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(b) Seizure and forfeiture. All articles bearing a false notice of copyright shall be seized and forfeited, except when imported in the mails. Such articles imported in the mails shall be returned to the postmaster for return to the sender as nondeliverable. (Secs, 106, 108, 61 Stat, 663, 664; 17 U.S.C. 106, 108)
133.42 Piratical copies.
(a) Definition. Piratical copies are actual copies or substantial copies of a recorded copyrighted work, produced and imported in contravention of the rights of the copyright owner.
(b) Importation prohibited. The importation of piratical copies of works copyrighted in the United States is prohibited.
(c) Seizure and forfeiture. The district director shall seize and forfeit an imported article which he determines constitutes a piratical copy of a recorded copyrighted work. The district director shall also seize and forfeit an imported article if the importer does not deny a representation that the article is a pirati. cal copy as provided in section 133.43(a). (Secs. 106, 108, 61 Stat. 663, 664; 17 U.S.C. 106, 108)
133.43 Procedure on suspicion of piratical copying.
(a) Notice to the importer. If the district director has any reason to believe that an imported article may be a piratical copy of a recorded copyrighted work, he shall withhold delivery, notify the importer of his action, and advise him that if the facts so warrant he may file a statement denying that the article is in fact a piratical copy and alleging that the detention of the article will result in a material depreciation of its value, or a loss or damage to him. The district director shall also advise the importer that in the absence of receipt within 30 days of a denial by the importer that the article constitutes a piratical copy, it shall be considered to be such a copy and shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture.
(b) Notice to copyright owner. If the importer of suspected piratical copies files a denial as provided in paragraph (a), the district director shall furnish the copyright owner a representative sample of the imported articles, together with notice that the imported articles will be released to the importer unless within 30 days from the date of the notice the copyright owner files with the district director:
(1) A written demand for the exclusion from entry of the detained imported articles; and
(2) A bond in the form and amount specified by the district director, conditioned to hold the importer or owner of such imported articles harmless from any loss or damage resulting from Customs detention in the event the Commissioner of Customs or his designee determines that the article is not a piratical copy prohibited importation under section 106 of the Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 106).
(c) Result of action or inaction by copyright owner. After notice to the copyright owner that delivery is being withheld for imported articles suspected to be piratical copies of his recorded copyrighted work, the district director shall proceed in accordance with the applicable procedure set forth below:
(1) Demand and bond filed. If the copyright owner files a written demand for exclusion of the suspected piratical copies together with a proper bond, the district director shall promptly notify the importer and the copyright owner that, during a specified time limited to not more than 30 days, they may submit further evidence, legal briefs, or other pertinent material to substantiate the claim or denial of piratical copying. The burden of proof shall be upon the party claiming that any article is in fact a piratical copy. At the close of the period specified for submission of evidence, the district director shall forward the entire file in the case, together with a representative sample of the imported articles and his views or comments, to the Commissioner of Customs or his designee for decision of the disputed claim of piratical copying.
(2) Piracy disclaimed or unsupported. If the copyright owner disclaims that the specific imported article is a piratical copy of his recorded copyrighted work, or concedes that he possesses insufficient evidence or proofs to substan
tiate a claim of piracy, the district director shall release the detained shipment to the importer, and shall release all further importations of the same article, by whomever imported, without further notice to the copyright owner.
(3) Failure to file demand or bond. If the copyright owner fails to file a written demand for exclusion and bond as required by paragraph (b), the district director shall release the detained articles to the importer, and notify the copyright owner of the release. The district director shall withhold delivery of all further importations of the same article by the same importer, and shall notify the copyright owner of each such subsequent shipment as provided in paragraph (b).
(4) Withdrawal of bond. At any time prior to transmittal of the case to the Commissioner of Customs or his designee for decision, the copyright owner may withdraw a bond filed in accordance with paragraph (b). Prior to returning the bond to the copyright owner and release of the detained articles, the district director shall require the copyright owner and the importer to file written statements agreeing to hold the United States Customs Service and the district director harmless for any consequence of return of the bond and release of the detained articles. After withdrawal of a bond, the district director shall release importations of the same article by the same importer without further notice to the copyright owner. 133.44 Decision of disputed claim of piratical copying.
(a) Claim of piracy sustained. Upon determination by the Commissioner of Customs or his designee that the detained article forwarded in accordance with section 133.43(c)(1) is a piratical copy, the district director shall seize and forfeit the imported articles in accordance with Part 23 of this chapter, and shall return the bond to the copyright owner.
(b) Denial of piracy sustained. Upon determination by the Commissioner of Customs or his designee that the detained article forwarded in accordance with section 133.43(c)(1) is not a piratical copy, the district director shall release all such detained merchandise and transmit the copyright owner's bond to the importer. (Secs, 106, 108, 61 Stat. 663, 664; 17 U.S.C. 106, 108)
133.45 United States manufacturing requirements for books and periodicals.
(a) Importation prohibited. Books and periodicals manufactured abroad contrary to the terms of the "American manufacturing clause" of the Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 16) which requires manufacture in the United States may not be imported during the existence of the United States copyright unless:
(1) The importation is permitted under one of the limited exceptions in 17 U.S.C. 107;
(2) The importation is entitled to United States copyright protection under the provisions of 17 U.S.C. 9(c) by virtue of the Universal Copyright Convention (see paragraph (c) of this section); or
(3) The importation is permitted by an ad interim copyright (see paragraph (b) of this section).
(b) Release under ad interim copyright. Upon compliance with the usual Customs requirements, the district director may release up to 1,500 copies of a book or periodical covered by an ad interim copyright when imported pursuant to the quantitative exception in 17 U.S.C. 16 if:
(1) There is presented with the entry an ''Import Statement" issued by the Register of Copyrights authorizing the importation of a number of copies not in excess of 1,500 copies; and
(2) The copies are otherwise admissible. (c) Release under Universal Copyright Convention.
(1) Determination of eligibility. The district director shall release books under the Universal Copyright Convention without an "Import Statement" and in unlimited quantities upon a determination that either:
(i) The book was first published in a Convention country other than the United States, and the author was not a citizen or domiciliary of the United States at the time of first publication; or
(ii) The book was first published abroad, and at the time of first publication, the author was a citizen of a Convention country other than the United States and was not domiciled in the United States.
(2) Information required. Prior to releasing the books, the district director shall require the importer to supply the following information in writing:
(i) The country in which the book was first published;
(ii) The country of which the author was a citizen at the time of first publication; and
(iii) Whether the author was domiciled in the United States at the time of first publication, (Secs. 9, 16, 107, 61 Stat, 655, as amended, 657, as amended, 663; 17 U.S.C. 9, 16, 107) 133.46 Demand for redelivery of released articles.
If it is determined that articles which have been released from Customs custody are subject to the prohibitions or restrictions of this subpart, the district director at the port of entry shall promptly make demand for redelivery of the articles under the terms of the entry bond in accordance with section 141.113 of TDs 73-175, this chapter. If the articles are not redelivered to Customs custody, a claim 74-227, for liquidated damages shall be made in accordance with section 141.113(g) of this chapter.
Subpart F.-PROCEDURE FOLLOWING FORFEITURE OR ASSESSMENT
OF LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
(a) Petition for relief. The importer may petition in accordance with Parts 171 and 172 of this chapter for relief from, or cancellation of, a forfeiture incurred for violation of the trademark or copyright laws, or a claim for liquidated damages for failure to redeliver released merchandise incurred under the provisions of section 133.24 or 133.46.
(b) Conditioned relief. In appropriate cases, relief from a forfeiture may be granted pursuant to a petition for relief upon the following conditions and such other conditions as may be specified by the appropriate Customs authority:
(1) The unlawfully imported or prohibited articles are exported or destroyed under Customs supervision and at no expense to the Government;
(2) All offending trademarks or trade names are removed or obliterated prior to release of the articles;
(3) In the case of books or periodicals manufactured abroad contrary to the terms of the "American manufacturing clause" of the Copyright Act (17 U.S.C. 16):
(i) Satisfactory evidence is submitted that a statement of abandonment has been filed and recorded in the Copyright Office by the copyright owner in accordance with the procedures of the Copyright Office; and
(ii) The notice of copyright is completely obliterated prior to release of the books or periodicals.
133.52 Disposition of forfeited merchandise.
(a) Trademark or trade name violation. Articles forfeited for violation of the trademark laws shall be disposed of in accordance with the procedures applicable to forfeitures for violation of the Customs laws, after the removal or obliteration of the name, mark, or trademark by reason of which the articles were seized.
(b) Copyright violations. Articles for which forfeiture for violation of the copyright laws has been perfected shall be destroyed. (Sec. 42, 60 Stat, 440, sec, 108, 61 Stat. 664; 15 U.S.C. 1124, 17 U.S.C. 108)
133.53 Refund of duty.
If a violation of the trademark or copyright laws is not discovered until after entry and deposit of estimated duty, the entry shall be endorsed with an appropriate notation and the duty refunded as an erroneous collection upon exportation or destruction of the prohibited articles in accordance with section 158.41 or 158.45 of this chapter. (Sec. 558(a), 46 Stat, 744, as amended; 19 U.S.C. 1558(a))
Annex to Revised Part 133
Parallel Reference Table
(This table shows the relation of sections in revised Part 133 to
superseded 19 CFR Part 11)
None 11.15(a) None 11.15(a) 11.15(a) None None None 11,15(c) None 11.16 11.16 None None 11.14 11.17(a) 11.17(b) 11.17(b) None None 11.17 None 11,19(a) None 11.19(b) None 11.19(a) 11.19(a) None None None None 11.18 11.20(a) 11.20(b) 11.2010) 11.20(d) None 11.20(e) 11.21(a) 11.21(c) None None None 11.17(c) None 11.17(d)
133.0 133,1(a) 133.1(b) 133.2 133.3 133.4 133.5 133.6 133,7 133.11 133.12 133.13 133.14 133.15 133.21 133.22(a) 133.22(b) 133.22(c) 133,23(a) 133.23(b) 133,23(c) 133.24 133.31(a) 133,31(b) 133.31(c) 133.31(d) 133.32 133.33 133.34 133.35 133.36 133.37 133.41 133.42(a) & (b) 133.42(c) 133.43(a) & (b) 133.43(c)(1) 133.43(c)(2-4) 133.44 133.45(a) 133.45(b) 133.45(c) 133.46 133.51 133,52(a) 133,52(b) 133.53
Authority: The provisions of this Part 134 are issued under R.S. 251, as
amended, secs. 304, 624, 46 Stat. 687, as amended, 759, 77 A Stat. 14; 5 U.S.C. 301, 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (Gen. Hdnote 11), 1304, 1624.
This part sets forth regulations implementing the country of origin marking TD 72-262. requirements and exceptions of section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1304), together with certain marking provisions of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). It also contains provisions regarding false or misleading markings as to the country of origin. The consequences and procedures to be followed when articles are not legally marked are also set forth. Special marking and labeling requirements are covered elsewhere.
When used in this part, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated:
(a) Country. "Country" means the political entity known as a nation. Colonies, possessions, or protectorates outside the boundaries of the mother country are considered separate countries.
(b) Country of origin. "Country of origin" means the country of manufacture, production, or growth of any article of foreign origin entering the United States. Further work or material added to an article in another country must effect a substantial transformation in order to render such other country the "country of origin' within the meaning of this part.
(c) Foreign origin. "Foreign origin" refers to a country of origin other than the United States, as defined in paragraph (e) of this section, or its possessions and territories.