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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by

JOHN BOUVIER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Latered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1843, by

JOHN BOUVIER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by

JOHN BOUVIER, in the Clerk's Omce of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania,

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by

ELIZA BOUVIER AND ROBERT E. PETERSON, TRUSTEES, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by

ELIZA BOUVIER AND ROBERT E. PETERSON, TRUSTEES, in the Clerk's Ofico of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by

ROBERT E. PETERSON,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

ADVERTISEMENT.

In the preparation of the present edition of the Law DICTIONARY, it has been the aim of the Editor, FRANCIS RAWLE, Esq., of the Philadelphia Bar, to vary in nothing from the general plan of JUDGE BOUVIER, and to make only such modifications and additions in his work as the changing conditions of the law seemed to require. The period since the death of the able author has been so fruitful, however, both in legislative enactments and judicial decisions, that numerous alterations and additions have been rendered necessary, so that the present thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged edition contains three times the matter of the original edition. This new matter has been supplied by upwards of one hundred gentlemen of recognized eminence at the bar or on the bench, and peculiarly well acquainted with the special topics upon which they have treated. Their names will be found in the List of Authors appended to the work, and in the Preface of the Editor of this edition. Careful attention has been given to the citation of authorities, and they have been brought down to the date of the preparation of the respective articles. Neither time, labor, nor expense has been spared to make the book accurate and complete; and the present edition of BOUVIER's Law DICTIONARY is submitted to the profession and to the general public, in the firm belief that it will sustain the high reputation it has achieved, and that it will be found even more valuable in the future than it has been in the past.

PHILADELPHIA, January 1, 1883.

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PREFACE.

In preparing this edition of BOUVIER'S LAW DICTIONARY for publication, more than seven hundred new titles have been added to the work. Many of these have been treated at length; for instance, Commerce, Homestead, Judicature Acts, National Banks, Passenger, Police Power, Removal of Causes, Telegraph, Ticket, and War.

A large number of titles have, in view of their importance, been treated more fully than was done in the last edition, and, in many cases, have been substantially rewritten. Among these may be mentioned Courts of the United States, Due Process of Law, Election, Negligence, Partners, Partnership, Patent, Railroad, Sunday, Tax, and Trade-Mark. The Editor has endeavored, in all cases, to incorporate the development and growth of the law since 1867, the date of the last edition.

In the present edition, the Dictionary is enlarged by about two hundred and fifty pages. By adopting a much shorter system of abbreviations than the one formerly in use, much space has been saved, which has been utilized by the substitution of new matter. The citations in the former edition have been altered to conform to the system adopted. The list of abbreviations heretofore placed under the title Citations, is omitted; the full name of any authority cited can always be found either under the title Abbreviations or the title Reports, in both of which, a special effort has been made

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to secure completeness and accuracy. In the latter will also be found a list of all periodicals, known to the Editor, which contain reports of cases. The list of words and phrases formerly placed under the title Construction, but now placed under the title Words, has received large additions.

Numerous references have been made to valuable articles in the legal periodicals, and it is hoped that in this way

much learning that is now difficult to find, can be brought within easy reach of the profession. To a certain extent this work will serve as an index to legal periodical literature.

The articles embodying the laws and constitutions of the various States have been corrected or rewritten so as to incorporate all important amendments and changes since the last edition, and articles on several States and Territories omitted in that edition have been added. Most of this work has been done by members of the bar in the various States; and the Editor avails himself of this opportunity to express his obligations to them. Among the number are Edward J. Phelps, of Vermont; Alexander R. Lawton, of Georgia; Simeon E. Baldwin, of Connecticut; Warren Olney, of California; Hon. Charles S. Bradley, of Rhode Island; Hon. M. P. Deady, of Oregon; and U. M. Rose, of Arkansas. He is much indebted to Dwight M. Lowrey, for his revision of the article on Partnership; to Charles H. Bannard, for his revision of the article on Partners, both of which titles were substantially rewritten; and to J. Douglass Brown, Jr., for his revision of Maxims, which title was enlarged, in part, by adding some maxims not in the last edition, but mainly by citations of additional cases in point. He is also under great obligations to Lawrence Lewis, Jr., and Sydney G. Fisher, for most valuable help, and especially is he indebted to Walter George Smith, and Alfred Lee, Jr., who have shared his labors throughout.

The Editor can hardly expect that in so extensive an under

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