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2. Such repetitions as the following are pretty, and

may be imitated :

Tu pennas gemma, gemmá variante capillos.
Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile Tempus.
Uxor amans flentem flens acrius ipsa tenebat.
Audiit æquorei piscator murmura morstri,

Murmura disjectam vaticinata ratem. 1. The present Infinitive (Historical Inf.) is often used

for the Finite Verb. K. The Historic present is often used for the Aorist. 1. The Enclitics quě, , are often annexed to some

word to which they do not strictly belong :(a) When the word to which they are annexed is

common to both members of the sentence :-

e. g.

Messalam terra dum sequiturque mari.
Ne capiti Soles ne noceantque nives.
Pacis eras mediusque belli.

Cf. Tibull. i. 1. 51. (b) When the word to which they are annexed is

quadrisyllabic :-e.g.

Mensibus antiquis præposuitque duos.
Ferratam Danaës transiliamque domum.

De facili composuitque luto.
Add Tibull. i. 6. 54, 3. 38 ; ii. 5. 72. Ov. Tr.
iv. 1. 39, and passim.

N.B. Be careful not to join the enclitic to the former of the words which it connects or separates. E. g. "vaccam venditque juvencam” might stand by (a) above; but “vendit vaccamque juvencam,

vaccamque vendit juvencam,” would be absurd.




The following will be found useful, and may be committed to memory with advantage. I. a. “Dare” with acc. of substantive =

verb; e. g. dare ruinam = ruere, dare ruborem = rubere, &c. &c.

It is also occasionally used with adjectives;

E. g. Hæc ego vasta dabo = vastabo. b. “Factus” with adj. = past part. or simple adj.

E.g. Lassaque facta mari lassaque facta viâ = lassata. c. Prohibitions may be expressed by-noli, parce,

mitte, fuge, desine—with verb in inf. or by

cave,” with verb in subj. d. A command, or request, may be expressed by “fac,”

‘ facito,” with 2nd pers. subj. See also vii. 5,

note, on “Quin.e. A comparative may occasionally be expressed by the

positive with “plus solito," "præter solitum,"

"plus justo.” 1 f. A superlative may be expressed by a periphrasis

with the comparative. Instead of saying, "the handsomest youth,” you may say more elegantly, “ a youth, than whom none other is

handsomer,” juvenis, quo non formosior alter. g. “Former” may be translated by "qui fuit ante.”

Compare “lacrimas quas dabat illa,” her tears;

quos colit ille lares," his house, &c. &c. 1 Obs." quantum non magis quam.” Hor. Epod. xvii. 31.

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h. “All” may be elegantly translated by "quidquid,"

with gen. of noun or neuter adj. A few in-
stances will suffice. E. g. “He carried off all
the silver there was in the city.” Lat. Abstulit
argenti quidquid in urbe fuit.—“All a woman's
beauty.” Lat. "Quidquid habet pulcri mulier."
'All the Lydians who inhabited the Etruscan
territory." Lat. "Lydorum quidquid Etruscos
incoluit fines." Compare the use of “quot. ”
e. g. “Every day,” quotquot eunt dies: “all the
islanders,” quot colunt insulam. (Cf. Tibull.

i. 1. 51. Catull. iii. 2.) i. English Compound Adjectives may often be

expressed by the Latin gen. or abl. of quality, with epithet. E. g. bare-headed, “nudo capite :” 'blue-eyed,' " cæruleis oculis :" "an

honest-faced lad,' “ ingenui vultûs puer.” II. 1. Notice :-non sine = cum (prep.): non ullus =

nullus : non nullus = aliquis: nullus non= omnis: non unus =

plurimus : : non alius = idem. Similarly: -non levis = gravissimus: non humilis

superbus, &c. Also :-non nisi = tantùm: non unquam = nunquam: nunquam

sæpe: non bene malè, or vix:

= bene: nil non = omnia. So :non memini = obliviscor: non sino, non patior

= veto. 2. Observe also the intensive force of “ bene," e.g.

bene fidus = fidissimus : and the negative
force of “ malè,” “ paruin,” “minus.” E. g.

Male fidus, “faithless."
Parum castus, "polluted."

Minus audiens, “inattentive to.”

Note also“ malè,” in the sense of,“ to one's cost.' III. Notice the following pleonasms :-Et vel adhuc:


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- pariter-pariter :-nimium nimiumque : iterumque iterumque: inde vel inde :---nisi si = nisi : tunc quum

= quum :-si licet, et fas est :—fertque refertque :-statve caditve :

itque reditque: terque quaterque, &c. &c. IV. Look out in your Dictionary, and note the usages

of (a) Matutinus, vespertinus, nocturnus, serus. (b) Dedoleo, dedisco, desuesco, defloreo, depudet.

(c) Muto, fallo, amo, audio, moror. V. The Ethic Datives—mihi, tibi, nobis, vobis—are

often elegantly redundant. Sic tibi planitiem

curvae sinus ambit arenæ. “So, look you,” &c. Quid mihi Celsus agit? “What is my Celsus

doing ?" Ubi nunc nobis Deus ille magister? Occasionally they are almost equivalent to the

possessive pronoun; e. g. “ tibi ripa viret," thy bank is green ; just as “cui ripa” would

be used for the " cujus ripa" of prose. VI. Two uses of the vocative require special notice. a. The possessive genitive may be turned into the vocative with the addition of “tuus” or vester.” E. g.

Eng. The Tiber's banks.

Lat. Thy banks, O Tiber. b. The 3rd person may be changed into the 2nd

by addressing the subject in the vocative. E.g.

The dove once wounded by the hawk's talons is frightened, &c. Terretur minimo pennæ stridore columba

Unguibus, accipiter, saucia facta tuis. The chief use of these constructions is in enumerations or descriptions, to avoid mono. tony.

VII. The use of certain conjunctions is productive of great elegance.

Such are-At, ergo, nempe, scilicet, sic, siccine, quippe, &c.

A few examples are subjoined :1. At. “But it will be said," introducing an allegation,

or objection, started by another. At bene nupta feror, quia nominer Herculis uxor.

It is also expressive of sudden emotion; e. g. At, O Deorum quidquid in coelo regit.

Cf. Virg. Æn. ii. 535. 2. Ergo. “Can it be that!” “So then !” (like ús åpa.)

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor urget?

Ergo sollicitæ tu causa, Pecunia, vitæ es ? Cf. Crabbe, Parish Register, Part iii.

Go, of my sexton seek whose days are sped ?

What! he himself! and is old Dibble dead?”
And M. G. Lewis, Sir Agilthorn,
And must sad Eva lose her lord ?

And must he seek the martial plain ?" 3. Licet (sometimes “ licebit) with subj. “al

though." 4. Nempe, in answer to questions; as we say, “ Why,"

-“ the fact is.” 5. Quin?? “Why not?” with a verb in ind. pres.

· Imperative. E. g.

Eia age, quin fugimus ? mecum pete sola

locorum. “Fly to the desert, fly with me.” 6. Quo? To what end?” (this word should be looked

out specially, and the variety and peculiarity of

its constructions noted.) Cf. use of “ unde." 7. Scilicet. “I ween;" often ironical, forsooth.” 1 Commands, prohibitions, and petitions may be interrogatively expressed ; e. g. “Quin taces ?” Hush! “Cui (das) verba ?” None of your falsehoods ! 'Quò fugis ?” Stay!-(Compare I. d.)

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