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ing and writing of a genteel per-on; and the same feeling and still without taste, as we shall endeaimpropriety would be found in a slovenly dress, vour to shew on a future occasion. stamping walk, and so forth Ladies or gentlemen, The last particular pointed out before, is, the therefore, should be as particular in the choice of difference between shining only in some trifles the pieces they play, as they are in the books of fashionable playing, and being an able and they read, in the pictures they hang up in their judicious periormer in all respects Thal fashion sooms, and in the quality and fashion of all that often insists upon trifles, more than upon what belongs to their wearing apparel. And their per- is important, will be allowed. When, thereformance of them should be as neai, tastetul, and || fure, a great performer introduces something elegani, as every thing else about them. This, it

new, it becomes fashionable, though it consists it is stric ly attended to from the beginning, is only in trifles; but the true art of playing will not so difficult as it may appear; and in the always remain independent of such things, in a course of some time it becomes as natural as writ- similar manner as the rules of harmony will ing a neat hand.

probably never be derived from the laws of But it is not enough to play only mechanically cashionable modulation. right, though the performance be ever so clean, The two greates and most celebrated professors distinct, and rapid, a person of taste and feeling of the piano-forte now in this country, are Mr. in other respecis, should also play with taste wnd J. B. Cramer, and Mr. Woelfi, whuse distinfeeling. For to play without feeling, has the guished merit is sufficiently known and acknowsame effect as r. ding in a language we do not edged ; and the only junior one we venture to understand; and though we mar pronounce mention immediately after them, is Mr. George every word right and distinctly, it will make no im. Kollman, who has already been noticed at pags presssion on the hearer. Yet we may play with 62 of our former Volume.

ON PNEUMATICS.

[Continued from Page 53.]

ON THE ELASTICITY OF AIR.

begins to be exhausted by the action of the Air is compressible and elastic. It is com air pump, and the bladder will presently burst. pressible, because it may be made to occupy con

Those who have not a proper apparatus for siderably less space than it naturally fills ; and making experiments of the preceding kind, may, elastic, because it possesses a certain spring which | by the humble means of a phial and small tube, causes ii to expand when the force that confined or a tobacco pipe, produce a sufficient effect to it is removed.

satisfy themselves of the elasticity of air. Fill a If a very small quantity of air be tied up in a phial about halt full of water, insert ne end of bladder, when it is held to the fire the sides of the pipe in the fiuid, and let the other project the bladder will gradually distend, till it is com about an inch above the neck of the bottle; then pletely inflated by the elasticity of the included close up the pipe in the neck with sealing wax, air From this, and other experiments it has so that air may not escape from the bottle. After been inferred, that fire is the cause of the elus- the machine is completed, blow strongly through ticity of air.

ihe tube, and the elasticity of the air, which is The elastic power air may be demonstrated compressed in the upper part of the bottle, will so by many ainusing experiments If a bladder, far overcome the resistance of the atmosphere or containing a small quantity of air, be placed un exterior air, as to force the water out of the pipe der a weight, and both be put under the receiver some inches in height, till the density of the of an air pump, on exhausting the air out of interior and exterior air becomes eqnai. When the receiver, the small quantity pent up in the the water is exhausted below the end of the pipe bladder will distend with such force, by its el s. in the bottle, it may be supplied by sucking the ricit", as to raise up the weights which are laid tube with the lips, and instantly stopping the aper

ture of the pipe with the finger; then immerse If a piece of thin bladder be tied over the the end in a bason of water, and when the finger mouth of a glass bason, when it is placed under is removed it will flow in'o the bottle. For a part the receiver, the air within the glass will begin of the air has been drawu out of the phial by the to expand as soon as that under the receiver Wlips, that which remains is less dense than the

upon it.

exterior air, so that the pressure on the surface || applied to the part affected, and a partial vacuuin of the water in the bason overcomes the resistance having been produced in the former by the action of the rarified air within the bottle, and forces of the flame, the air under that part of the skin the fluid up the pipe, till the gravities of the in- || which the glass covers, feeling no longer the presterior and exterior become equal. As heat dis sure of the atmosphere, exerts its spring, and in tends the volume of air by imposing a superior so doing swells out the skin which confines it. degree of elasticity, if the phial be held near The skin is then pierced with a lancet, and the the fire, or even warmed by the heat of the hand, operation ends. this will increase the elastic force of the air, and Fish hare within them a small bladder of air, cause a small discharge of water from the neck which they can contract or dilate at pleasure, of the tube.

By contracting it they become specifically heavier All bodies contain some proportion of air, and than water, and sink; by dilating it they become it is continually endeavouring to exert its elastic | lighter, and rise. This power, however, is lust city. Fruits and vegetables have their pores filled when the pressure of the atmosphere on their with air. If a shrivelled apple be placed at the bodies is removed; for then the air contained in bottom of a vessel of water, and then covered this vessel exerts it elasticity, and the fish is conwith a receiver, on exhausting the air from the strained to mount to the surface. In proof of this, latter, several streams of air will issue from the put a carp into a vessel of water, then place the apple, and increase in quantity as the exhaustion vessel and its contents under the receiver, exof the receiver increases. The apple, at the same haust the air, and the carp will Roat on the sur. time, will change its appearance ; for the air it || face of the water without the power to descend; contains being no longer confined by any external for the exterior pressure being taken away by pressure, will swell out its parts and fill up all the the action of the pump, the air within the blad. wrinkles, giving it the semblance of a fresh || der of the fish acquires such power of expansion, gathered apple. If air be re-admitted into the that the animal can no longer exert a power of con. recipient, it will force bick into the pores of the traction, but is constrained to remain on the sur. apple that which had escaped, and the distended || face of the water to its great pain. parts of the apple will shrink, till it again exhibits

On the air's susccp.ibility of being compress. its former withered appearance. An apple con ed, and its prodigious expansion when the comtains so much air, that were it all to be given out pre-sing force is removed, depend the structure to the stomach at once, when this fruit is eaten, and uses of the air-gun. In this instrument a the coats of the stomach would be distended till quantity of air is so condensed, that on the power they burst.

which confined it being taken away, the air by In the doubling of the film at the large end of its elasticity, projects a bullet as far as it would an egg, there is enclosed a small quantity of air. be carried by gun-powder. The simplest conTake a new laid egg, and make a hole in the structed air gun is formed like a common gun smailer end, place it with that end downwards in with a single barrel, and ihc condensed air is a wine glass; then put hath under the receiver contained in a brass ball that screws on below the of an air pump. On working the pump, the air lock. The ball is filled with air by means of a in the upper part of the egg feeling less pressure | syringe, and is furnished with a stop-cock. The from the atmosphere, will begin to distend by ball t is made to fit the barrel very exactly, and its elasticity, and when the process of exhaustion is rammed in like the ball of a musket Eachu is completed, within the recipient, it will force gun is furnished with two brass balls which are the whole contents of the egg through the hole | capable of containing air sufficient for twenty at the bottom of the shell. On allowing the air discharges. The gun is charged by turning the to return to the receiver, the parts of the egg || cock, which fills a small chanıber at the but end will re-enter the shell.

of the barrel with condensed air. By pulling the The operation of cupping commences with trigger a valve is opened, when the condensed holding a small glass, resembling a bell in air rushes in behind the bullet, and drives it out shape, over the flame of a lamp or caudli, with such violence as to force it through an oak till the air within the glass is so rarified that board, half an inch thick, and at the distance of scarcely any thing of it remains. The glass is then | ewenty-six yards.

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PALESTINE. *

Tho' thy proud stones in cumbrous ruin fall,
REFT of thy sons, amid thy foes forlorn, And seas of sand o'ertop thy mouldering wall;
Mourn, widow'd queen, forgotten Sion, mourn! Yet shall the Muse to Fancy's ardent view
Is this thy palace, sad city, this thy throne,

Each shadowy trace of faded pomp renew ? Where the wild desert rears its craggy stone? And as the seer on Pisgah's topmost brow While suns unülest their angry lustre fing, With glistening eye beheld the plain below, And way-worn pilgrims seek the scanty spring? With prescient ardour drank the scented gale, Where now thy pomp, which kings with envy

And bade the opening glades of Canaan hail; view'd ?

Her eagle eye shall scan the prospect wide, Where now thy might, which all these kings | From Carmel's cliffs to Almotana's tide; subdu'd ?

The Ainty waste, the cedar-tufted hill, No martial myriads muster in thy gate;

The liquid health of smooth Ardeni's rill; No suppliant nations in thy temple wait; The grot, where, by the watch-fire's evening No prophet bards, thy glittering courts among,

blaze, Wake the full lyre, and swell the tide of song:

The robber riots, or the hermit prays;
But lawless Might, and meagre Want is there,

Or, where the tempest rives the hoary stone,
And the quick-darting eye of restless Fear, The wintry top of giant Lebanon.
While cold Oblivion, 'mid thy ruins laid,

Fierce, hardy, proud, in conscious freedom Folds his dank wing beneath the ivy shade.

bold, Ye guardian saints! ye warrior sons of heaven, Those stormy seats the warrior Druses hold; To whose high care Judæa's state was given ! From Norman blood their lofty line they trace, O wont of old your nightly watch to keep, Their lion courage proves their generous race. A host of gods, on Sion's towery steep!

They, only they, while all around them kneel If e'er your secret footsteps linger still

In sullen homage to the Thracian steel, By Siloa's fount, or Tabor's echoing hill,

Teach ihcir pale despoi's waning moon to fear
If e'er your song on Salem's glories dwell, The patriot terrors of the mountain spear.
And moum the captive land you lov'd so well; Yes, valorous chiefs, while yet your sabres
(For, oft, 'tis said, in Kedron's palmy vale

shine,
Mysterious harpings swell the midnight gale, The native guard of feeble Palestine,
And, blest as balmy dews that Hermon cheer, Vever thus, by no vain boast dismay'd,
Melt in soft cadence on the pilgrim's ear;) Defend the birthright of the cedar shade!
Forgive, blest spirits, if a theme so high

What tho'no more for you the conscious gale Mock the weak notes of mortal minstrelsy;

Swells the white bosom of the Tyrian sail; Yet, might your aid this anxious breast inspire Tho' now no more your glittering maris unfold With one faint spark of Milton's seraph fire, Sidonian dyes and Lusitanian gold; Then should my Muse ascend with bolder flight, || Tho'no: for you the pale and sickly slave And wave her eagle-wing exulting in the light. Forge's the light in Ophir's wealthy cave;

O happy once in heaven's peculiar love, Yet your's the lot, in proud contentmeni blest, Delight of men below, and saints above!

Where cheerful labour leads to tranquil rest. Tho' Salem, now, the spoiler's ruffian hand No robber rage the ripening harvest knows; Has loos'd his hell-hounds o'er thy wasted land; And unrestrain'd the generous vintage flows: Tho' weak and whelm'd beneath the storms of Nor less your sons to manliest deeds aspire, fate,

And Asia's niountains glow with Spartan fire. Thy house is left unto thee desolate;

So when, deep sinking in the rosy main,

The western Sun forsakes the Syrian Plain, Having been favoured with a private copy

His watery rays refracted lustre shed, of this admirable Poem, it had long been our intention to insert it in our Magazine; many cir

And pour their latest light on Carmel's head. cumstances, however, have delayed it, till at

Yet shines your praise, amid surrounding length it has been announced for publication in

gloom, a Collection of the Oxford Prize Poems. Our

As the lone lainp that trembles in the tomb: Readers perhaps will not think it even now too

For, few the souls that spurn a tyrant's chain,

And small the bounds of freedom's scanty reign. late; they are therefore presente l with it entire.

As the poor outcast on the cheerless wild, The moon, obedient, trembled at the sound,
Arabia's parent, clasped her fainting child; Curb'd her pale car, and check'd her mazy round!
And wander'd near the roof no more her home, Let Sinai tell--for she beheld his might,
Forbid to linger, yet afraid to roam :

And God's own darkness veil'd her conscious My sorrowing Fancy quits the happier height,

height: And southward throws her half-averted sight. (He, cherub borne, upon the whirlwind rode, For sad the scenes Judæa's plains disclose, And the red mountain like a furnace glow'd:) A dreary waste of undistinguished woes :

Let Sinai tell but who shall dare recite See War untir'd his crimson pinions spread, His praise, his power, eternal, infinite ?-And foul Revenge that tramples on the dead! Awe-struck I cease; nor bid my strains aspire, Lo, where from far the guarded fountains shine, Or serve his altar with unhallow'd fire. Thy tents, Nebaioth, rise, and Kedar, thine; Such were the cares that watch'd o'er Israel's 'Tis your's the boast to mark the stranger's way,

fate, And spur your headlong chargers on the prey, And such ihe glories of their infant state. Or rouse your nightly numbers from áfur, -Triumphant race; and did your power decay? And on the hamlet pour the waste of war;

Faild the bright promise of

your early day? Nor spare the hoary head, nor bid your eye No;-ty that sword, which, red with heather Revere the sacred smile of infancy.

gore, Such now the clans, whose fiery coursers feed A giant spoil, the stripling champion bore; Where waves on Kishon's bank the whispering By him, the chief to farthest India kuown, reed;

The mighty master of the ivory throne; And their's the soil, where, curling to the skies, In heaven's own strength, high towering o'er her Smokes on Gerizim's mount Samaria's sacrifice.

foes, While Israel's sons, by scorpion curses driven, Victorious Salem's lion banner rose : Outcasts of earth, and reprobate of heaven, Before her footstool prostrate nations lay, Through the wide world in hopeless exile stray, And vassal tyrants crouch'd beneath her sway. Remorse and shame sole comrades of their way, -And he, the warrior sage, whose restless mind In dumb despair their country's wrongs behold, Through nature's mazes wander'd unconfin'd; And, dead to glory, only burn for gold.

Who every bird, and beast, and insect knew, 0 Thou, their Guide, their Father, and their And spake of every plant that quaffs the dew; Lord,

To himn were known—so Hagar's offspring tell-Lov'd for thy mercies, for thy power ador’d! The powerful sigil and the starry spell; If at thy name the waves forgot their force, The midnight call, hell's shadowy legions dread, And refluent Jordan sought his trembling source; And sounds that burst the slumbers of the dead. If at thy name like sheep the mountains fled, Hence all his might; for who could these oppose! And havghty Sirion bow'd his marble head; And Tadmor thus, and Syrian Balbec rose. To Israel's woes a pitying ear incline,

Yet e'en the works of toiling Genii fall, And raise from earth thy long-neglected vine ! And vain was Estakhar's enchanted wall. Her rified fruits behold the heathen bear,

In frantic converse with the mournful wind,
And wild wood boars her mangleil clusters tear. There oft the houseless Santon rests reclin'd;
Was it for this she stretch'd her peopled reign Strange shapes he views, and drinks with wonder
From far Euphrates to the western main ?
For this, o'er many a hill her bouglis she threw, The voices of the dead, and songs of other years.
And her wide arms like goodly cedars grew ? Such the faint echo of departed praise,
For this, proud Edom slept beneath her shade, Still sound Arabia's legendary lays;
And o'er th’ Arabian deep her branches play'd ? And thus their fabling burds delight to tell
O feeble boast of transitory power!

How lovely were thy tents, O Israel !
Vain, fruitless trust of Judah's happier hour! For thee his ivory load Behemoth bore,
Not such their hope, when through the partea | And far Sofala cee'd with golden ore;
main

Thine all the Arts that wait on wealth's increase,
The cloudy wonder led the warrior train : Or bask and wanton in the beam of peace.
Not such their hope, when thro’the fields of night | When Tyber slept beneath the cypress gloom,
The torch of heaven diffused its friendly light: And silence held the lonely woods of Rome;
Not, when fierce Conquest urg'd the onward war, Or ere to Greece the builder's skill was known,
And hurl'd stern Canaan from his iron car : Or the light chissel brush'd the Parian siune;
Nor, when five monarchs led to Gibeon's fight, Yet here fair Science nurs'd her infant fire,
In rude array, the harness'd Amorite:

Fann’d by the artist aid of friendly Tyre. Yesmin that hour, by mortal accents stay'd, Then tower'd the palace, then in awful state The lingering Sun his fiery wheels delay'd; The Temple rcar'd its everlasting gate.

ears

No workman steel, no ponderous axes rung; Ye faithful few, by bold affection led,
Like somie tall palm the noiseless fabric sprung. Who round the Saviour's cross your sorrows shed,
Majestic silence !-then the harp awoke, Not for his sake your tearful vigils keep ; -
The cymbal clang'd, the deep-voic'd trumpet Weep for your country, for your children weep!
spoke;

-Vengeance! thy flery wing their race pursu'd ;
And Salem spread her suppliant arms abroad, Thy thirsty poniard blush'd with infant blood.
Ey'd the descending fame, and bless'd the pre Rous'd at thy call, and panting still for game,
sent God.

The bird of war, the Latian eagle came. Nor shrunk she then, when, raging deep and Then Judah rag'l, belov'd of heaven no more, loud,

With steamy carnage drunk and social gore : Beat n'er her soul the billows of the proud. He saw his sons by dubious slaughter fall, E'en they who, dragg'd to Shinar's fiery sand, And war without, and death within the wall. Till’d with reluctant strength the stranger's land; Wide-wasting Plague, gaunt Famine, mad DeWho sadly told the slow-revolving years,

spair, And steep'd the captive's bitter bread with tears; And dire Debate, and clamorous Strife was there : Yet oft their hearts with kindling hopes would Love, strong as Death, retain'd his might no burn,

more, Their destin d triumphs, and their glad return: And the pale parent drank her children's gore. And their sıd lyres, which, silent and unstrung, Yet they, who wont to roam th’ensanguin'd In mournful ranks on Babei's willows hung,

plain, Would oft awake to chaunt their future fame, And spurn with fell delight their kindred slain; And from the skies their lingering Saviour claim. E'en they, when, high above the dusty Alight, His promis'd aid could every fear controul; Their burning Temple rose in lurid light, This nerv'd the warrior's arm, this steel'd the To their loved altars paid a parting groan, martyr's soul !

And in their country's woes forgot their own. Nor vain their hope:-bright beaming through As 'mid the cedar courts, and gates of gold, the sky,

The trampled ranks in miry carnage rollid; Burst in full blaze the Day-spring from on To save their Temple every hand essay'd, high;

And with cold fingers grasp'd the feeblc blade : Earth's utmost isles exulted at the sight,

Through their torn veins reviving fury ran, And crowding nations drank the orient light. And life's last anger warm’d the dying man. Lo, star-led chiefs Assyrian odours bring,

But heavier far the fetter'd captive's doom ! And bending Mugi seek their infant king! To glut with sighs the iron ear of Rome : Mark'd ve, where, hovering o'er his radiant head, | To swell, slow pacing by the car's tall side, The dove's white wings celestial glory shed ? The stoic tyrant's philosophic pride : Daughter of Sion! virgin queen! rejoice! To flesh the lion's ravenous jaws, or feel Clap the glad hand, and lift th' exulling voice! The sportive fury of the fencer's steel; He comes, but not in regalsplendour drest, Or pant, deep plung'd beneath the sultry mine, The haughty diadem, the Tyrian vest;

For the light gales of balmy Palestine Not arm'd in fame, all glorious from afar,

Ah! fruitful now no more,

,an empty coast,
Of hosts the chieftain, and the lord of war: She mourn'd her sons enslav'd, her glories lost :
Messiah comes : Jet furious discord cease; In her wide streets the lonely raven bred,
Be peace on earth before the Prince of Peace! There bark'd the wolf, and dire hyænas fed.
Disease and anguish feel his blest controul, Yet midst her towery fanes, in ruin laid,
And howling fiends release the tortur'd soul; The pilgrim saint his murmuring vespers paid ;
The beams of gladness hell's dark caves illume, 'Twas his to climb the tufted rocks, and rove
And Mercy broods above the distant gloom. The chequer'd twilight of the olive grove;
Thou palsied earth, with noonday night o'er- || 'Twas his to bend beneath the sacred gloom,
spread !

And wear with many a kiss Messiah's tomb:
Thou sickening sun, so dark, so deep, so red ! While forms celestial fill'd his tranced eye,
Ye hovering ghosts, that throng the starless air, The day-light dreams of pensive piety,
Why shakes the earth? why fades the light? de- | O'er his still breast a tearful fervour stole,
clare !

And softer sorrows charm'd the mourner's soul.
Are those his limbs, with ruthless scourges torn? Oh, lives there one, who mocks his artless zeal?
His brows, all bleeding with the twisted thorn? Too proud to worship, and too wise to feel ?
His the pale form, the meek forgiving eye Be his the soul with wintry Reason blest,
Rais'd from the cross in patient agony ?

The dull, lethargic sovereign of the breast! -Be dark, thou sun,-thou noonday night arise, Be his the life that creeps in dead repose, And hide, oh hide the dreadful sacrifice!

No joy that sparkles, and no tear that flows !

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