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THE GERMAN RAILROADS.

had ever known anything better than a There is no longer the necessity, for deblazing brand as a method for illumin- signing locomotives so that they will be ation at night; and had never had either equally suitable for passenger and freight, the knowledge, the desire or the means of and we expect now to see more attention obtaining anything superior. But at paid to the details that contribute to make last, through contract with and employ- an engine economical and efficient on onement on the American railroad, the de kind of work. The next improvement sire, the opportunity, the means to pur- we look for is larger exhaust ports and chase, and the knowledge of the simple more ample emission passages through mechanism of the lamp, had come to the saddle. The day is coming when all this humble, isolated Mexican peasant; locomotives shall have long exhaust pipes and out of the germ of progress thus ending in a single nozzle. Large exhaust spontaneously as it were, developed by passages are necessary to prevent back the wayside, may come influences more pressure in the cylinders where a single potent for civilization and the elevation nozzle is used. of humanity in Mexico than all that church and state have been able to effect in the last three centuries.

Turkey is very poorly supplied with railways. With a population of over 42,000,000 and an area of some 2,406,000.

square miles or nearly 80 per cent. of In Germany the government controls the area of the United States-her railand operates all railroads but one. The way system at last accounts aggregated plan has been in operation two or three less than 1,100 miles, of which a little years, and while it is profitable to the over 900 miles were in Turkey in Eugovernment, the revenue derived from rope. There has been talk lately of some railroad sources being greater than the extensions, and a cable dispatch says that appropriations for railroad purposes, still a syndicate of Paris and Berlin bankers I am convinced that competing private has subscribed 600,000,000 francs ($120,corporations serve the interesa of the 000,000) to carry out a scheme sanctioned. people better. Both passenger and freight by the Sultan for a railway to connect rates are higher in Germany than in this the Black sea with the Persian gulf. country. There is a disposition on the There is room enough and there are peocontinent to put all railroad service on ple enough in Turkey, both in Europe the same footing as the postal service in and Asia, for a much greater railway sysGreat Britain. I found a tendency toward tem, though whether it would pay to the abandonment of the second-class build it is a serious question. Turkish grade of traveling. The idea is to retain civilization is not far enough advanced to the first and third-class coaches and add appreciate the locomotive very substana fourth class coach, which is simply an

tially. empty baggage car without seats, where the passenger has his choice of standing or using a portable stool.

The shops of the Great Western divi. sion of the Grand Trunk, in Hamilton,

Ont., are now building some heavy pasIn some locomotives that he has de senger engines. The engines have 6-foot R. H. Soule has made the eccentric der to give proper support to the piston, R. H. Sonry passenger service, Mr. drivers, and 19x24 inch cylinders. In orthrow six inches. He thinks the disad- and prevent it dragging on the bottom of vantages connected with the long valve the cylinder, the piston rod is prolonged travel will be more than compensated for through the front cover, and, therefore, by the prompt and wide opening which supported at each end by suitable bushes. the valve will have when cutting off and glands. This device is used in many short. We believe that American loco- large marine and stationary engines, but motive designers have, as a rule, made is on locomotives the revival of an old the valve travel too short, principally be practice which was used on some eastern cause most of the locomotives are used roads twenty five or thirty years ago. It in freight service, where there is no diffi- is now often used in Germany and culty in getting the steam fast enough | France. The result of the experiment on into the cylinders at the speeds of piston the Great Western will be awaited with which have been common in the past. I considerable interest.

ally the truth of the old fable of the Donnespondence.

bundle of sticks, and know by experi

ence that unless we are united we are WANTED-A BROTHERHOOD OF PROGRES- powerless. SION.

We have for many years been avowMESSRS. EDITORS: The great need of edly a conservative Brotherhood, rarely the B. of L. E. at the present time would taking any important steps towards seem to be that of progression; progres- progression, and only a radical change sion that would pursue the path of re- of policy will convert them into a proform from love of reform itself, and not gressive Brotherhood. Many, however, in obedience to the popular clamor. Re- are determined on having certain reforms forms of various kinds are now urgently effected, and they will not much longer needed, and they can be properly dealt endure a policy of inaction; and are dewith only by Brothers earnestly devoted termined on a career of progress. Alto the work. We want the system of ready material progress has been wonderclassification expunged; we want less dis. ful, and intellectual and moral progress cussion on this subject and more pro

will not long delay. Brothers, then, gress; and many other matters of more would do well to give heed to this fact. or less importance which demand treat- It is of slight importance, comparatively, ment in the near future, Nor is it for who wins the election next October, but the near future alone that progress is it is a question of no little interest what needed, but for as long a time as the stand will be taken in the path of proBrotherhood continues to progress. The gress in the years to come. If the Brothprogress of the Brotherhood does not de- ers are wise they will look beyond the pend exclusively, nor even mainly, upon present year and the conditions of immeexisting agencies; yet it cannot continue diate success, and will adopt a policy that for an indefinite period without injury will bring into harmony the progressive being done. With the lapse of time, tendencies of the Organization, and make abuses grow up that require to be re- it a potent agency in promoting its fumoved; old institutions grow obsolete ture destiny. and new laws are required to meet the

Brother Arthur, in one of his editorials exigencies of advancing progression, and says:

" This is an age of progress, and unless these wants are supplied, the pro

there can be no such thing as standing gress of the Brotherhood will be impeded. still; we must, as a natural consequence, This being the case, the need of the either go forward or backward, and it is Brotherhood to progress is obvious, for for ourselves to determine which it shall on no others can they depend to do the be, and our acts, not our words, are what work required. Those Brothers who we shall be judged by. How is it to be take no interest in progression, and will done? By strict compliance with the renot take a step in advance until driven quirements of our Constitution and Byby public opinion to so, are wholly inad-Laws; by doing our whole duty, and exequate to do the work, but yet this seems

acting nothing short of it from our to be the only kind we have in the coun

Brothers.”

OLD RELLABLE. try now. The enormous strides which material progression is at present making MESSRS. EDITORS: The new valve moonly adds to the trouble; steam, electric- tion for the distribution of steam into and ity and the press have been doing their out of locomotive cylinders, now in use leveling work; we have learned practic-l on the Chicago & Alton R. R., is the in.

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vention of William Wilson, Superintend of the exhaust. The slide valves are ent of Machinery. The results obtained small and of multiple-port form, or what by this motion, both in freight and pas- some authorities call the grid-iron valve. senger service, are first class. The' ad- The travel of the steam valve is three vantage gained by the use of this gear and one-half inches, and the travel of the is the saying of fuel. The indicator cards exhaust is two inches. Size of cylinder from an engine on which this motion has for which these valves are used is sevenbeen employed show an entire absence teen inches diameter and twenty-four of back pressure until the exhaust closes, inches stroke. The motion of both valves which occurs at 79 per cent. of the stroke. is derived from one eccentric, but yet the This motion can be adapted to the present construction is such that each valve will style of locomotive using one valve, or have a separate and distinct movement with two valves, one for admission and from the other, cutting off purposes, and the other for Mr. Wilson's calculations at the outset exhaust opening and closing. This mo- were to do away with fully 50 per cent. tion has shown by actual practice extra- of the compression produced by the “D” ordinary good results. Indicator cards valve in a six inch notch, and to effect a taken from the double valve engine are gain of 50 per cent. in expansion. That unprecedented in locomotive practice. this great gain was well calculated has

The engines that are equipped with this been fully verified, for all the cards taken gear are doing extra good work with the with a Crosby indicator show there is no heaviest passenger trains leaving the city back pressure, and that the steam was of Chicago, and in like manner wih parted with nearly and more frequently freight trains. The engines equipped with on the atmospheric line. The fact is, it this gear are attracting a great deal of would be difficult to obtain much better attention from experts in valve motion. cards” from the Corliss type of engines. There is no doubt that great good has at various dates since May, 1882, the been accomplished in the introduction same engine with a “D” valve was of this motion.

tested. Some improvements, however, The great aim in this motion is to pro- had of course been added from time to duce a valve gear with which the point time. The present motion shows a conof cutting off steam in the cylinder can sumption of nearly 50 per cent. less of be changed without interfering with or fuel than when running with the linkand changing the action of the exhaust; and “D” valve. No.“ 43,” with these imalso to obtain a constant lead, at what-provements, made a speed record of 62} ever point the steam in the cylinder may miles per hour, and runs in the four-inch be cut off. In order to obtain this result, notch as well as it did in the eight-inch two slide valves in each steam chest are notch before. No.“ 43" is a trim and used; the duty of one is to admit the handsome engine, handles a train quickly steam into the cylinder and also to cut and easily. Its speed is limited by the off the steam in the same. This valve load and ability of the wheels to turn we might call the steam valve. The oth- arourd, but not by not being able to get er valve controls the opening of the ex- rid of the steam. Exhausting the steam haust and the closure ; this valve we cuts: no figure. This new motion and would call the exhaust valve. The de-double valves get rid of it. sign of the exhaust valve is such that the It certainly looks now as if the link opening of the exhaust will occur at 92 and “D” valve had a dangerous rival. per cent., and the closure at 79 per cent., In making these radical alterations Mr.

Wilson has stood comparatively alone, justice to the good things, of which there many discrediting his ability to even was plenty, the Brothers and sisters deequal the old devices. And now that he parted for their respective homes, well has fully demonstrated that this new de- pleased with the events of the evening; parture is a decided success and improve the first of the kind in the history of the ment, and one meriting commendation, Brotherhood in this city, J. F. W. he ought to be reasonably happy. Yours fraternally,

MESSRS. EDITORS: One of the most F. O., DIv. 19.

pleasant and successful of entertainments

of the season was given by the wives, MESSRS. EDITORS: Forest City Divi- sisters and daughters of the members of sion No. 318 was organized August 1st, Fort Gratiot Division No. 122, at Fort by Brother C. H. Richards, C. E. We Gratiot, Mich., on the evening of Sepnow have a membership of fifty and ex- tember 16th, the occasion being the repect in the near future to increase that at ception given at the dedication of the least one-third. At our last regular meet- new hall, which was filled with the elite ing, held September 18th, we were hon- of the city and distinguished guests from ored with a visit from our worthy Grand Port Huron, Point Edwards and Detroit, Chief and F. G. A. E., who favored us The genial Chief of 122, Bro. J. D. with an extended account of the present Brintnell, presided. The ladies presentcondition of our noble Organization and ed the following unique programme in a the good work done by it during the past superb and faultless manner: year.

Quartette-Jr. and Mrs. Gill and the Misses As we were about to adjourn, imagine angrove.

Prayer-Rer. D. H. Goodvillie. our surprise to hear announced by the S.

Quartette-Messrs. Garbutt, Burwell, SpenE., that a delegation of ladies were in the cer and Cumberland.

Recitation Miss Carrie Manhard. ante-room and wished to be admitted.

Song-Miss Fannie Reid. Upon the order of the Chief the door and Mr. Angrove.

Quartette-Messrs. J. Gill, G. Gill, T. Keene, was opened, and in filed about forty la- Song-Bliss Kate Jamieson.

Recitation-Miss Belle Renwick, dies, the wives of the members. After the usual formalities, Mrs. Wm. Riter

Mrs. T. Gravell, in behalf of the wives and Mrs. J. C. Ferguson stepped forward of the members, presented the lodge with and requested our worthy Grand Chief a massive and elegantly bound Bible, in to present to the Division, on behalf of a clear and distinct voice, as follows: the wives of its members, a handsome Chief Engineer and Members of Dio. Bible and bookmark, the gifts of the ladies 122.-It gives me great pleasure to repin general; also a beautiful altar-cloth, the resent the committee, and in behalf of gift of Mrs. M. V. Sprague. The G. C. the wives of the members of this Lodge, presented the articles in a very appropri- to present to you this Bible, as a very ate speech, which was responded to by slight token of our respect and esteem. Brother J. B. Brown on behalf of the May it prove a lamp to your feet and a Division. The ladies then requested us light to your pathway through life, and to accompany them across the street, may you live long to enjoy the benefits where, thanks to their thoughtfulness, a derived from being members of this very nice lunch had been provided, which Order.” was presided over by Mrs. C. H. Rich- Chief Engineer J. D. Brintnell reards, Mrs. J. M. Filkins, Mrs. C. E. Kel- sponded in a few well-chosen remarks, ley and Mrs. J.J. McNally. After doing thanking the ladies for this token of es

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teem, and assured them that it was high up by Mrs. J. Dillon, and pinned on by ly appreciated.

the charming Bouquet Committee, Misses The other gifts were as follows: Vina Brintnell and Susie Wright. Every

Mrs. J. D, Brintnell, a handsome floral one expressed themselves as delighted “E,” very beautiful in design, and with the reception and the really royal placed on the wall, just over the rostrum. manner in which they were entertained,

Mrs. S. A. Dillon, exquisite Bible and all departed for their homes reluctant marker, of satin ribbon, gold fringed, to leave the enjoyable and fascinating with the initials “B. of L. E. Div. 122" scene.

Fraternally yours, painted by hand.

Η. Η. Ρ. Mrs. F. Buckpitt, framed photograph of Portland engine No. 61.

MESSRS. EDITORS: In the columns of J. L. Dingwall, a most beautifully de- the JOURNAL I see a good deal about alsigned and illuminated chart of the Or- bitration and organizations. I am in fader, framed in gilt, also a framed photo-vor of the principle of arbitration, but it graph of engine No. 57.

is that arbitration which grows out of Miss Maggie Nicholl, very pretty that spirit of conciliation and enlightenframed motto, “Industry, Sobriety and ed judgment, which will bring the emMorality,” worked on canvas, in pleasing ployer and the employed together in the colors.

spirit of mutual forbearance and concesSpeeches were delivered by several of sion. our citizens. Prof. Parker's remarks

Legislative arbitration has ever been were pithy, well-timed and listened to a failure; even voluntary arbitration, with marked attention and applause. so far as labor is concerned, is only Rev. D. H. Goodwillie also addressed the effective when the men are backed by audience in his usual happy style. efficient and powerful organization. I

After the exercises were concluded, believe that the International Brotherthe Masonic Hall adjoining was thrown hood of Locomotive Engineers is a open for the accommodation of the higher class of organized labor, and that guests, and gave ample room for all to we ought to look upward and onward. enjoy themselves without restraint.

I am willing to leave this question to The ladies fairly outdid themselves in organized labor, and in these organizapreparing the refreshments, which were tions the friction of mind upon mind tastily spread out on tables in the ante- will brighten intellect, and enable labor rooms. Huge cakes, of endless variety, to see with clearer vision the evils that and other delicacies in great abundance, beset it, and the remedies best applicable intermingled with beautiful bouquets, for their eradication; and their power provided by Mrs. J. D. Brintnell, the and prestige will have a mollifying effect chairman of the ladies' committee, added upon the selfishness of capital, and enlargely to the inviting appearance the able employers also to see with clearer sumptuous repast presented, and the vision the right course to pursue. other ladies comprising the committee, believe in organization. It was said Mrs. T. Gravel, Mrs. J. Dillon, Mrs. J. of old that knowledge is power. What Rae, Mrs. T. French, and Mrs. H. is knowledge but organized thought? O'Dell, succeeded admirably in making Organized thought has hurled tyrants every one feel perfectly “tew hum." from the pinnacles of power they reached

Every gentleman was presented with a through human blood; has struck the lovely button-hole bouquet, tastily made shackles from the limbs of the slave, and

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