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sun: theref re we naturally infer, that they are taken in its aggregate magnificence, certainly suns like that which animates our system, and || imparts the most elevating thoughts, displays the created for the same wise and beneficiul pur- l profoundest evidences, and affords the most subposes.

Timely glorious spectacle of creating Wisdom! The stars appear of various sizes to us; but The varieties in the soil, climates, and the whes her this arises from any real difference of elementary parts which characterise our globe, size in them, or only from their being situated are perfectly adapted to the necessities of animal, more or less remote from our earth, we cannot vegetable and mineral natures, in their different determine; for we have no means of ascertaining | constitutions and species : of this, natural history their distances from our globe, not being able to furnishes the most striking instances, replete with form an angle with any of them ; yet we have | evidences of the wisdom and benevolence of the the best reason to believe that they are placed at

great Creator! different distances from it. The planets being

Whether we examine the minutest works of semetimes nearer to the sun than at others, their creating Power, or soar into the regions of exorbits must be elliptical; for the centripetal force, || panded ether, all things emit the purest rays of or attraction of the sun, acts with greater or less

Divine Intelligence! Did then the wise benepower on them, as they are nearer to that lumi- | ficent Creator of all the wonders we contemplate nary, or further removed from it. Were these mean we should behold them without under. bodies constantly acted on by two equal forcez ; standing the lesson they impart? Certainly not. or did the centripetal, or that force which He meant that the excellency of his works, them towards the sun, exactly balance the cen

made evident to our senses and comprehension, trifugal, or the force that impels them from that should be understood, and duly appreciated. centre; these bodies would revolve in a circle: Then surely to pass them unheeded by, must but Providence has so ordained, that these circu- bespeak either gross ignorance, or want of grace Jating worlds should be at different distances from in his creatures; for the sun at different periods, by causing sometimes the centripetal force to be greater and sometimes

The elements and seasons all declare less than the centrifugal; and hence it is the

For what th'e'ernal Maker has ordain'd planets vary in their distances from the sun in

The powers of man: we feel within our elves different parts of their orbits.

His energy divine: he tells the heart How fitly formed how duly balanced, is this He meant, he made us to behold and love wonderous system ! Each planet has its ap

What he beholds and loves the general orb poimed station and direction, and implicitly obeys

Of life and being; to be great like him, the laws prescribed by God Omnipotent!

Beneficent and active, Endless the wonders of creating power

Endless is the theme of universal love; for On earth; but chief on high : through heav'n || infinite is the scheme of Providence, unconfined display'a

by human laws, by human conception! The There shines the full magnificence

small portion of the works of Divine wisdom and Of Majesty divine; refulgent there

beneficence, the perfection of which is immediTen thousand suns blaze forth, with each his | ately within our view, strikes us with wonder, train

love and awe! A perfection so complete, so Of worlds dependent, all beneath the eye surpassing human reason, that to attempt to un. And equal rule of one eternal Lord.

derstand all its energies would destroy the limited

powers of created man; therefore those things 'Tis true, the mind is lost in the magnificent that we cannot appreciate, we must admire at a survey of innumerable worlds, impelled by divine due distance; conceiving, from what we do see, command, and revolving in the bosom of im the glories that for wise ends are now hidden mensity. The grand survey of the universe, | from our sight!


ORIGIN OF ARMS, OR COAT-ARMOURS. the ensign of their fathers house." Judah is com.

BLAZONRY, Heraldry, or the heraldic science, pared to a lion by Jacob; “Judah is a lion's is the art of displaying, or explaining, in proper

whelp;” the same is applied to Dan by Moses; terms, all that belongs to coats of arms, and of

but Heralds have determined that the distinction marshalling, or making up new ones when re between the coats of the two is, that the lion quired.

appropriated to Judali, was a lion couchant, or Arms, or coats of arms, are, first, ensigns, or dormant, according to the letter of the text marks of honour : secondly, hereditary; thirdly, recumbens durmisli ut lev,” he couched as a made up of fixed and deterinined figures and lion; and concludes that although an uncertainty colours; fourthly, taken up in the beginning ac. of arms, appropriated as above to particulars, curdwg to the fancy of the first bearers, and after seenis manifest, yet he makes no question of their wards, either granted or confirmed by sovereign antiquity, and mentions the shield of Achilles, princes, as a reward for military valour, a shining and of many other Greeks; and (according to viriue, or a signal public service, and which serve Vossius) the crow upon Corvinus's head was but to denote nobility and gentility; and, lastly, to the figure of that animal upon his helmet, as distinguish families, states, cities, dignities and examples of the antiquity of coats among the societies, civil, ecclesiastical, and military.

Greeks and Romans. Thus Heralelry is the science of which arms are

Others deduce their use from the heroic, or the proper object, or subject matter ; but yet fabulous times; because in Homer and Virgil we they differ much both in their origin, and anti

find that their heroes had divers figures engraved quity. Bara, Favin, and some others pretend on their shields; some place it under the cinpire that arms have been in use from the beginning of of the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, grounding the world! ; Segoin traces thein up to the times their opinion on Philostrates, Xenophon, and of Noah's sons; and after, Diodorus Siculus says, Quintus Curtius; others, without any foundation, that Osiris, surnamed Jupiter, son of Cham, who pretend that Alexander the Greai regulated armohad been cursed by his fat er Noah, being banish.

rial ensigns, and blazonry. Father Monet places ed from the tents of Shem and Japhet, raised an their rise under the reign of the Emperor Augustus; army under the command of his three sons, others during the inundations of the Goths and Hercules, Macedon, and Anubis; that Osiris Vandals; and others again, ascribe the methodizbore as a mark of royalty and sovereigniy, a ing of coat-armours to the Emperor Charlemaign. sceptre insigned at the top with an eye; Her. | Chorier, in his History of Dauphine, observes, cules, a lion rampan', holding a batile-as; that the Gauls had bucklers called tires, which Macedon, a wolf; and Anubis, a dog, which was covered their whole bodies, and on which every the rise or origin of armorial ensigns; others combatant caused his proper marks to be depicted place it no higher than the times of Moses and whereby he inight be easily known by his fellow Aaron. Sir George M‘Kenzie, a famous Scotch | soldiers; for which he quotes Pausanias: and armorist, refers it to the patriarch Jacob, who, this, according to Chorier, was the true origin of blessing his sons, gave them marks of distinction, the bearings of noble families. The saine author which the twelve tribes of Israel bore on their rightly says, that it would argue a great deal of ensigns; and Dr. Brown, in his Vulgar Errors, || ignorance to believe that the Romans were wholly says, the scutcheons of the twelve trives of Israel, ! strangers to ensigns or marks of honour; but that as they are usually described in the maps of

it would shew little less to maintain, that they Canaan, &c, are generally conceived to be the had any proper mark to distinguish each family. coats, and distinctive badges of their several tribes; | That they were not ignorant of Heraidry appears so Reubens is conceived to bear three bars wove; from Nonius Marcellus who


« that the Judalı, a lion rampant; Dan, a serpent trowed ; || Heralds or Feciales declared war, or proclaimed Simeon, a sword impale, the point erected, the peace, among the Romans, and it was not lawful ground whereof hes

ys is the last benediction of to ma ke war until four of them had demanded Jacob, and quotes Gen. chap. xxix. Numbers, satisfaction for the injury received, and declared chap. ii. to prove that many years after, in the war upon the refusal, throwing into the enemies benediction of Moses, that the twelve tribes had country a tagged spear, dyed in blood, and burnt their distinctive banners, “every man of the chil. at the end.” He also says, that they consisted of dren of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with a hundred and twenty in number, and that

K. Numa established a college of them under a

that he has seen a Chinese sculcheon, charged commander named Pater Patratus; and Tit. Liv. I with a panther, in a field Or. lib. i. mentionsthe ceremony used at the creation After a great variety of sentiments, all that can of that commander; and of the Heralds he says, | be said, with any solidity or certainty, is, that in that they touched their head and hair with vervain, || all ages men have made use of figures of living with which they were also crowned when they creatures, or other symbolical signs, to distinperformed their office, that they might be known, guish themselves in war, to denote the bravery and distinguished, and that they carried a rod and courage either of their chief, or their nation, of office which was exactly resembling Mercury's || and even to render themselves the more terrible caduceus, with two serpents twisted.

to their enemies; and Plutarch in his life of Spelman pretends that the Saxons, Danes, | Marius, observes that it was for that purpose, and Normans, brought them first from the north the Cimbri and Teutones, the antient inhabitants into England, and from thence into France. of the countries now called Jutland and Lower Others assert, that armorial ensigns are natural Saxony, bore the figures of fierce beasts on their and common to all nations in the universe, I shields, &c. and that those various figures were grounding their opinion on what Joseph Acosta, l used either as ornaments to their bucklers, and a Spanish writer, rela:es, that the antient Incas, or helmets, or as ensigns and standards, to know kings of Peru, bore a rainbow and two snakes in one another, and to rally after engagement. their arms; and those of Mexico, a hand holda

[To be continuerl.] ing many arrows of reeds. Another author says,


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To examine the first dawnings of imitation, | above recorded. Such were the first rude efforti. those uncultivated and un taught efforts of natural Egyptian hieroglyphics are, perhaps, the most genius, is amusing and interesting; the specimens antient specimens now extant; these are simple are often curious, and mark the characters of the outlines; other arts had made considerable adpeople. Such disquisition may lead us to trace, vances, while this remained in its infancy; the with greater certainty, the different styles adopted mind was either not at leisure to attempt emamongst various nations, and in different ages, bellishment, or else it required a higher degree with respect to dress, buildings, and the arts in of cultivation to produce that improvement of general, which have been materially influenced which the art was susceptible, than to mature by, if not originally derived from, the peculiar, many of the sciences. But when the enlightened genius, disposition, or character of the people in | genius of Greece rose to its meridian splendour, their primitive state.

arts, as well as arms, attained the pinnacle of As man had occasion for images of different perfection. If we might judge of their painting, objects, he doubtless made use of the most ob. which has perished, by their sculpture, which is vious helps to acquire their shapes; when the happily preserved to us, or by the eulogia of thing itself could not be applied, and thus traced history, their excellence if ever equalled, has upon the wall or floor intended to be adorned, I never been surpassed. That the moderns how. other means were tried : shadow, which distinctly ever have carried painting still farther may be gives the form of bodies, it is natural to suppose, presumed, when we recollect the small catalogue might suggest the most ready method of obtain- of colours they possessed, and the ignorance ing a likeness. And we have, at this day, artists, they betray in perspective. as they are called, who can go little farther than The attention of Grecian artists was princimechanically to reduce into a smaller compass, pally, if not wholly, attached to those subjects the outline thus taken. Pliny and Quinctilian which engaged the passions and affections of derive hence the origin of design.

mankind; to enrich their temples, to represent The former affirms, “ that a young woman, | their demi-gods, their heroes, and thuse heroic struck with her lover's resemblance, thrown dis- || actions, the sublime themes of their poets and tinctly on the wall by a lamp, drew the outline." || historians, were, with them, the chief objects for The latter relates that a Shepherd thus obtained the exercise of their exalted powers. The the likeness of a sheep; the method was ob- valuable remains, handed down to us, of that vious, and such instances, no doubt, repeatedly celebrated age and country, exhibit the most ex. occurred, possibly long before the two which arequisite skill, directed by the profoundest judga No. XIV. Vol. II.


ment in representing the human figure, and all || efforts were made to please the nation with subsubjects that could be fixed under the artists' || jects less elevated, but more immediately interesteye.

Either these important studies entirely | ing; to hand down to posterity the valuable porengaged their pursuit, or the difficulty of ac trait of some distinguished patriot; to present curately delineating those innumerable objects to distant nations, the countenance of tha: hero, which compose the general views of nature, of who had saved his country in the day of danger; catching all their variations, in form and colour, | to preserve, in an antient family, the resemin light and shade, might deter them from so blance of an illustrious ancestor ; to pourtray the arduous an attempt; and thus these views became historian, the poet, or the actor, who had inthe latest subjects of painting after the revival of structed or delighted the public; or the parent, the art. The human figure as they could fix, relative, or the friend who was dear to the indithey could study, and glorious was the result of vidual; these were desirable and laudable obtheir study! grand the designs of their artists,jects of painting; and hence portrait painting inspired by the conceptions of their poets ! ac

arose. This requires not all the excellencies of curate their attention to nature! tu nature in her history, but it requires excellencies of a different inost vigorous, most beautiful state; by judiciously kind, and not less difficult to attain. The desire combining every perfection they discerned, the of the patron, and the inclination of the artist, pieces they produced were perfect! but to painted the latter to attempt every subject that could the sun rising in gilded radiance, or setting with gratify opulent vanity, or exercise industrious refulgent majesty, was reserved for the pencil of ingenuity. The favourite houses, horses, and a Claude.

hounds, were desirable objects to the one; to the To the antients then we must have recourse other, the stately grove, dismantled tower, and for those models which are the standard of per- rustic homestead afforded subjects interesting, fection, and which will most eminently assist in delightful, and happily adapted for the pencil; studying the human figure, or forming the the patron paid for all. By degrees a taste for historic group, and in pursuing that idea of ex landscape prevailed; which, though less dignified, cellence which they ever had before their eyes. is not less difficult than either portrait or history :

Varinus causes have contributed to in!roduce perhaps as many excellencies are necessary to be at different periods, other species of representa combined to reach perfection, in the one as in the tion. When assiduous practice, the spirit of other; and perhaps it will be found, that conresearch, and studied or fortunate discoveries, | sidering the number who have followed this line, had rendered the mechanical part of the pro- in which mediocrity is easier to be attained, a fession more attainable, and when the taste and smaller proportion of the artists have eminently genius of the times afforded less encouragement | distinguished themselves. or fewer occasions for the pencil of history,

[To be continued.]


[Concluded froin Page 38 )

ON THE ART OF PLAYING THE PIANO-FORTE. parate performer, is difficult; and this difficulty is

CONCERNING the question, whether a learner increased, and multiplied, by the necessity of ought in general, and often, to play with accom

aitending to the accompaniments when used, paniments ? it must be observed, that though, and of going on with them in sir.ct time. judiciously composed, and well performed pieces,

When therefore a learner plays with accomwitii accompaniments, have a fine effect, they priments, he feels a certain constraint and can be used only for the enjoyment of playing, anxiety, which makes himn pass but superficially and not for the learning of it.

over all that he finds difficult, or omit tho.e notes To shew this, it need only be considered, that chords, and parts of passages, which he is afruid the most simple and most easy pieces for the to encounter. And such a manner of helping piano forte consist at least of two parts, one for himself in difficulties, together with the improper the right, and another for the left hand; and that application of the fingers attending it, becomes more complicated ones contain harmonies, which habitual, and inaterially injures a learner in fine on other instruments would require two or playing, under the false idea of improving his more performers. To read such pieces, in two acquiremenis in time. siaves of the notes, and to execute them as neatly All the greatest masters of the piano-forto and exac:ly as is every part was done by a se therefore agree, that a person can learn true play

ing only by playing without accompaniments. | ment, cannot be expected to exceed that time of And it will be found, that only those professors daily practice; though it would be improper to of other instruments, who either have no feeling prevent them to practise as much as they like, for a finishel performance in general, or are un if they wish to become proficients in playing. able to show it on the piano-forte, are constantly Concerning the question noticed before, fiddling or Auring to the lessons they give on that whether it is good for a learner to be long about instrument. The consequence of which is, that the same piece, or not? it is certain, that as long their attendance only sounds well, but is of little as a person takes instruction, his principal object service; and that their pupils generally remain || is to improve, and to become perfect as soon as unacquainted with the best compositions for the possible, though bie also wishes to find as much piano-forte, as well as with a line and finished | enjoyment in it as he can. performance on that instruinent.

It is therefore equally wrong, to indulge a But when a person has learnt a piece so well, | learner with a great variety of pieces that are not that he can with certainty and facility execute calculate! to produce a regular improvement, or every passage of it, there is not the least impro to let him set about pieces which are yet too priety in his playing it with accompaniments. | difficult for him, and which, (if he can overAnd nothing can in that case be more emulat come them at all) require too long a time to be ing, and more improving in taste, than his learnt sufficiently perfect. And a judicious master being accompanierl masterly, on a violino obli will be particularly careful in selecting for his gato, provided the accompaniment leave him at pupil pieces, by which he can make a quick and the same ease as if he played by himself.

regular as well as entertaining progress, without The question, how long a learner should prac- || being troubled too much with the same piece. tise every day? is also important, as we shall now An occasional suggestion, which follows from endeavour to shew. For though it seems to be the above question is :- whether a learner may generally thought, that the more one practises be suffered to play by heart, or not? Concerning the better it is, reason and daily experience tell this it must be observed, that the capacity of reus, that there depends more on the quality of membering a piece, so as to be able to play it such practice, than on the quantity of it; and by heart, shews two good qualities, viz. a fine that if a person practises longer than he can pay memory, and a true musical feeling. To disstrict attention to what he plays, it is not only | courage such qualities entirely, would be cruel. useless, but often does more harm than good, by But to prevent their being misapplied, by neleading to a careless and unattentive playing. glecting the playing from notes, in playing too

Infants of four or five years therefore, though much from memory, it is expedient to introduce (according to the method explained at page 37 a new piece as soon as the former one is suffiof our last Number), they make a regular begin- || ciently practised, and thus to keep the learner's ning, and imperceptibly learn to play by notes, attention constantly employed, which leaves no yet they ought not to be made to practise by room for his dwelling too much upon former exthemselves; and when they are animated to play | ercises. to a parent or friend, it should last no longer than The above are the outlines of a proper me. they are found doing it with proper attention, || thod, according to which the art of playing the and with pleasure or satisfaction to themselves, | piano forte should be taught, or learnt, in gene. though they may be called to the instrument as ral. And we now proceed to the second prinfrequently as it can be done without letting | cipal object peinted before, viz. to the performance them feel it a trouble.

itself. In regard to this it must be observed, Children of six and seven years, may be tried

that there is a great difference between mere if they can regularly practise a short line by vulgar, and finished playing ; be'ween playing themselves, when pieces are given them that are only mechanically right, or with taste and feelstrictly calculated for their capacity; and in that ing; and between shining only in some trifles of case they may be allowed from a quarter to half | fashionable playing, or being an able and judi. an hour, twice a day, besides their playing oc cious performer in general. These particulars casionally to their friends, to shew their improve- || therefore we shall still give some consideration. ment.

Concerning the first, or the difference between From eight years and upwards, the time of mere vulgar and finished playing, it is certain practise may be gradually increased, according that the same attention should be paid to it as to the leisure which learners have between their to what is better or worse in all the other other employments, and to the perseverance branches of a fine and polished education. For which is found in them, till it comes to an hour, a clownish pronunciation, vulgar phrases, unboth in the morning and afternoon. But young grammatical sentences, and a scrawling hand, ladies who learn music only as an accomplish. would be thought very unbecoming in the speak.

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