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THE revolution in dairy practice brought about by the introduction of the centrifugal cream separator and the Babcock test for fat and by a more definite knowledge regarding the various fermentations that so greatly influence milk and the manufacture of its products, has seemed to demand the publication of a small handbook that shall give to the dairyman, and particularly to the dairy student, in simple, concise form, the principles underlying modern dairy practice. In attempting to meet this demand, I have had largely in view the needs of my own students, while still keeping in mind the general dairy reader.

In the collation of the information, where so many points are still unsettled, it is of course difficult in all cases to distinguish fact from conjecture. The aim has been at all times to give the present state of knowledge as supported by the weight of evidence and the opinions of those whose authority is highest. In how far this has

been successful time alone can tell. It would be

too much to hope that every conclusion will stand the test of further investigation and experience.

Dairy practice in the United States owes much to the investigations of the Agricultural Experiment Stations. Of the results of their labor free use has been made in various ways, and in many cases without specific mention at the particular place. Without wishing to make distinctions, particular acknowledgment is here. rendered to the reports and bulletins of the Stations in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut (Storrs), Canada, New York (State), New York (Cornell), New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. For those who wish to make more extended investigations, a bibliography is added in the Appendix, giving references to many bulletins.

Thanks are due to D. H. Burrell & Co., the Vermont Farm Machine Co., the DeLaval Separator Co., the Star Milk Cooler Co., the Champion Milk Cooler Co., J. F. Hodgkin, and F. B. Fargo & Co., for the use of electrotypes.

Acknowledgment is also due my colleagues, Messrs. Cavanaugh, Durand, Hall and Van Wagenen, for valuable assistance, and to Professor L. H. Bailey for much friendly counsel and many useful suggestions.


January 1897.



IN THE preparation of a new edition of Milk and Its Products, in addition to making such changes as are necessary to bring the body of the work up-todate, it has seemed well to add chapters on dairy cattle and the production of milk, on certified milk, and on ice-cream manufacture. Brief directions for simple bacteriological determinations have also been added. The latter has been prepared by my daughter, Lois W. Wing, late assistant in dairy bacteriology, in the New York State College of Agriculture. chapter on certified milk was written by Mr. George C. Watson, formerly manager of the Tully Farms, and grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to both for their assistance.

New York State College of Agriculture
Cornell University, July, 1912




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