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Viscount Cross.--The Rt. Hon. transferred the management of County Richard Assheton Cross, G.C.B., died at jails from local justices to a central Eccle Riggs, Broughton-in-Furness, on authority, and two useful Acts followed, January 8, aged 90. The third s. of a Factories and Workshops Act (1898) William Cross and Ellen, dau, of Edward and a Summary Jurisdiction Act (1879). Chaffers, he was b. near Preston, May In 1880 his proposal that the London 30, 1823, educated at Rugby under Water Companies' undertakings should Arnold, and at Trinity College, Cam- be transferred to a Central Public Board bridge, and called to the Bar by the Inner for a price of 27,000,0001., payable in Temple. He went the Northern Circuit, stock at 31 per cent., was severely critiacquired a considerable practice, and sat cised, and was cut short by the dissolufor Preston as a Conservative from 1857 tion. On the retirement of Mr. Disraeli's to 1862, when he resigned for business Ministry he was made a G.C.B., and he reasons. In 1868 he was selected to con- took a prominent part among the Optest South-West Lancashire against position ; but Lord Randolph Churchill Gladstone, whom he defeated by a sub- had conceived a violent dislike to him, stantial majority; and when Disraeli Mr. W. H. Smith, and Sir Stafford formed his Ministry in 1874 he was re- Northcote; and though in 1885 he again commended by the Earl of Derby for the became Home Secretary, in the Marquess Home Secretaryship-a post for wbich of Salisbury's Government, in 1886 he he was qualified by his practical know- was made Secretary for India. In the ledge of poor-law administration and his Salisbury Ministry of 1895 he was Lord experience as Chairman of the South- Privy Seal, and retired on its reconstrucWest Lancashire Quarter Sessions. (He tion in 1900. He was a F.R.S. and an had also directed the affairs of an import- Ecclesiastical Commissioner, and was ant bank.) As Home Secretary he intro- one of the most trusted business agents duced and passed a number of useful of Queen Victoria. He m., 1852, measures conceived in a liberal spirit, Georgiana, dau. of Thomas Lyon; she and fulfilling the promise of his party to d. 1907, leaving a family; he take up social reform. The Employers succeeded by his grandson. He was and Workmen Act (1875), based on the among the ablest administrators of the Report of a Royal Commission, treated Unionist party of his time. breaches of contract by workmen as civil wrongs, not as crimes, and restricted the Lord Strathcona.--The Rt. Hon. dangerous extension given by judicial Donald Alexander Smith, first Baron decisions to the law of conspiracy in re- Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G., gard to trade disputes, besides permitting G.C.V.O., and a Privy Councillor, died peaceful picketing during a strike. The in London on anuary 21, aged 93. B. Artisans' Dwellings Act (1875) enabled at Forres, it was believed on August 6, the corporation in towns of more than 1820, the s. of Alexander Smith by his 25,000 inhabitants to acquire land com- wife Barbara, dau. of Donald Stewart of pulsorily for workmen's dwellings and Leanchoil, he was the nephew of John build them itself, or let the land for Stewart, à famous fur-trader, through building. Another Act (1876) restricted whose influence he entered the Hudson the enclosure of commons ; in 1877 the Bay Company's service in 1838. He Prisons Acts (one for each kingdom) spent thirteen years continuously at



Hamilton Bay, Labrador, almost cut off Lord Knutsford.—The Rt. Hon. Sir from civilisation, and then served at Henry Thurston Holland, G.C.M.G., first various posts in North-Western Canada, Lord Knutsford, died at his London rising step by step till, in 1869, he be- residence on January 29, aged 88. The came the last resident Governor of the son of Sir Henry Holland, Queen Caro. Company. During the rebellion of Louis line's physician, he was educated at Riel in the Red River region (afterwards Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, Manitoba) in 1869-70 he was acting went to the Bar, was legal adviser to the governor, and negotiated successfully Colonial Office, 1867-70, and Assistant with the insurgents. He was Chief Under-Secretary for the Colonies, 1870Commissioner of the North-Western 74; in 1874 he was elected for Midhurst Territory in 1870, represented Winnipeg to Parliament as a Conservative, and reand St. John in the Manitoba Legislature, presented it till its disfranchisement in 1871-74, Selkirk in the Dominion Par- 1885, and Hampstead, 1885-88. In 1885 liament between 1871 and 1877, and he became Financial Secretary to the West Montreal, 1877-96. From 1896 to Treasury in Lord Salisbury's Ministry, his death he was High Commissioner for and shortly afterwards Vice-President Canada in London. During the Pacific the Committee of Council on Educarailway scandal of 1873 he went over to tion, an office to which he was again the Liberal party, but he supported the appointed in the second Salisbury Macdonald Ministry from its formation Ministry (1886). From 1887 to 1892 he in 1878. In that year he and other was Colonial Secretary, thus being Parlia. financiers connected Winnipeg by rail mentary Chief of the Department in with Minnesota, and in 1880 they con. which he had been a permanent official. tracted to complete the Canadian Pacific In 1888 he was raised to the Peerage as Railway by 1891. It was finished by the a Baron, and on the formation of Lord end of 1885, and he may be regarded as Salisbury's third Ministry in 1895 a Visthe chief agent in its completion. He count. Thereafter he practically retired was made K.C.M.G. in 1886, G.C.M.G. from active politics. As Colonial Secrein 1896, raised to the Peerage 1897, and tary, he presided over the Colonial Conbecame G.C.V.0. in 1908. He wrote a ference of 1887. He was an Ecclesiastical book on “ Western Canada before and Commissioner and a trustee of the after Confederation," and a “ History of National Portrait Gallery. He m. (1), the Hudson Bay Company." His 1852, Elizabeth, dau. of Nathaniel benefactions were enormous. At the Hibbert; she d. 1855; (2) 1858, Margaret, Queen's Jubilee of 1887 he and Lord dau. of Sir C. E. Trevelyan, Bart. ; she d. Mount Stephen gave $1,000,000 to build 1906. He was succeeded by his eldest and endow the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, adding in 1896 $800,000 for upkeep. To the McGill University, Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., the Montreal, he gave altogether over eminent astronomer, died in London, million dollars ; in 1896 he endowed the January 24, aged 70. B. June 12, 1843, Royal Victoria College for Women at the son of an Aberdeenshire gentleman, Montreal, and during the Boer War he and educated at Marischal College and raised a regiment of scouts, equipping it Aberdeen University, he was in charge and transporting it to South Africa at & private observatory at Aberdeen, his own cost. Other benefactions were 1868-79, then of the Earl of Crawford's $450,000 to promote physical drill and observatory at Dunecht, 1873-76. In military training in the schools of 1874 he organised the expedition sent by Canada, $1,000,000 to King Edward's Lord Crawford to Mauritius to observe Hospital Fund, $150,000 for new build. the transit of Venus, and in 1877 that ings for the Young Men's Christian sent to Ascension to determine the solar Association in the Canadian North-West, parallax by observations of Mars. From and $125,000 to Marischal College, 1879 to 1907 he was Astronomer Royal Aberdeen. He was a Vice-President of in Cape Colony, and in that capacity he the British Association, a F.R.S., Chan- observed the transit of Venus in 1882 and cellor of Aberdeen University, of which photographed the comet of that year. he had been Lord Rector in 1899, and He also initiated the cataloguing of the held numerous honorary degrees. He stars by the aid of photography, and m. Isabella, dau. of Richard Hardisty; proposed and carried out in 1896) the she d. 1913, and left one dau., Margaret, geodetic survey of Natal and Cape who m., 1888, Robert Howard, F.R.C.S., Colony, and organised, a year later, that and had three sons and two daughters. of Rhodesia. Twenty years earlier he His Barony passed by special remainder had established the base line for that of to her and her issue. For his action Egypt. He was elected F.R.S. in 1883, in securing oil fuel for the Navy, see and made K.C.B. in 1900. In 1878 he p. [124].

was awarded the Gold Medal of the


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Royal Astronomical Society, and in 1903 taries at the Ministry of Public Instruca Royal Medal of the Royal Society. He tion, he entered the diplomatic service, was President of the British Association, and served at Constantinople and, as 1907-8; of the Royal Astronomical Soc- first Secretary of Embassy, at Washingiety, 1909-11; and of the Institute of Mar- ton. Returning to France, he became ine Engineers, 1910-11; and possessed a journalist, working on the République honorary degrees and other scientific

Française and the Temps, but illness distinctions.

interrupted his work, and it was only in

July, 1888, that he definitely became General Picquart, one of the leading Foreign Editor of the Temps, & post figures of the Dreyfus case and War which he occupied till the Dreyfus crisis, Minister of France, 1906-9, d. January which made him a Socialist. His wide 19, at Amiens, aged 59. A brilliant knowledge of languages and current infantry officer, he was promoted Lieut.- politics gave his work high authority; Colonel 1896, and became Chief of the and, though Protestant by extraction Intelligence Department of the Ministry and creed, he was specially attracted by of War, but coming to the opinion that English Catholicism, particularly by Major Dreyfus had been wrongly con- Cardinal Manning and Cardinal Newvicted, he was relieved of his post and man, whom he regarded as called to sent in disgrace to Tunis. On the prose- solve the problems of Labour. He cution of Esterhazy he was recalled to published a notable study of the former, Paris, and subsequently was dismissed and a work on Irish Home Rule. Durthe service, after again affirming his be- ing the Dreyfus case he resigned from the lief during M. Zola's trial. In July, Legion of Honour on M. Zola's suspen1898, for declaring that a document sion, and was struck off its roll, resignawhich the War Minister held to be tion being forbidden; he wrote a eulogy authentic was forged, he was imprisoned of General Picquart; and he took a for eleven months; but, from his prison leading part in promoting the movement and after his release, he took an active for & revision of the sentence, and was part in the revision of the Dreyfus case. compelled to leave the Temps. He was In 1906 he was restored to the army President of the Ligue des Droits de as Brigadier-General, promoted Major. l'Homme, 1904-14. In 1902 he was General soon after, and from 1906 to 1909 elected Socialist deputy for the Rhone ; was War Minister; he reorganised and and his Bill for the separation of Church strengthened the artillery, and carried and State formed the basis of that ultiout other important reforms, including mately passed by M. Briand, to which he the application of the two years' service carried an important amendment. In law. He commanded the Second Army 1910 he was defeated at the general Corps from 1910 till his death, and was election, and had not since been a at the head of one of the armies in the deputy, though he was a candidate for a manuvres in Picardy in 1910. An Paris seat at his death. His erudition, honourable man of high culture and re- his earnestness, and his political achievefinement, he wrecked his career in the ments made him one of the most notable interest of truth, and his courage at last figures of contemporary France. received its due reward.

Paul Déroulède, French poet, soldier, Francis de Pressensé, one of the and patriot, died at Nice on January 30, most eminent French journalists and aged 67. B. at Paris on September 2, men of letters of his time, died of 1846, he studied law, but his taste was apoplexy in Paris, January 19, aged 60. for poetry and the drama, and he had The son of M. Edmond de Pressensé, & produced a short play before 1870, when Protestant pastor and Life Senator, and he enlisted as a Zouave (finding that the of Mme. Élise de Pressensé, née Duples- regiment of Gardes Mobiles with which sis-Goncourt, a Swiss and a novelist, he had gone out during MacMahon's he won high distinction at school, alike retreat on Sedan was to be disbanded), in literature, language, history and mathe- was taken prisoner, and confined in matics, and at seventeen was English Silesia. Escaping, he took part in the correspondent of the Journal de Genève. campaigns of the Loire and the East, Before this he had been attached to was wounded near Paris, and ultimately General Chanzy's staff in the Franco- forced to retire from service by a fall German War, and was taken prisoner at from his horse. Meanwhile he had Le Mans. A brilliant Greek scholar, he written his “Chants du Soldat” (pub. contemplated a work on the constitu- 1872), which instantly became popular. tional history of Athens, but was gradu- In 1882 he was invited by Félix Faure to ally drawn to politics, partly by his join a patriotic movement independent relations with Guizot and Thiers; and, of party, and founded the “ Ligue des after being one of M. Bardoux's secre- Patriotes"; but it was captured by the About the 1st, aged 61, while on a concert tour in Russia, Stéphane Raoul Pugno, a noted French pianist; best known as an interpreter of the work of Cesar Franck and of Mozart; had repeatedly appeared in London since 1894, especially with M. Ysäye, the violinist. On the 4th, aged 84, Silas Weir Mitchell, M.D., & distinguished American physician and neurologist; inventor of the “rest cure”; an authority on toxicology, and a prolific novelist and poet; among his novels was “Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker," and he also wrote a drama, “ The Masque," and " Doctor and Patient. On the 4th, Mark Melford, a dramatist and actor of considerable note. On the 5th, aged 64, Francis Arsène Cellier, musical director of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas from “The Sorcerer" onwards till their cessation in 1901. On the 5th, suddenly, aged 60, Sir John Molesworth Macpherson, C.S.I., Secretary of the Supreme Legislative Council for India, 1896-1911; had previously been Deputy Secretary from 1877; had drafted numerous Bills and written an important work on the Law of Mortgage in British India ; an active Presbyterian, and originator of the Simla (religious) Convention. On the 5th, aged 70, Michel Ephrussi, well known on the French Turf. On the 6th, Eugène Fournière, a prominent French Socialist, a Deputy, 1898-1902, and author of various sociological works. On the 6th, aged 69, Alain, eleventh Duc de Rohan, deputy for Morbihan (Ploermel) since 1876 ; m. Herminie de Verteillac; had served as captain in a regiment of Breton Mobiles in the Franco-German War; a Conservative and genuine aristocrat. On the 6th, aged 75, Richard Wormell, D.Sc., Lond., Headmaster of the Central Foundation School, London, 1874-1900, President of the College of Preceptors. About the 6th, aged 51, Major Ernest Cheter Anderson, D.S.O., distinguished in the South African War. On the 6th, aged 87, Henrietta Keddie, better known as Sarah Tytler, author in the Mid-Victorian era of many novels, of which the best known



Boulangist movement. He had stood for conspiracy and acquitted he was again

an independent candidate at the arrested in 1900 and sentenced to two general election of 1885; and he was years' imprisonment, which was merged elected deputy for Angoulême in 1889. in the additional penalty of ten years' The collapse of Boulangism, however, exile for insulting President Loubet. did not involve his retirement from He retired to San Sebastian, and returned active politics; he was extremely active after the amnesty of 1905, but he failed in the campaign against Dreyfus, and on to re-enter the Chamber, and his politiFebruary 23, 1899, after President cal career was at an end. He continued Faure's funeral, he publicly adjured however, to propagate militant patriotGeneral Roget to lead his troops to the ism by his writings, and a volume of Elysée in order to save France and the “ Nouvelles Feuilles de Route" apRepublic. The invitation was

peared in 1907. He was a Chevalier of temptuously declined, and though tried the Legion of Honour.

Citoyenne Jacqueline," and later of an interesting history of her family, entitled “Three Generations"; a native of Fife. On the 7th, aged 43, Hugh Frederick Vaughan Campbell, fourth Earl Cawdor ; succeeded his father 1911; Unionist candidate for Pembrokeshire, 1898; had been an invalid for some years; m., 1898, Joan, dau. of John Charles Thynne; succeeded by his elder s. On the 7th, aged 86, Patrick Weston Joyce, LL.D., sometime Principal of an Irish Training College; a Celtic scholar of eminence, and one of the Commissioners for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland ; author of “ Ancient Irish Music,” “A Social History of Ancient Ireland," “The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places," and other works. On the 8th, aged 80, Colonel John Stewart, R.A., C.I.E., of Ardvorlick, Perthshire, a Mutiny veteran, and founder of the great Government Harness Factory at Cawn pore. On the 8th, aged 82, John Honeyman, R.S.A., an architect of some note in Scotland; restored Iona and Brechin Cathedrals, and was architect of Glasgow Cathedral. About the 9th, aged about 55, the Rev. Henry Lewis, Rector of Bermondsey since 1896, and Hon. Canon of Southwark, long a C.M.S. Missionary in India. On the 10th, aged 82, Lieut.-General Sir John Chetham McLeod, G.C.B., Colonel of the Black Watch; served with distinction in the Crimea, the Mutiny, and the Ashanti War of 1873; commanded in Ceylon, 1882-7. On the 10th, aged 68, Colonel Camille Favre, of the Swiss Army, and an authority on military affairs. On the 11th, aged about 67, Mrs. Georgina Weldon, née Treherne; of great beauty, spirit and musical talent, she started a scheme for training orphans in music; in 1878 an attempt was made to place her in an asylum at the instigation of her husband, from whom she had separated, but she escaped ; after a long struggle she recovered damages in 1884 from the doctors concerned, and in 1885 from the composer Gounod and Sir Henry de Bathe for libel; was herself imprisoned for libel on M. Rivière; always conducted her own cases, with considerable skill. On the 11th, aged 77, Marion Grace Kennedy, daughter of

was "

a former Headmaster of Shrewsbury and Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge, one of the founders of Newnham College, and an active promoter of University education for women. On the 11th, aged 74, Heinrich Eduard Brockhaus, Ph.D., long partner in the famous Leipzig firm of publishers; wrote a history of the firm, and managed the periodical literature issued by it, including the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung; had retired from active connexion with it in 1895. On the 12th, aged 78, Admiral George Stanley Bosanquet, R.N. ; served in the Crimean War and the Egyptian Expedition of 1882; distinguished in the Chinese War of 1860-2. On the 12th, aged 66, Frederick Shore Bullock, C.I.E., Assistant Com. missioner of Metropolitan Police since 1908; previously for many years in the Indian Civil Service (N.W. Provinces, Oudh, and Berar); had done much towards checking the "white slave" traffic in England in 1910-12. On the 12th, aged 66, Henry Cyril Percy Graves, fifth Baron Graves in the peerage of Ireland; succeeded his cousin, 1904 ; m., 1870, Elizabeth, dau. of Henry Craven ; succeeded by his s. On the 12th, aged 71, Sir Henry Francis Redhead Yorke, K.C.B., for many years connected with the Admiralty; had been Assistant Private Secretary to several First Lords, and Director of Victualling, 1886-1905; associated with the Naval Exhibition of 1891 and with the Navy Records Society. On the 12th, aged 60, Colonel Thomas Trenchard Fowle, C.B., R.A., distinguished in the Afghan and South African Wars. On the 13th, aged 62, Professor Alfred Lichtwark, Director of the Hamburg Kunsthalle since 1886. On the 14th, aged 70, Count Yukyo Ito, Admiral of the Fleet in the Japanese Navy; commanded at the battle of Yalu in 1894; Chief of the General Staff of the Navy in the RussoJapanese War, in which his strategy contributed appreciably to the Japanese success ; created Count in 1907 and Viscount in 1908. On the 14th, aged 80, Pembroke Scott Stephens, K.C., Treasurer of Lincoln's Inn, and long prominent at the Parliamentary Bar. On the 15th, aged 85, the Rev. Henry Vincent Le Bas, Preacher of the Charterhouse, 1871-1910; active in various social movements, and long a director of the Artisans' Dwelling Company; a Broad Churchman. On the 15th, aged 75, the Marquis de Polavieja, one of the Captains-General of the Spanish Army, and War Minister in the Silvela Cabinet, 1899, had commanded also in the Philippines and Cuba. On the 15th, from an accident, Baron Hermann von Soden, Chief Pastor of the Jerusalem Church at Berlin, a well-known theologian (conservative on the whole) and textual critic; author of “ Palestine and its History." On the 16th, aged 90, Charles Grant Tindal, of Eversley, Hants, one of the pioneers of cattle raising in New South Wales; introduced the manufacture of Liebig's Extract of Meat into the colony. On the 17th, aged 67, Colonel Walter Liberty Vernon, Government Architect of New South Wales, 1890-1911. On the 18th, aged 60, Sir Matthew Amcotts Wilson, third Baronet; prominent in county business; m., 1874, Georgina, dau. of T. Lee; succeeded his father in 1909 ; succeeded by his s. On the 18th, aged 67, Sir John Duncan, one of the proprietors of the South Wales Daily News and active in promoting Uni. versity education in Wales. On the 18th, aged 67, Sir William Lee-Warner, G.C.S.I., Secretary of the Political Department of the India Office, 1895; member of the Secretary of State's Council for India, 1902-12; had previously held many posts in the Indian Civil Service, among them that of President in Mysore; among his works were biographies of the Earl of Dalhousie and Sir Henry Norman, important work on the Native States of India; contributed to the “Cambridge Modern History.” About the 18th, aged 73, Henry Albert Reeves, F.R.C.S., a prominent orthopædic surgeon ; husband of “ Helen Mathers," the novelist. On the 19th, aged 70, the Rt. Rev. William Turner, Roman Catholic Bishop of Galloway since 1893. On the 19th, aged 89, Professor Rudolf Genée, a famous German dramatist and interpreter of Shakespeare, and author of an amusing parody of the Baconian theory entitled “The Goethe Secret.” On the 24th, aged 48, John Henry Bacon, M.V.O., A.R.A., of eminence especially as a portrait painter; painted the picture of King George's Coronation. On the 25th, aged 90, the Rev. Bulkeley Owen Jones, Chancellor of the Cathedral of St. Asaph ; the original of “Slogger Williams" in Hughes's “ Tom Brown's Schooldays." On the 25th, aged 77, the Rev. Charles Edward Hammond, Hon. Canon of Truro, sometime Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford; Rector of Wotton, Northants, 1882-7, and of Menherriot, Cornwall, 1887-1912; author of a well-known handbook of the textual criticism of the New Testament, and of works on Eastern and Western liturgies. On the 26th, aged 74, ex-Senator Leo Mechelin, a prominent defender of the constitutional rights of Finland. On the 26th, aged 86, Henry Grierson, a director of the North British Railway, and one of the leaders in changing its policy and management in 1899. On the 26th, aged 73, Jane, née Burden, widow of William Morris, the poet and artist; her face had been immortalised by her husband and D. G. Rossetti; of great

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