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DEF. 83.-A Relative Pronoun is a Pronoun used to introduce a Sentence which qualifies its own antecedent. EXAMPLES.-1. The youth who was speaking, was applauded.

2. We saw the man whom you described.

3. "Mount the horse which I have chosen for thee."

4. There is something in their hearts which passes speech.

OBS. 1.-In Example (1), "who" relates to "youth," and introduces the Auxiliary Sentence (“who was speaking,") whose office it is to describe "


The word "who" not only introduces the Adjunct Sentence, but is also an Element in that Sentence-a Principal Element-the Subject.

In Example (2), "whom you described," is an Auxiliary Sentence, used to describe or point out a particular "man"; "whom" introduces that Adjective Sentence, is the object of " described," and relates to

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The Words used as Relative Pronouns are, who, which, that, and what. OBS. 2.-The Words as and than are sometimes, by ellipsis, used as Relative Pronouns.

EXAMPLES.-1. "Such as I have give I unto thee.

2. "We have more than heart could wish."

But, generally, on supplying the ellipsis, we may make those words supply the offices of Prepositions or of Conjunctions. Thus,

1. "I give unto thee such [things] as [those which] I have."

2. "We have more [things] than [those things which] heart could wish."

OBS. 3.- Who is varied in Declension to indicate the Cases only. Which, that, and what, are not declined. But the word whose is also used as the Possessive of which.

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Whose is always a definitive, attached to Nouns, and may relate to

persons or to things; as, "Whose I am, and whom I serve."-" Whose Lody Nature is, and God the soul."

OBS. 4.- Who is applied to man, or to beings supposed to posses intelligence.

EXAMPLES.-He who studies will excel those who do not. "He whom sea-severed realms obey."

OBS. 5.—Which and what are applied to brute animals and to things. EXAMPLES.-The books which I lost. The pen which I use, is good. We value most what costs us most.

OBS. 6. That is applied to man or to things.

EXAMPLES.-Them that honor me, I will honor.
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That you so oft have boasted to retain."-Lear.

OBS. 7.-What, when used as a Relative, is always compound; and is equivalent to that which, or the things which.

The two Elements of this Word never belong to the same Sentence; one part introduces a Sentence which qualifies the antecedent part of the same word.

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"Our proper bliss depends on what we blame."

In this example, "what" is a Compound Relative, equivalent to the two words, that which. That, the Antecedent part, is the object of "on;" which," the Relative part, is the object of "blame." The Auxiliary sentence, we blame which," is used to qualify "that." [See page 00, Diagram 00.]

OBS. 8.—The Compounds, whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, and whatsoever, are construed similarly to what.


DEF. 84. An Interrogative Pronoun is a Pronoun used to ask a question.

EXAMPLES.-"Who will show us any good?"

"Which do you prefer?"

"What will satisfy him?"


OBS. 1.-The Interrogative Pronouns are,

Who,........applied to man.

Which....applied to man or to things.


OBS. 2.-A Sentence is made Interrogative,

1. By a transposition of the Principal Elements,—the Predicate being placed before its Subject.

EXAMPLES.-Will you go?

"Did Claudius waylay Milo?"

2. By the use of an Interrogative Pronoun.

EXAMPLES.-"What will a man give in exchange for his soul!" "Who will show us any good?"

OBS. 3.—The Antecedent-technically so called-of an Interrogative Pronoun, is the Word which answers the question.

EXAMPLES.-Who gave the valedictory?


Whom shall we obey? Your parents.

OBS. 4.- Which and what are often used as Interrogative Adjectives. EXAMPLES.-Which book is yours? "What evil hath he done?"

OBS. 5.—A Word which asks a question is to be construed as is the Word which answers it.

EXAMPLES.-Who has the book? John [has the book.]

Whose book is it? [It is] William's [book.]

"Who" is the Subject of the Sentence given; hence in the Nominative Case.

"John" is the Subject of a similar Sentence; hence in the Nominative Case.

"William's" describes "book"; hence an Adjunct of “book.”

"Whose" has the same construction; hence an Adjunct of book."


DEF. 85.-An Adjective Pronoun is a Definitive Word, used to supply the place of the Word which it limits.

EXAMPLE." Some [ ] said one thing, and some, another” [ ].

OBS. 1.—In this Example, “some” defines people (understood), and is, therefore, used Adjectively. It is substituted for the Word "people," constituting the Subject of the Sentence; hence it is used Substantively. But the Substantive office being the principal office, the Word is properly called a Pronoun. Its secondary office being Adjective, it is properly called an Adjective Pronoun.

OBS. 2.-An Adjective Pronoun always performs, at the same time, two distinct offices-an Adjective office and a Substantive office; and it may have, at the same time, an Adjective and an Adverbial Adjunct.

EXAMPLE." The professedly good are not always really so." "Good" describes people (understood), thus performing an Adjective office.

"Good" is the Subject of the Sentence; hence a Substantive.

As a Substantive, "good" is limited by the Adjective “the.”

As an Adjective, "good" is modified by the Adverb, "professedly."

OBS. 3.-Words thus used are, by some grammarians, called "Pro nominal Adjectives." We prefer the term, "Adjective Pronoun," because the Principal office is Substantive-the Adjective office being secondary in the structure of Sentences and Phrases.

OBS. 4.-The following Words are often thus used:

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Most specifying and all qualifying Adjectives may be thus used.

EXAMPLES.-"The good alone are great." "The poor respect the rich." "One step from the sublime to the ridiculous."

OBS. 5.-Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are used-in common with other Definitives—substantively, i. e., as the Representatives of Nouns, which it is their primary office to specify. They are then properly called Adjective Pronouns

EXAMPLES." He is a friend of mine." "Thine is the kingdom." "Theirs had been the vigor of his youth."


1. "Brutus and Aruns killed each other."

2. "Thou shalt be all in all, and I in thee."-Milton.

3. "They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties."

4. "Teach me to feel another's woe, to hide the fault I see;

The mercy I to others show, that mercy show to me."-Pope.

5. "Who are the called, according to his purpose."



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