship, and have chosen as my chief guide Dr. Pope, the Principal of Bishop Cotton's Grammar School and College at Bangalore. The question of the right representation of the vowel-sounds is not yet finally settled, but I believe the following list to be fairly correct, as far as the spelling I have used is concerned : a final is sounded as the final a i in the middle of a word as in in data.

pity. a in the middle of a word as in i as the second i in imbecile. glad.

o as in on. à as in father.

6 as in ore. e as in send.

u as in put. e as the double e in seen.

û as in rude. i final as y in pity.

The Glossary at the end of the Notes is intended as an assistance to such as make etymology a part of their study. It is hoped that it may induce them to pay still further attention to the subject; for a knowledge of the history and nature of words can never fail to increase the interest of every kind of reading, and to give the reader a greater mastery over every kind of language.

My best thanks for careful revision of proof-sheets, and for many useful hints, are due to Mr. J. W. Hales, Mr. C. S. Jerram, Mr. C. Kegan Paul, Mr. H. G. Bowen, and especially to Mr. R. B. Gardiner, of St. Paul's School.

H. COURTHOPE BOWEN.

Rebruary 1877.

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MAP OF INDIA, SHOWING THE EAST INDIA

COMPANY'S TERRITORY IN 1767 to face Tille-puge

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INTRODUCTION.

THE RISE OF EUROPEAN POWER IN INDIA,

The rise of European power in India, or at any rate the events which led to the rise of such power, may be dated from the early expeditions of the Portuguese to the East towards the close of the fifteenth century. Not content with the discovery of Madeira in 1420 and of the Cape de Verde Islands in 1460, but rather stimulated by these successes, the navigators of this adventurous nation had set their minds on completing the circuit of the continent of Africa. It was in 1486 that Bartholomew Diaz, admiral of the Por- Bartholotuguese fleet, sailed by command of King John II., and after perilous but determined endeavours rounded the southernmost point, and called it the Cape of Storms-a name which the king, elated with his success and taking a somewhat bolder view of the future, quickly changed to the Cape of Good Hope. It was not long before this view received a complete justification. In 1497 the king's cousin and successor, Emmanuel I., the patron of sea adventure,

mew Diaz

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