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unusual manner. Indeed, though Red River is and insulted a family two miles distant. In fact, usually accounted one of the tributaries of the unless checked by summary example, there is Mississippi River, there is abundant evidence to danger of our whole noble army degenerating believe that at no great period back the Red into a band of cut-throats and robbers. I am Rirer continued its course to the Gulf through glad to say that General Smith is disposed to the Atchafalaya. The latter stream is now main-punish all offenders severely. ly fed by the former, and should properly bear! It was decided that the column should march its name. We found it for twelve miles a deep overland to Fert De Russy, the place to which and navigable stream.
it was supposed they had retreated, distant At Simmsport the fleet came to a landing. thirty-five miles. At daybreak, they started in The town itself does not exist, a few chimneys light marching order. The boats were steamed alone marking the former site, having been up the Red River, which proved to be extremely burned up by Colonel Charles Rivers Ellet, in tortuous and difficult of navigation. At a point retaliation for their having fired on his boat, the sixty-five miles above the mouth, and twentyQueen of the West Colonel John Ellet after five above Black River, we came upon a small ward visited the place with the Switzerland, earthwork, without guns, distant by land about during the siege of Port Hudson, when he had a five miles from the main fort. Hewn piles and severe engagement with the batteries, and fin timbers had floated past during the day, preished the work of his cousin.
paring us for the evacuation above. • Two new earthworks were found in course of Meanwhile the column under General Smith, construction, and abundant evidences of the with Morse's brigade in the advance, made a traffic across the stream at this point. A short night march across froin Simmsport. Before distance up the bayou, which enters at this they had gotten five miles out on their march, point, were found twenty-four pontoons used for they were beset by the enemy's cavalry, which à bridge; also, portions of a raft of timber long kept harassing front and rear during the entire enough to stretch across. News reached us that route. A company of cavalry, under Captain a camp near the river had been hastily evacu- | Hughes, preceded the column, skirmishing conated at the sight of the fileet; afterward we heard tinually. General F. Kilby Smith, who comthat about two thousand had a fortified camp manded the division in the rear, was often three miles from the river, at the intersection of obliged to form in line to repel their threatenBayou Glaize, (Yellow Bayou.) Next morning ed attack. Notwithstanding that a delay of the land forces were disembarked, and marched three hours occurred in rebuilding a bridge deout by sunrise to find the camp broken up and stroyed by the flying enemy, the entire march, the enemy gone; the bridge leading across the thirty miles, was accomplished in twenty hours, stream burning, and evidence of a fright. There and, as the result showed, captured a strong were two extensive earthworks, still incomplete, position before sundown-a feat which has hardand a prodigious raft being constructed across ly a parallel. The country back of the Fort is an Bayou Glaize so as to prevent the gunboats as- undulating table-land, beautiful to behold, and cending the little channel during high-water. inhabited by descendants of the early French This location of their principal fortifications is settlers. Indeed, many of them had hoisted significant in two things: their intention to over their porches the tri-color of France, almake the Atchafalaya as their line of defence, though they have been living here, receiving the and their distrust of their ability to hold forts privileges of citizenship, for more than twenty immediately on the banks of navigable streams. years. Henceforth we imagined their policy would be It was about three o'clock as the head of the to hold the roads to the interior by works erect-column neared Fort De Russy; some time was ed beyond the range of the gunboats. Their spent in making cautious approaches to the poabandonment of Simmsport was indicative that sition, when the lines were moved up to the they had lost hope of defending successfully edge of the timber. The Fort then opened these latter.
hcavily with four guns, firing shells and shrapFive miles further out, our force overtook five nel, our forces bringing two batteries into action. teams loaded with tents, which they burned, The cannonading continued two hours, when and loaded up the teams with sugar and molas- General Smith ordered a line of skirmishers to ses, which the rebels had unsuccessfully attempt- advance, when a heavy fusilade followed A ed to destroy. The whole column then returned charge was ordered; the Fifty-eighth Illinois and to the boats. I should not be a faithful histo- the Eighth Wisconsin led, when just as the men rian if I omitted to mention that the conduct of had reached the ditch the garrison surrendered. the troops since the late raid of General Sher- About this time the boats made their appearman, is becoming very prejudicial to our good ance, the Eastport in the lead. They fired two name and to their efficiency. A spirit of de- shots without effect, across a rock, when the struction and wanton ferocity seems to have cheers of our delighted soldiers told them the seized upon many of them, which is quite in Fort was ours. The gunboats were not engaged; credible. At Red River landing they robbed a the honor of this victory may be set down to the house of several thousand dollars in specie, and credit of the land forces. then fired the house to conceal their crime. At The Fort consists of two distinct and formida. Simmsport, a party of them stole out, and robbed | ble earth-works connected by a covered way. The upper part, the one facing the road from the certainly does not find corroboration in the fact interior, is a beautiful specimen of engineering that they surrendered to forces which marched skill, and is remarkable for the substantial and across the country. Of this sort was the unfinpermanent manner in which every part is con- ished obstruction of piles about nine miles below structed. It mounted at the time of capture four here, which the gunboats had to tear away to guns, two field and two siege, though capable of allow the huge transports to pass through. As accommodating twenty. It is perhaps a quarter nearly as I can learn, Walker has two thousand of a mile from the river-bank, and seated on the men, mostly infantry, south of us. Taylor has, gradual slope of a ridge, the first seen on as- perhaps, as many at Alexandria, and it is probacending the river. In the lower work command- ble that they may be united at the latter place. ing the river was a casemated battery of three Banks has some, doubtless, in his front about guns of superior construction. Upon a solid Opelousas. frame of twenty inches of timber were laid two The Red River has not been used for large layers of railroad iron, the upper tier reversed transports or gunboats since May last, being and laid into the interstices of the lower. But hitherto too low. The Webb, Missouri, Grand two guns were in position in it-one eleven-inch Duke, and Mary Keene are at Shreveport, armed. columnbiad, taken from the Indianola, and an The distances on this river from the Mississippi eight-inch smooth bore. On each side were bat-are : Black River, forty miles ; De Russy, seventeries of two guns each, one a seven-inch rifle, ty miles; Alexandria, one hundred and forty of Parrott pattern, making in all eight siege miles ; Shreveport, four hundred and fifty miles. and two field-pieces. There were found besides large quantities of ammunition and a thousand muskets, besides flour, sugar, etc. Our loss in the affair was four killed and thir
Doc. 97. ty wounded; rebels, five killed and four wounded. Two hundred prisoners constituted the
REBEL CURRENCY. garrison then in the Fort, all of which fell into
ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR-GENERAL'S OFFICE, L our hands, with twenty-four officers. A force of
RICHMOND, VA., Feb. 20, 1964. about a thousand men has been stationed at De GENERAL ORDERS, No. 21. Russy until recently. The smallness of the gar- The following Act of Congress is published for rison is a matter of much surprise, as the enemy the information of the army : must have known of our presence for some days;
[No. 116.7 besides, it appears that a small number left in An Act to reduce the Currency and to authorize the morning before the attack. Two thirty-two a new issue of Notes and Bonds. pounders, on wheels, were hauled off only a few Sec. 1. The Congress of the confederate States hours before our arrival, and narrowly escaped of America do enact, That the holders of all capture by our forces. It is unaccountable that treasury notes above the denomination of five the rebels should leave so valuable a position al- dollars, not bearing interest, shall be allowed unmost defenceless at this time, and can only be til the first day of April, 1864, east of the Mis. accounted for on the ground that General Banks sissippi River, and until the first day of July, was menacing Alexandria, and they decided to 1864, west of the Mississippi River, to fund the sacrifice one of the two places to hold the other. same, and until the periods and at the places The troops have already reëmbarked, and are on stated, the holders of all such treasury notes the way to Alexandria.
shall be allowed to fund the samne in registered Fort De Russy takes its name from Colonel bonds payable twenty years after their date, bearDe Russy, who formerly commanded in this vi- ing interest at the rate of four per cent per ancinity, and lives not far distant. Lieutenant- num, payable on the first day of January and Colonel Bird was in command, though he re- July of each year. ported to General Walker, whose headquarters Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Treasury is herewere at Alexandria.
by authorized to issue the bonds required for the The following officers are prisoners : Captains funding provided for in the preceding section ; Stevens, Morran, Wise, Wright, Laird, and King; and, until the bonds can be prepared, he may Lieutenants Denson, Fuller, Fogarty, Claydon, issue certificates to answer the purpose. Such Trumbull, (Eng.,) Burbank, Hewey, Assenheim- bonds and certificates shall be receivable, wither, Fall, Hauk, Ball, Little, Barksdale, Spinks, out interest, in payment of all government dues Bringhurst, and Stout.
Tpayable in the year 1864, except export and imFrom various sources we gather that the rebels port duties. here have about abandoned the idea of defending Sec. 3. That all treasury notes of the deno. any of their navigable streams. When asked to mination of one hundred dollars, not bearing inaccount for their apparent neglect of so import- terest, which shall not be presented for funding ant a fort, they reply that this was considered under the provisions of the first section of this merely as an experiment in engineering, (certain-act, shall, from and after the first day of April, ly a very creditable one, and one which the gun. 1864, east of the Mississippi River, and the first boats alone might have vainly assailed for a day of July, 1864, west of the Mississippi River, month,) but claim that so soon as we leave the cease to be receivable in payment of public dues; rivers they will fall on us for destruction. This and said notes, if not presented at that time,
shall, in addition to the tax of thirty-three and a treaty of peace with the United States, unless one third cents imposed in the fourth section of sooner converted into new notes. this act, be subject to a tax of ten per cent per Sec. 6. That to pay the expenses of the gov. month until so presented; which taxes shall at- ernment, not otherwise provided for, the Secretach to said notes wherever circulated, and shall tary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to isbe deducted from the face of said notes whenever tue six per cent bonds to an amount not exceedpresented for payment or for funding, and such ing five hundred millions of dollars, the principal notes shall not be exchangeable for the new issue and interest whereof shall be free from taxation; of treasury notes provided for in this act and for the payment of the interest thereon, the
Sec. 4. That on all said treasury notes not entire net receipts of any export duty hereafter funded or used in payment of taxes at the dates laid on the value of all cotton, tobacco, and naval and places prescribed in the first section of this stores, wbich shall be exported from the confedact, there shall be levied at said dates and places erate States, and the net proceeds of the import a tax of thirty-three and one third cents for every duties laid, or so much thereof as may be necesdollar promised on the face of said notes. Said sary to pay annually the interest, are hereby tax shall attach to said notes wherever circulat- specially pledged : Provided, that the duties now ed, and shall be collected by deducting the same laid upon imports, and hereby pledged, shall hereat the treasury, its depositaries, and by the col. after be paid in specie, or in sterling exchange, lectors, and by all government officers receiving or in coupons of said bonds. the same, wherever presented for payment or for Sec. 7. That the Secretary of the Treasury is funding, or in payment of government dues, or hereby authorized from time to time, as the wants for postage, in exchange for new notes as herein- of the Treasury may require it, to sell or hyafter provided; and said treasury notes shall be pothecate for treasury notes said bonds or any fundable in bonds as provided in the first section part thereof, upon the best terins he can, so as of this act, until the first day of January, 1865, to meet appropriations by Congress, and at the at the rate of sixty-six cents and two thirds on same time reduce and restrict the amount of cirthe dollar, and it shall be the duty of the Secre- culation in treasury notes within reasonable and tary of the Treasury, at any time between the safe limits. first of April, east, and the first of July, 1864, Sec. 8. The bonds authorized by the sixth seewest of the Mississippi River, and the first of tion of this act may either be registered or cou. January, 1865, to substitute and exchange new pon bonds, as the parties taking them may elect, treasury notes for the same, at the rate of sixty- and they may be exchanged for each other under six and two thirds cents on the dollar: Provided, such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury that notes of the denomination of one hundred may prescribe; they shall be for one hundred dollars shall not be entitled to the privilege of dollars or some multiple of one hundred dollars; said exchange: Provided, further, that the right and shall, together with the coupons thereto atto fund any of said treasury notes after the first tached, be in such form and of such authentiday of January, 1865, is hereby taken away; and cation as the Secretary of the Treasury may preprovided, further, that upon all such treasury scribe; the interest shall be payable half-yearly, notes which remain outstanding on the first day on the first of January and July in each year; of January, 1865, and which may not be ex- the principal shall be payable not less than thirchanged for new treasury notes, as herein pro- ty years from their date. vided, a tax of one hundred per cent is hereby Sec. 9. All certificates shall be fundable, and imposed.
shall be taxed in all respects as is provided for Sec. 5. That after the first day of April next, the treasury notes, into which they are convertall authority heretofore given to the Secretary of ible, if not converted before the time fixed for the Treasury to issue treasury notes, shall be, taxing the treasury notes. Such certificates and is hereby, revoked, provided the Secretary shall from that time bear interest upon only of the Treasury may, after that time issue new sixty-six and two thirds cents for every dollar treasury notes in such form as he may prescribe, promised upon their face, and shall be redeempayable two years after the ratification of a treaty able only in new treasury notes at that rate; of peace with the United States, said new issue but, after the passage of this act, no call certifito be receivable in payment of all public dues, cates shall be issued until after the first day of except export and import duties, and to be issued | April, 1864. in exchange for old notes, at the rate of two dol- Sec. 10. That if any bank of deposit shall gire lars of the new for three dollars of the old issues, its depositors the bonds authorized by the first whether said old notes be surrendered for ex- section of this act in exchange for their deposits change by the holders thereof, or be received into and specify the same on the bonds by some disthe Treasury under the provisions of this act ; tinctive mark or token, to be agreed upon with and the holders of the new notes, or of the old the Secretary of the Treasury, then the said de notes, except those of the denomination of one positors shall be entitled to receive the amount hundred dollars, after they are reduced to sixty-of said bonds in treasury notes, bearing no ito six and two thirds cents on the dollar, by the tax terest, and outstanding at the passage of the aforesaid, may convert into call certificates, bear- act: Provided, the said bonds are presented be ing interest at the rate of four per cent per an-fore the privilege of funding said notes at på num, and payable two years after a ratification of shall cease, as herein prescribed.
Sec. 11. That all treasury notes heretofore lished in general orders, for the information of issued of the denomination of five dollars shall the army and navy. continue to be receivable in payment of public Sec. 17. The forty-second section of the act dues, as provided by law, and fundable at par for the assessment and collection of taxes, apunder the provisions of this act, until the first proved May first, 1863, is hereby repealed. of July, 1864, east, and until the first of Oc- Sec. 18. The Secretary of the Treasury is heretober, 1864, west of the Mississippi River; but by authorized and required, upon the application after that time they shall be subject to a tax of of the holder of any call certificate, which, by thirty-three and a third cents on every dollar the first section of the act to provide for the promised on the face thereof; said tax to attach funding and further issue of treasury notes, to said notes wherever circulated, and said notes approved March twenty-third, 1863, was requirto be fundable and exchangeable for new treas-ed to be hereafter deemed to be a bond, to issue ury notes, as herein provided, subject to the de- to such holder a bond therefor, upon the terms duction of said tax.
provided by said act. Sec. 12. That any State holding treasury Approved February seventeenth, 1864. notes, received before the times herein fixed for
S. COOPER, taxing said notes, shall be allowed until the first
Adjutant and Inspector-General. day of January, 1865, to fund the same in six per cent bonds of the confederate States, payable twenty years after date, and the interest payable semi-annually. But all treasury notes
Doc. 98. received by any State after the time fixed for
VALUABLE SUGGESTIONS taxing the same, as aforesaid, shall be held to have been received, diminished by the amount ADDRESSED TO THE SOLDIERS OF THE CONFEDERATE of said tax. The discrimination between the
STATES. notes subject to the tax and those not so subject
BY REV. A. B. LONGSTREET, LL.D. shall be left to the good faith of each State, and the certificate of the Governor thereof shall in
CHAPTER I. each case be conclusive.
I do not know that the attempt has ever been Sec. 13. That treasury notes heretofore is made to improve soldiers by an address to their sued, bearing interest at the rate of seven dollars reason and understanding. I propose to try the and thirty cents on the hundred dollars per an experiment, beginning with the new recruits. num, shall no longer be received in payment of It has grown into a proverb that “one hundred public dues, but shall be deemed and considered regulars will whip four hundred raw troops.” bonds of the confederate States, payable two The history of all wars proves this to be sub. years after the ratification of a treaty of peace stantially true. And yet, the hundred and four with the United States, bearing the rate of in- hundred are made up of the same material. How terest specified on their face, payable the first happens it that there is such a disparity between of January in each and every year.
them? Can mere drilling make one man bolder Sec. 14. That the Secretary of the Treasury than another? Impossible, as is proved by the be and he is hereby authorized, in case the ex- fact, that when brought into battle for the first igencies of the Government should require it, to time they are all alike-all equally alarmed and all pay the demand of any public creditor, whose equally apt to run. But the regulars soon be debt may be contracted after the passage of this come accustomed to battle, and nothing gives us act, willing to receive the same in a certificate of alarm to which we are accustomed. They soon indebtedness, to be issued by said Secretary in discover, too, that the roar of cannon and the such form as he may deem proper, payable two bursting of bombs, which terrify them so much years after a ratification of a treaty of peace within the first battle, are the most harmless of all the United States, bearing interest at the rate of implements of warfare brought into the field. six per cent per annum, payable semi-annually, They are better than raw troops simply because and transferable only by special indorsement, they have got over the fears of raw troops. If, under regulations to be prescribed by the Secre- therefore, it were possible for new recruits to entary of the Treasury; and said certificate shall gage in their first battle with the coolness and be exempt from taxation in principal and in-self-possession of veterans, they would be equal terest.
to veterans. Is this impossible ? Certainly not; Sec. 15. The Secretary of the Treasury is au- for most of the troops with which Bonaparte thorized to increase the number of depositories, fought the battle of Waterloo were new levies, so as to meet the requirements of this act, and and they fought as gallantly as the best on the with that view to employ such of the banks of field. This they did from confidence in their the several States as he may deem expedient. General. They, doubtless, felt all the alarms com
Sec. 16. The Secretary of the Treasury shall mon to troops engaging in battle for the first time, forthwith advertise this act in such newspapers but they did not yield to their fears. And to this published in the several States, and by such point it seems to me any raw troops may bring other means as shall secure immediate publi- themselves by the force of reason alone, especially city; and the Secretary of War and the Secre- when assisted a little by experienced officers. tary of the Navy shall each cause it to be pub- Let each man go into the battle-field with this
VOL. VIII.-Doc. 28
of reflections : "I shall be frightened of become a hero upon the same principle. I am course. At what? Why, at the danger to which aware of the military dogma that men, to become my life is exposed. Well, now, what is really good soldiers, must first become mere machines. the extent of the danger ? In the most sanguin. If this be true, then it were better for us (policy ary battle, not one fifth of the combatants are aside) to make up our armies of stout, able-bodied killed or wounded. The chances are, therefore, negroes, inured to toil, than of their high-minded, five to one that I shall not be hurt. The pro- chivalrous, but more feeble masters. At the portion of the slightly and recoverably wounded opening of the war, our armies were composed is to the killed and mortally wounded as five is mainly of troops of the latter class—men of scito one. The chances are, therefore, five to one, ence, men of wealth, men of the learned profesthat if touched at all, I shall not be mortally sions, Congressmen, legislators, professors, and wounded. The cannon are the common engines students-all accustomed to a life of comparative which unnerve men. Now, of the whole number ease. There was little drilling of them, or time for of killed in battle, not more than one in one hun-drilling them, before they were engaged in a series dred are killed by cannon.* A hundred to one, of battles. The conscript laws filled our ranks therefore, that those noisy bellowers do not hurt with men from all grades of society, and of all me. The alternative is presented to me to stand descriptions of character - in the main, hardmy ground in spite of my fears, or to run. Now, working, strong-muscled, able-bodied men, acin which is the most danger? Why, surely in customed to hard living and constant fatigue. running; for, as a general rule, of a given num- They have been long in the machine factory, long ber, more men are killed in flight than in fight. enough to have every attribute of humanity drillWhile I stand my ground, I am all the time de- ed out of them. Has this class proved themselves stroying, weakening, and disheartening the ene- to be better soldiers than the other? Have they my, and encouraging my companions in arms. fought better? Have they gained any more vicVictory, therefore, is likely to insure my safety. tories? Have they endured any more hardships, But in running, I may be killed by the very and with more patience? Let the advocates of men whom I would have disabled had I stood machinery answer these questions. firm. I weaken our forces, throw the battle upon The dogma which I have been considering is a reduced number, expose them to increased la- not only false, but is in the highest degree misbors and losses, become then an object of their chievous. If scientific war be but a conflict of batred and contempt, dispirit them and invigor- | machines, it necessarily follows that the power ate the foe, not only for this battle, but for all which has the greatest number of machines must future battles. The regulars show that battles in the end be victorious. How is it possible for lose their terrors when we become used to them; nine millions of population-six, we may sayhow am I ever to become used to them by run to bring into the field as many men as can twenning? If I save my life by it, I increase the dan-ty-three millions? And yet we seem to be trying ger of being made prisoner a hundred-fold. Fear the hopeless experiment. Every body is to be or no fear, then, I will fight as long as the regu- called to arms. In reason's name, I ask, Why? lars fight.”
We have plenty of men enrolled to whip all the Now, in all this, I put love of country, Yankee Yankees in the field at this time, if our men will insolence, and brutality entirely out of the ques- but fight as they did at the beginning of the war! tion ; for with panic-stricken troops, carrying in Did we lose the battle of Mission Ridge from their bosoms no antidote for their fears or moral want of men ? No, but from derangement of our remedy for their natural defects, these considera- machinery. And why should that defeat run us tions are utterly worthless, as has been most la- all crazy? I see nothing alarming in it. One of mentably proven in our last great battle. The the bitter fruits of the dogma in question is that remedy is found in the foregoing train of reflec-officers who subscribe to it will take no pains to tions. They cannot make brave men of cowards; inspire their men with courage, self-confidence, they cannot prevent fears on the battle-field ; but and high-toned patriotism, but will treat them they surely ought to make the coward and the pretty much as they would so many prize-fighttimid fight manfully in spite of their infirmities. ers. Away with the false, demoralizing dogma! Officers should impress them on the minds of Soldiers, you are moral agents; do for yourselves, their new recruits; and as such men fight well then, what I would do for you, if I could. Nerve under a general in whom they have confidence, yourselves up by your own mental energies to they should always, if practicable, be attached to deeds of noble daring and unflinching valor, the brigade, division or corps in whose generals though your enemy be three to your one. they have the most confidence. Lord Wellington is reported to have said that by nature he
CHAPTER II. was a great coward, but that his pride of character, self-respect, and love of country predominated My first chapter was addressed to raw recruits. over his fears. The consequence was, that he It was not designed to dissipate their fears in became the hero of heroes. I see no reason why battle, for no counsel can do this ; but to teach every soldier in the confederate army might not them to be good soldiers in spite of their fears
to show them that if they will consult their own I state this upon the authority of a brigadier-general of personal safety, they will fight in fear rather than many battles, who has turned his attention to this matter on the field.
run from fear. I now address the soldiers gen