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PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
TO ALL AND SINGULAR TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, GREETING:
WHEREAS a treaty was made and concluded at the city of Detroit, in the State of Michigan, the second day of August, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, by George W. Manypenny and Henry C. Gilbert, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Chippewa Indians of Sault Ste. Marie, which treaty is in the words and figures following, to wit:
Articles of agreement made and concluded at the city of Detroit, in the State of Michigan, the second day of August, 1855, between George W. Manypenny and Henry C. Gilbert, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Chippewa Indians of Sault Ste. Marie.
ARTICLE 1. The said Chippewa Indians surrender to the United Right of fishing States the right of fishing at the falls of St. Mary's, and of encampment, convenient to the fishing-ground, secured to them by the treaty of June 16, 1820.
ARTICLE 2. The United States will appoint a commissioner who shall, within six months after the ratification of this treaty, personally visit and examine the said fishery and place of encampment, and determine the value of the interest of the Indians therein as the same originally existed. His award shall be reported to the President, and shall be final and conclusive, and the amount awarded shall be paid to said Indians, as annuities are paid, and shall be received by them in full satisfaction for the right hereby surrendered: Provided, That one-third of said award shall, if the Indians desire it, be paid to such of their halfbreed relations as they may indicate.
ARTICLE 3. The United States also give to the chief, O-shaw-waw, no, for his own use, in fee-simple, a small island in the River St. Mary's, adjacent to the camping-ground hereby surrendered, being the same island on which he is now encamped, and said to contain less than half an
Provided, that the same has not been heretofore otherwise appropriated or disposed of; and in such case, this grant is to be void, and no compensation is to be claimed by said chief or any of the Indians, parties hereto, in lieu thereof.
ARTICLE 4. This agreement shall be obligatory and binding on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.
In testimony whereof, the said George W. Many penny and the said Henry C. Gilbert, commissioners as aforesaid, and the undersigned chiefs and headmen of the Chippewa Indians of Sault Ste. Marie, have hereto set their hands and seals at the city of Detroit the day and year first above written.
GEO. W. MANYPENNY, [L. S.]
RICHARD M. SMITH, Secretary.
Aug. 2, 1855.
his x mark. [L. S.]
Payment for such surrender.
Grant to 0shaw-waw-no.
his x mark.
Executed in the presence of
W. H. COLLINS,
And, whereas, the said treaty having been submitted to the Senate of the United States for its constitutional action thereon, the Senate did, on the 15th day of April, A. D. eighteen hundred and fifty-six, advise and consent to the ratification of the same, by a resolution in the words and figures following, to wit:
IN EXECUTIVE SESSION, SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES,
April 15, 1856.
Resolved, (two-thirds of the senators present concurring,) that the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of the treaty made and concluded with the Chippewas of Sault Ste. Marie, on the second day of August, eighteen hundred and fifty-five.
ASBURY DICKINS, Secretary.
Now, therefore, be it known, that I, FRANKLIN PIERCE, President of the United States of America, do in pursuance of the advice and consent of the Senate, as expressed in their resolution of the fifteenth day of April, eighteen hundred and fifty-six, accept, ratify, and confirm the said treaty.
In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States to be hereto affixed, having signed the same with my hand.
Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-fourth day of April; A. D. eighteen hundred and fifty-six, and of the independence of the United States, the eightieth.
By the President :
W. L. MARCY, Secretary of State.
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
TO ALL PERSONS TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, GREETING:
WHEREAS, a treaty was made and concluded at the council ground on the Upper Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, in the territory of Nebraska, on the seventeenth day of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, between A. Cumming and Isaac I. Stevens, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Blackfoot and other tribes of Indians, which treaty is in the words and figures following, to wit:
Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the council ground on the Upper Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, in the territory of Nebraska, this seventeenth day of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between A. Cumming and Isaac I. Stevens, commissioners duly appointed and authorized, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the following nations and tribes of Indians, who occupy, for the purposes of hunting, the territory on the Upper Missouri and Yellow Stone Rivers, and who have permanent homes as follows: East of the Rocky Mountains, the Blackfoot nation; consisting of the Piegan, Blood, Blackfoot, and Gros Ventres tribes of Indians. West of the Rocky Mountains, the Flathead nation; consisting of the Flathead, Upper Pend d'Oreille, and Kootenay tribes of Indians, and the Nez Percé tribe of Indians, the said chiefs, headmen and delegates, in behalf of and acting for said nations and tribes, and being duly authorized thereto by them.
Oct. 17, 1855.
Peace to exist
ARTICLE 1. Peace, friendship and amity shall hereafter exist between the United States and the aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties with U. States. to this treaty, and the same shall be perpetual.
ARTICLE 2. The aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, do hereby jointly and severally covenant that peaceful relations shall likewise be maintained among themselves in future; and that they will abstain from all hostilities whatsoever against each other, and cultivate mutual good-will and friendship. And the nations and tribes aforesaid do furthermore jointly and severally covenant, that peaceful relations shall be maintained with and that they will abstain from all hostilities whatsoever, excepting in self-defence, against the following named nations and tribes of Indians, to wit: the Crows, Assineboins, Crees,Snakes, Blackfeet, Sans Arce, and Aunce-pa-pas bands of Sioux, and all other neighboring nations and tribes of Indians.
ARTICLE 3. The Blackfoot nation consent and agree that all that portion of the country recognized and defined by the treaty of Laramie as Blackfoot territory, lying within lines drawn from the Hell Gate or Medicine Rock Passes in the main range of the Rocky Mountains, in an easterly direction to the nearest source of the Muscle Shell River, thence to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek, thence up the Yellow Stone River to its northern source, and thence along the main range of the Rocky Mountains, in a northerly direction, to the point of beginning, shall be a common hunting-ground for ninety-nine years, where all the nations, tribes and bands of Indians, parties to this treaty, may enjoy equal and uninterrupted privileges of hunting, fishing and gathering fruit, grazing animals, curing meat and dressing robes. They further agree that they will not establish villages, or in any other way exercise exclu
Peace to exist
with each other other tribes.
and with certain
ritory recognized ing ground.
as common hunt
sive rights within ten miles of the northern line of the common huntingground, and that the parties to this treaty may hunt on said northern boundary line and within ten miles thereof.
Provided, That the western Indians, parties to this treaty, may hunt on the trail leading down the Muscle Shell to the Yellow Stone; the Muscle Shell River being the boundary separating the Blackfoot from the Crow Territory.
And provided, That no nation, band or tribe of Indians, parties to this to be made there- treaty, nor any other Indians, shall be permitted to establish permanent settlements, or in any other way exercise, during the period above mentioned, exclusive rights or privileges within the limits of the abovedescribed hunting-ground.
And provided further, That the rights of the western Indians to a not interfered whole or a part of the common hunting-ground, derived from occupancy and possession, shall not be affected by this article, except so far as said rights may be determined by the treaty of Laramie.
ARTICLE 4. The parties to this treaty agree and consent, that the tract
tory to belong of country lying within lines drawn from the Hell Gate or Medicine
to the Blackfoot nation.
Rock Passes, in an easterly direction, to the nearest source of the Muscle Shell River, thence down said river to its mouth, thence down the channel of the Missouri River to the mouth of Milk River, thence due north to the forty-ninth parallel, thence due west on said parallel to the main range of the Rocky Mountains, and thence southerly along said range to the place of beginning, shall be the territory of the Blackfoot nation, over which said nation shall exercise exclusive control, excepting as may be otherwise provided in this treaty. Subject, however, to the provisions of the third article of this treaty, giving the right to hunt, and prohibiting the establishment of permanent villages and the exercise of any exclusive rights within ten miles of the northern line of the common huntingground, drawn from the nearest source of the Muscle Shell River to the Medicine Rock Passes, for the period of ninety-nine years.
Provided also, That the Assiniboins shall have the right of hunting, in common with the Blackfeet, in the country lying between the aforesaid eastern boundary line, running from the mouth of Milk River to the forty-ninth parallel, and a line drawn from the left bank of the Missouri River, opposite the Round Butte north, to the forty-ninth parallel.
ARTICLE 5. The parties to this treaty, residing west of the main range of the Rocky Mountains, agree and consent that they will not enter the common hunting-ground, nor any part of the Blackfoot Territory, or return home, by any pass in the main range of the Rocky Mountains to the north of the Hell Gate or Medicine Rock Passes. And they further agree that they will not hunt or otherwise disturb the game, when visiting the Blackfoot Territory for trade or social intercourse.
Indians to re
ARTICLE 6. The aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians, parties to main in their this treaty, agree and consent to remain within their own respective coun
tories except, tries, except when going to or from, or whilst hunting upon, the "common hunting-ground," or when visiting each other for the purpose of trade or social intercourse.
How to enter and leave the common hunting ground.
Citizens may ARTICLE 7. The aforesaid nations and tribes of Indians agree that pass through and live in the citizens of the United States may live in and pass unmolested through the Indian territory. countries respectively occupied and claimed by them. And the United Protection States is hereby bound to protect said Indians against depredations and against depredations. other unlawful acts which white men residing in or passing through their country may commit.
Roads, telegraph lines, and military posts, &c. may be established.
ARTICLE 8. For the purpose of establishing travelling thoroughfares through their country, and the better to enable the President to execute the provisions of this treaty, the aforesaid nations and tribes do hereby consent and agree, that the United States may, within the countries respectively occupied and claimed by them, construct roads of every