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and may possibly be still at the read without indignant symhead of the Punjab Frontier pathy a touching paragraph in Force when I am dead and his brother's narrative : gone, it is no use, however much I may regret leaving this fron "Time was now passing by, and tier, where I have spent the best hope deferred of seeing further em

ployment in the East had its result part of my life, to wait for his

on Sir Harry, who used to say in the shoes." His sojourn in the humblest manner, 'I cannot comDeccan was quiet by compari- plain, for I have had my share of He found congenial friends luck, but kings apparently have arisen

in the East who know not Joseph.'” in Sir George Yule, the Resident, and in the great Minister, Sir Peter adds :Sir Salar Jung, who was full of anecdote of the old lawless

“Thus the soldier, to whose bearing

on many critical emergencies the days when the land was ravaged highest testimony had been borne, by Rohilla and Pindari. He and of whom a Governor-General of could indulge his predilections India had recorded, 'A better or for sport, and was sorely mauled braver soldier never drew the sword, by à leopard. He found the military honour beyond the medals

retired, having received no mark of Contingent in a satisfactory on his breast. His decorations were state: the men

well granted for political services in emmounted, recruited from war

ployment he never sought for, and like races, and in many of the duced him to accept."

which his duty to the State alone introopers he might recognise Pathan acquaintances. The one Some would have called him flaw was that the native officers a disappointed man, yet it may were over head and ears in debt be doubted whether his end to the usurers. He gave another was not as enviable as his proof of his administrative gifts career had been distinguished. and force of character when He had the inestimable blessing in resigning he could curtly of a contented spirit. He had record : “Found the Contingent won honour enough, as he knew, in debt and left it clear."

to satisfy the most insatiate; He came home in 1869, after and he died, as he had wished assisting, by special invitation to die, in the old familiar scenes, from Lord Mayo, at that grand beloved by his neighbours and Umballa Durbar for which Lord adored by his dependents. We Roberts made the elaborate ar cannot end our notice of the rangements, as we learn from his Life without a word of comRecollections.' Lumsden came plaint against the authors. Sir home “on leave” because he had Peter Lumsden says little or no prospect of immediate em- nothing of himself, though we ployment, but he fully intended find “The

“ The Lumsdens and hoped to go back. He was stantly coupled in the denever given the opportunity. spatches, diaries, and letters, He had come home while still in which Mr Elmslie also is in the full vigour of his powers frequently mentioned, and alof mind and body; martial am ways in honourable terms. bition was not dead but only Self-suppression may be carried sleeping, and it is impossible to to excess.



ONCE more the unexpected has an estimate of what will happen, happened, and the Americans at least some idea as to what have found that their "plunder- has taken place and why. They ing raid,” as the Germans, vir are of different degrees of value. tuous for others if not over- Major Younghusband's, “The scrupulous for themselves, have Philippines and Round About,' described the late war of libera- is, to be exact, the swift work tion, has brought them serious of a globe-trotter, an open-eyed trouble, just where none might and alert globe-trotter, but yet have been considered as ante- of one who, by the nature of cedently probable. They have things, pays à passing visit, vanquished Spain easily. Porto looks at the outside, and goes Rico has welcomed them. Cuba away.

Mr Forman’s ‘Philippromises to settle down quietly pine Islands' was already a as their obedient pupil, which "standard authority"; but his is perhaps a proof that its pre- second edition has been enriched vious unrest was at least partly by details of the Tagalo Retheir work. But in the remote bellion, which is the real cause Philippines they have a war on of the loss of the islands by hand, and it is one which they Spain. Mr Worcester's very will hardly end either quickly readable volume is a record of or without serious sacrifices. the prolonged journeys of a naMoreover, it has brought them turalist, who has an eye for men into relations with other Powers as well as beasts, who knows such as no American would have the languages, and has that thought desirable—or if he did interest in, and understanding he would have shrunk from of, political matters which is stating his opinion-five years rarely quite wanting in any ago. It is a very strange war, American. Yet for the imcarried on in a little known mediate purpose the most incountry, in conditions which teresting of the four is the are obscure, and for an end account of The Campaign in which it is very difficult to the Philippines in 1897,' by the foresee.

As usually happens in Spanish Colonel Don Federico this writing age so

de Monteverde, who served anything is stirring, books be- through it on

on the staff of gin to accumulate, be the scene General Lachambre, second in of the events ever so remote. command to General Polavieja, There has always been an in- and leader of the division on telligent witness everywhere, which the bulk of the work and he speaks when he thinks fell. the world will listen. We may The style of Don F. Montemention four, three English and verde is not ours.

He is sadly one Spanish, and from them addicted to what he calls brief it is possible to form, if not reflections, which are in fact



ing of

examples of the Castilian vice soldier who has studied his proof twaddle. He rises to lyric fession, who knows Moltke and heights of praise when speak- Frederick, can quote the maxims

his commander - in - of great captains, and look critchief General Polavieja, and his ically into "the causes of success immediate superior General La- and defeat." Apart from this chambre. Perhaps these pas- scientific soldiering, he gives a sages do something to explain view of the Spanish side of the the publication of this large, struggle during one period, a well-printed, and copiously illus- careful account of the Filipino trated volume. Polavieja is now organisation and method of fighta conspicuous political leader in ing, and of the country. From Spain, and Lachambre is his that, and in the absence of good supporter. The Marquesa de reports from Manila, we can Polavieja is understood to be form a picture of what kind of wealthy, and has therefore the war it is the Americans have means of letting the world know on hand. Mr Forman and Mr how brilliantly her husband vin- Worcester help to supply the dicated Spanish authority in background, or general condi1897. The deduction which the tions. Of these Colonel Montereader is at liberty to draw is too verde says just enough to show obvious to need naming. Again, that he would be an untrustColonel Monteverde writes of worthy witness. his enemy, the Filipino rebels, No words need be wasted in with a fury of hate which over- proving that the corrupt adminflows in abusive epithets. It istration of Spanish officials rejoices him to tell how the keen had much to do with the rebayonet of the Spanish soldiers bellion. The administration of smote down the “vile faces,” Spain is corrupt everywhere, alevosas caras, and the worth- at home and abroad. Mr Forless bodies, ruines cuerpos, of man tells how one governor, the rebels. In common justice, who has since gained a reputawe must remember that the tion for cruelty in another colFilipinos were guilty of excesses ony (he might as well have towards Spanish women, and named General Weyler at once), children, and priests, very similar pilfered so largely that he at to those which threw our coun- last found it hard to transmit trymen in India into paroxysms his money home in secret. So of rage in 1857. Mr Forman, he sent an officer to Hong who is not the enemy of the Kong with 35,000 dollars of natives, tells one abominable his booty, to buy a draft on story of outrage which goes Europe. The agent disapfar to explain the savage anger peared with the money. If of the Spaniards. Still, al- the accidents of life bring the lowance must be made for two men together, the meeting the Colonel's partisanship and might be curious. This may, partialities. When, however, or may not, be exactly true, it is made, much remains. but it is probable, and it gives Colonel Monteverde is plainly a the whole farce - tragedy of


The Case of the Philippines.

[June Spain's colonial failure in are free savages now as they nutshell. But their collapse were in the sixteenth centuryin the Philippines is not only the Negritos, who are a remshameful to the civil and mili- nant of the aborigines, a small tary officers of Spain. It is negroid and withering race, inunspeakably discreditable to capable of civilisation. The their clergy, and through them Igarrotes and other tribes, even to the Church of Rome. One in Luzon, are practically free in fact dominates the whole his- the mountain and bush. In tory of the Spaniards in the the most southerly islands, the Philippines. It is that they mixed Malay race, called by the made good their footing by Spaniards Moors, who are corthe help of the preaching friars, rupt Mohammedans, have never and have held it by their exer

been tamed. The real possestions. The early Spanish con sions of the ruling Power have querors, Legazpi and others, always been in the island of were men of the stamp of the Luzon in the tobacco-growing Pizarros and Almagro, daring valleys of the country to the adventurers in search of a quick north of Manila, and the rich fortune to be gained by the land of the provinces of Cavite, sword. To find an Inca, and Laguna, and Bulacan to the to plunder him, was their ideal. south. Malay piracy was ramThey were hardly landed in the pant among all the islands till Philippines before one of them it was stopped, less by the exwas petitioning for the king's ertions of the Spaniards than leave to set out for the conquest by the invention of steam. of China, which he would, no "James Watt killed piracy." doubt, have been prepared to But such as the Spanish doattempt with 150 men and 20 minion has been it has been the harquebusses. There never was work of the friar rather than any real settlement, and if of the soldier. When in the Spanish rule was accepted, the early seventeenth century the friars are chiefly entitled to the Council of Castile would have credit. We must not exagger- resigned the islands to the ate the extent of their do- Dutch, it was the Jesuits who minion, nor the

with caused the idea to be given up, which it has been held. Much and it was they who provided even of the great northern for the defence of Manila. island of Luzon, on which Man- Again, when we took the town ila stands, has never been prop- at the end of the Seven Years' erly brought under control. War, the friars supported one The lesser islands to the south Simon Anda, a Spaniard, who have been touched later, even

with a native following played less effectually and sometimes against us the game which not at all. Rebellions have Aguinaldo is now carrying on been common, and occasionally against the Americans. successful in securing local in As the friars had to win in dependence. Some of the very

Some of the very the first place by persuasion, mixed races of the archipelago their victory may be allowed


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to be to their honour. Of the is a confession of failure. It early missionaries, many were is no palliation to insist, as no doubt among the martyrs our Spanish authority, Colonel whose blood is the seed of the Monteverde, does, on the brutal Church. But the time of en- character of the Tagalos. If thusiasm passed away, leaving they deserve his censure, they behind it a number of Orders are at any rate a standing which have come to regard the proof of the incapacity of their Philippines as their property. teachers. When we ask why They have secured the right the friars, Dominican, Augusto hold all the parish priest- tinian, and Recollects, have ships, and their effectual power become objects of hatred, the became so great that no Span- answer given by English and ish Governor could afford to American witnesses is, firstly, defy them. A single fact will because the individuals are imsuffice to judge the use the moral; and, secondly, because Orders have made of their the Order is greedy. Mr Worpower.

When the first sign cester quotes an example of a of trouble among the Tagalo Spanish soldier who became a population in 1872 came, it friar simply because he wished took the form of a conspiracy, to lead an idle sensual life in not against the Spanish Gov a climate which suited him. ernment, nor even against the Mr Forman speaks of many Church, but against the friars. uncleanly livers among the The Tagalos are the bulk of regulars to his knowledge. the settled inhabitants of Lu- But this laxity of life, even if zon, and are much mixed with we believe that the friars used the Chinese. The agitators their power to indulge their who laid the so-called con- passionsmight not have spiracy of Cavite in that year aroused hatred in a people meant to ask that the parish whose own habits are sufficures should be held by secu- ciently lax. It is rather the lar priests, whether native or restless greed of the Order, Spanish, but not by the re- which had its headquarters in gulars. There are native friars, Spain, which has no conscience, but they are wholly subject to which looks upon the steady the European friars, who em- pursuit of its corporate profit ploy them solely as curates, as a virtue, which never forand have no scruple, if Mr gets, or forgives, or rests till Forman is correctly informed, it has secured its purpose by in visiting them with corporal force or by intrigue, which has punishment. Now, these friars ended by becoming intolerable. hav had the whole education Mr Forman tells us that when of the people and the forma- the Spanish Government protion of its character in their posed a few years ago to introhands for centuries, and the duce its own excellent system end is that they have got of land registration into the themselves hated with an ex- Philippines, the friars offered treme hatred. In itself that an obstinate and successful

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