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day appointed he opened the new debate upon tify opposition. But while the Democrats as a it in an earnest speech. General discussion party thus persisted in a false attitude, more profollowed from time to time, occupying perhaps gressive members had the courage to take inhalf the days of the month of January. As at dependent and wiser action. Not only did the the previous session, the Republicans all fa- four Democrats — Moses F. Odell and John vored, while the Democrats mainly opposed it, A. Griswold, of New York; Joseph Baily, of but the important exceptions among the latter Pennsylvania ; and Ezra Wheeler, of Wisconshowed what immense gains the proposition sin— who supported the amendment at the had made in popular opinion and in congres- first session again record their votes in its favor, sional willingness to recognize and embody but they were now joined by thirteen others it. The logic of events had become more pow- of their party associates, namely: Augustus C. erful than party creed or strategy. For fifteen Baldwin, of Michigan; Alexander H. Coffroth years the Democratic party had stood as sen- and Archibald McAllister, of Pennsylvania ; tinel and bulwark to slavery; and yet, despite James E. English, of Connecticut; John Ganits alliance and championship, the peculiar in- son, Anson Herrick, Homer A. Nelson, Willstitution was being consumed like dry leaves iam Radford, and John B. Steele, of New in the fire war. For a whole decade it had York; Wells A. Hutchins, of Ohio; Austin A. been defeated in every great contest of con- King and James S. Rollins, of Missouri; and gressional debate and legislation. It had with- George H. Yeaman, of Kentucky; and by their ered in popular elections, been paralyzed by help the favorable two-thirds vote was secured. confiscation laws,crushed by Executive decrees, But special credit for the result must not be trampled upon by marching Union armies. accorded to these alone. Even more than of More notable than all, the agony of dissolution Northern Democrats must be recognized the had come upon it in its final stronghold - the courage and progressive liberality of members constitutions of the slave States. Local pub- from the border slave States - one from Delalic opinion had throttled it in West Virginia, in ware, four from Maryland, three from West Missouri, in Arkansas, in Louisiana, in Mary- Virginia, four from Kentucky, and seven from land; and the same spirit of change was upon Missouri, whose speeches and votes aided the Tennessee, and even showing itself in Ken- consummation of the great act; and, finally, tucky. Here was a great revolution of ideas, something is due to those Democrats, eight a mighty sweep of sentiment, which could not in number, who were absent without pairs, be explained away by the stale charge of sec- and thus, perhaps not altogether by accident, tional fanaticism, or by alleging technical irreg- reduced somewhat the two-thirds vote necesularities of political procedure. Here was a sary to the passage of the joint resolution. mighty flood of public opinion, overleaping old Mingled with these influences of a public barriers and rushing into new channels. The and moral nature it is not unlikely that others Democratic party did not and could not shut of more selfish interest, operating both for and its eyes to the accomplished facts. “In my against the amendment, were not entirely wantjudgment," said Mr. Holman of Indiana, "the ing. One, who was a member of the House, fate of slavery is sealed. It dies by the rebel- writes : lious hand of its votaries, untouched by the
The success of the measure had been considered law. Its fate is determined by the war; by the
very doubtful, and depended upon certain negotiameasures of the war; by the results of the war. tions the result of which was not fully assured, and These, sir, must determine it, even if the Consti- the particulars of which never reached the public.2 tution were amended."1 He opposed the amendment, he declared, simply because it was
So also one of the President's secretaries unnecessary. Though few other Democrats wrote on the 18th of January: were so frank, all their speeches were weighed I went to the President this afternoon at the down by the same consciousness of a losing request of Mr. Ashley, on a matter connecting itfight, a hopeless cause. The Democratic leader self with the pending amendment of the Constituof the House, and lately defeated Democratic tion. The Camden and Amboy railroad interest candidate for Vice-President, Mr. Pendleton, promised Mr. Ashley that if he would help postpone opposed the amendment, as he had done at the the Raritan railroad bill over this session they previous session, by asserting that three-fourths help about the amendment, either by their votes or
would in return make the New Jersey Democrats of the States did not possess constitutional absence. Sumner being the Senate champion of power to pass it, this being - if the paradox be the Raritan bill, Ashley went to him to ask him to excused — at the same time the weakest and the drop it for this session. Sumner, however, showed strongest argument: weakest, because the Con- reluctance to adopt Mr. Ashley's suggestion, saying stitution in terms contradicted the assertion; that he hoped the amendment would pass anyhow, strongest, because under the circumstances
1 “Globe," Jan. 11, 1865, p. 219. nothing less than unconstitutionality could jus- 2 George W. Julian,“ Political Recollections," p. 250. if not the indispensable adjunct to the consum1 J. G. N., “ Personal Memoranda." MS.
etc. Ashley thought he discerned in Sumner's man- leries, which were crowded to excess, who ner two reasons: (1) That if the present Senate waved their hats and cheered loud and long, resolution were not adopted by the House, the Senate while the ladies, hundreds of whom were would send them another in which they would most present, rose in their seats and waved their likely adopt Sumner's own phraseology and thereby handkerchiefs, participating in and adding to gratify his ambition; and (2) that Sumner thinks the defeat of the Camden and Amboy monopoly the general excitement and intense interest of would establish a principle by legislative enactment the scene. This lasted for several minutes."; which would effectually crush out the last lingering “In honor of this immortal and sublime event,” relics of the States rights dogma. Ashley therefore cried Mr. Ingersoll of Illinois, “I move that desired the President to send for Sumner, and urge the House do now adjourn,” and against the him to be practical and secure the passage of the objection of a Maryland Democrat the motion amendment in the manner suggested by Mr. Ashley: was carried by a yea and nay vote. A salute I stated these points to the President, who replied at of one hundred guns soon made the occasion once : “I can do nothing with Mr. Sumner in these matters. While Mr. Sumner is very cordial with the subject of comment and congratulation me, he is making his history in an issue with me throughout the city. On the following night on this very point. He hopes to succeed in beat- a considerable procession marched with music ing the President so as to change this Government to the Executive Mansion to carry popular from its original form and make it a strong central- greetings to the President. In response to their ized power.". Then calling. Mr. Ashley into the calls, Mr. Lincoln appeared at a window and room, the President said to him," I think I under- made a brief speech, of which only an abstract stand Mr. Sumner; and I think he would be all the more resolute in his persistence on the points report was preserved, but which is neverthewhich Mr. Nicolay has mentioned to me if he less important as showing the searching analysis supposed I were at all watching his course on this of cause and effect which this question had matter."1
undergone in his mind, the deep interest he
felt, and the far-reaching consequences he The issue was decided in the afternoon of attached to the measure and its success. the 31st of January, 1865. The scene was one of unusual interest. The galleries were filled to
He supposed she said the passage through Con
gress of the constitutional amendment for the overflowing; the members watched the pro- abolishment of slavery throughout the United ceedings with unconcealed solicitude. “Up States was the occasion to which he was indebted to noon,” said a contemporaneous formal re- for the honor of this call. The occasion was one of port, " the pro-slavery party are said to have congratulation to the country and to the whole been confident of defeating the amendment, and world. But there is a task yet before us—to go after that time had passed, one of the most forward. and have consummated by the votes of earnest advocates of the measure said, "'T is the the States that which Congress had so nobly begun toss of a copper.'” 2 There were the usual pleas ent that Illinois had to-day already done the work.
yesterday. He had the honor to inform those presfor postponement and for permission to offer Maryland was about half through, but he felt proud amendments or substitutes, but at four o'clock that Illinois was a little ahead. He thought this the House came to a final vote, and the roll- measure was a very fitting if not an indispensable call showed, yeas, 119; nays, 56; not voting, 8. adjunct to the winding up of the great difficulty. Scattering murmurs of applause had followed He wished the reunion of all the States perfected, the announcement of affirmative votes from and so effected as to remove all causes of disturbseveral of the Democratic members. This was
ance in the future; and to attain this end, it was renewed when by direction of the Speaker the if possible, be rooted out. He thought all would
necessary that the original disturbing cause should, clerk called his name and he voted aye. But bear him witness that he had never shrunk from when the Speaker finally announced, “The doing all that he could to eradicate slavery, by isconstitutional majority of two-thirds having suing an Emancipation Proclamation. But that voted in the affirmative, the joint resolution proclamation falls far short of what the amendment is passed,” “the announcement - SO con
will be when fully consummated. A question might tinues the official report printed in the “Globe” be raised whether the proclamation was legally _“was received by the House and by the spec- that came into our lines, and that it was inoperative
valid. It might be urged, that it only aided those tators with an outburst of enthusiasm. The
as to those who did not give themselves up; or members on the Republican side of the House that it would have no effect upon the children of instantly sprung to their feet, and, regardless slaves born hereafter; in fact, it would be urged that of parliamentary rules, applauded with cheers it did not meet the evil. But this amendment is a and clapping of hands. The example was king's cure-all for all the evils. It winds the whole followed by the male spectators in the gal- thing up. He would repeat, that it was the fitting IN SORROW'S HOUR.
mation of the great game we are playing. He could 2 Report of Special Committee of the Union League not but congratulate all present — himself, the Club of New York. Pamphlet.
country, and the whole world - upon this great Globe," Jan. 31, 1865, p. 531.
They make late April,— and the brier too
In the deep grass the elder bush once more
With its small fire sets all the sedge aflare,
The cardinal-flower is out in thickets old.
For I would follow after, see your face,
my hand in your hand, feel the dear grace
The dark is void, and all the daylight vain.
Lizette Wordworth Reese.
FRA FILIPPO LIPPI (1402–1 2–1469).
(ITALIAN OLD MASTERS.)
of Masaccio in art may its Madonna, the woman who mothered all
authority of the traditions the school of Masaccio was an art involving of art recognized by all the followers of Giotto, the reform of externals; and in it, as might the first frank declaration of the value of in- be expected, the departure of the followers dividuality in art. Like Luther's, this reform in reform from the old canons was a rapidly did not extend to the repudiation of the great accelerating progress. In Filippo the ideal motives of the fathers, but was devoted to becomes personal ; and whatever may be the limitation of the manner of interpreting them truth as to the stories of his relations to Luand the forms they should take. The example crezia Buti, there is no mistaking the fact that set by Masaccio of turning his back on the some fair face had come between his eyes and world of the ecstatics and the types of author- the Madonna. The forms of beauty to him ity and opening his eyes to the living flesh and became all of one mold, and there is for the blood about him was followed by his pupil, Fra first time in the progress of Christian art a Filippo Lippi, with a hearty and unreserved distinct and systematic employment of the abandonment to the logical consequences, individual and the personal in the represenwhich would perhaps have surprised and re- tation of sacred personages, especially of the pelled the master as much as the later doctrines Madonna, an employment which later becomes of reform would have shocked Luther. In the rule. Masaccio we found the first unbiased, natural No doubt the work of Donatello coninspiration; in Filippo we have the first direct tributed greatly to this result, but that was recourse to the individual as a substitute for still ideal. His system of types had a kind of the ideal. For though far from ideal in the individuality not known before in sculpture; large and now generally accepted use of the but those types, distinct as they were, do not word, embracing the old and the new, the bear the mark of the model, but seem rather Greek as well as the Christian, the Byzantine the outcome of an imaginative conception of type was an ideal as completely as the Phidian, the character more analogous to Greek idealiand the imagery of the ecstatic school was zation than to that of the art which began with drawn from the inner vision. Its Christ was Fra Filippo. From this time forward the natthe man of many sorrows, emaciated by spirit- uralism of painting becomes more and more
concrete; and though direct work from a model painted a panel in tempera for King Alfonso, as practiced to-day does not appear for a long and then returned to Florence. time after Fra Filippo, the naturalistic element This whole story is denied by modern hisgains strength with every generation of painters. torians. Cavalcaselle declares that Fra Filippo
It is not easy to decide upon the exact date was never at Ancona or at Naples; that he of Fra Filippo's birth. Vasari says in his first never abandoned his monkhood, since he signed edition 1402, in the second, 1412; and if himself to the end “Frater Filippus," and was we could accept his assertion that the Frate by others given the same name; and finally died at the age of fifty-seven the latter date that Vasari is untruthful when he speaks of the would be correct, for we know that he was Carmelite as a dissolute man, as a letter of his buried in 1469. The records state that he to Piero de' Medici shows him in a very difwas the son of a Florentine butcher, that his ferent light. In this letter he complains of havmother died in 1412, shortly after his birth, ing been underpaid for one of his pictures, and and that his father died two years later, leaving says that it has pleased Heaven to leave him the orphan to the care of an aunt, Monna the poorest friar in Florence, in charge of six Lapaccia, a woman in poor circumstances, as marriageable nieces, who are entirely dependwere all his relatives. Milanesi, however, says ent on him: he begs Piero to allow him a that the ledger of the Carmelite convent where grant of corn and wine to support them while Filippo passed his youth states that he pro- he is away. fessed at the age of sixteen, the date given This certainly does not look like the letter being 1421, which would put the date of his of a man whom, according to Vasari, Piero birth at 1405-06. The legend runs that Monna de' Medici was forced to lock up in order to Lapaccia kept him till he was eight years old, get any work done, and who knotted his sheets when, unable to support him longer, she placed together and escaped by the window after two him in the monastery of the Carmine, which, days to get off and revel. Vasari relates that, as fate would have it, was in the immediate being engaged by the nuns of St. Margaret to vicinity of her house. Here the boy proved to paint a panel, he fell in love with a young girl of be dexterous in all kinds of handicraft, but whom the Sisters had charge, Lucrezia Buti absolutely dull and indolent at his books. Filippino Lippi being, according to this acThe “grammar-master” could make nothing count, the child of this unlawful union. This of him: instead of studying he drew little again Cavalcaselle indignantly denies, and figures all over his own and his classmates' points out that it is unlikely that so immoral a books, so at last the prior very sensibly put person as was Fra Filippo should have been him to drawing, and gave him every facility created chaplain to a convent of nuns in 1452, for developing his talent. Masaccio's frescos and rector of St. Quirico at Legnaia in 1457. in the monastery were source of great He supposes the younger artist to have been delight to the boy artist, who would spend adopted by the older, as was frequently done long hours every day studying them. He in those days. made such rapid progress that every one Very few of Fra Filippo's earliest works are prophesied that he would become famous, and known. Probably the Nativity in the AcadVasari says that “many thought that the spirit emy of Fine Arts at Florence belongs to the of Masaccio must have entered into Filippo.” period of his monastic life, and it may be the He painted many frescos in the Carmine, all of one painted for Cosimo de' Medici of which which have perished.
Vasari speaks. It shows the influence of Fra In 1431–32 he seems to have left the mon- Angelico much more than his later work. astery, though the reasons that are attributed Another altar-piece, in the Berlin museum, to him for so doing are of the most opposite bearing his signature, belongs to the same natures. Vasari says that, having become epoch. In the Louvre is a Madonna and elated by the praise of all those who saw his Child painted by Fra Filippo at the age of work, he cast off his monkish garb and went twenty-six; in the Lateran Gallery another into the world, where he led a life of dissipa- altar-piece, executed to the order of Carlo tion. Being one day at Ancona in a little Marzuppini, in which the donor of the piece is pleasure-boat with some friends, the party introduced. Vasari says that Marzuppini called was captured by Moorish pirates and carried the artist's attention to the careless manner in off to Barbary, where Filippo remained eight- which the hands and feet were drawn, and een months. One day he amused himself by that Fra Filippo hid them with the drapery to drawing his master in charcoal on a white hide their imperfection-one of those curious wall, and this feat so much astonished and technical details continually occurring in the delighted the Moors that, having caused him history of the art of this epoch which shows as to paint one or two pictures for them, they took clearly as any tradition can that the practice him to Naples and set him free. There he of drawing the subject from the model was
not yet adopted, but that the figure was drawn interruptions. The first, as we have seen, from traditional and inherited knowledge of was caused by a summons from his patron. it, as it had been by the Byzantines. To under- In 1461 he went to Perugia to value the fresstand the relations of the Italian art of the cos of Benedetto Buonfigli in the chapel of thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, the Palazzo del Comune; in 1463 and 1464 it is necessary to have this always in mind, as we find the representatives of Prato meeting it will then be easy to see how far and how fast in great perplexity as to how the painter can the practice obtained of drawing from nature as be forced to finish his work, for which he has a preparation for the final work.
been in part paid, and deciding to ask Messer In 1441 Fra Filippo executed a commission Carlo de' Medici to interfere. By some means for the nuns of S. Ambrogio; and in the “Cor- or other the frescos were completed, and in the onation of the Virgin," which he executed for last of the series, the “ Death of S. Stefano," them, there is a half-length portrait of himself, Lippi introduced a fine portrait of Carlo de' tonsured, which proves that at least as late as Medici, and one of himself
. 1441 he retained the badge of monastic life. From Prato, Fra Filippo seems to have gone
From this time Fra Filippo seems to have to Spoleto, where he painted in the cathedral orders enough, one would think, to furnish several scenes from the life of the Virgin, means of subsistence for any number of rela- which still remain, though in a damaged contives, yet he appears to have remained poor and dition, being, moreover, never finished, as he needy. The Medici took him under their pat-died there in 1469, poisoned - according to ronage, and in 1452 he was made chaplain in Vasari again-by the relatives of one of his the convent of S. Giovannino in Florence. mistresses. Lorenzo de' Medici erected a tomb
In 1456 he was at Prato, painting the series to him in the cathedral of Spoleto, and Poliof frescos in the choir of the cathedral, which tian wrote his epitaph. remains on the whole the most important of One of Fra Filippo's chief pupils was Fra his works, both for size and for preservation. Diamante. Cavalcaselle brings forward the The next year he received an order from Gio- theory that he, and not his master, was guilty vanni de' Medici to leave his work and come of Lucrezia's seduction, and that all the liberto Florence and paint a picture for the king tinism attributed by Vasari to Fra Filippo of Naples; and though loath to return to Flor. should be laid on his disciple. This he deence, on account of debts he owed there, he duces from the fact that while Fra Filippo was obeyed his patron. We have a letter of his at Prato, completing his commissions there, begging for money to buy the gold-leaf he Fra Diamante was imprisoned in Florence, by needed to complete the picture; and the agent order of his superior, and did not join his masof the Medici, who went to his shop to urge ter till the latter went to Spoleto. He thinks him on with his work, says in a letter to Cosimo that Fra Filippo would not have been able to that he found a sale going on in Filippo's studio continue at Prato had he been guilty of the to pay his rent and some other debts.
crime Vasari charges him with, for fear of the The picture for the king, and one for Count vendetta which Lucrezia's father and the nuns de Rohan, were sent to Naples, and gave would assuredly have tried to bring upon him. much satisfaction, as we learn from a letter of The sacrilegious intrigue, on account of Cosimo's; but they are no longer there, unless which the life of the Frate has been so charged a panel in the museum, somewhat like one in with obloquy, seems to me to be disputed with the National Gallery, London, be by him; but reason by Cavalcaselle, and the alleged poisonit appears to me more like the work of Filip- ing at Spoleto for a similar offense is one of pino. In the Pitti Gallery, Florence, there is an those vague statements of which the history of admirable madonna by Fra Filippo, which he the Middle and subsequent ages is full. Any is said to have painted from Lucrezia Buti. sudden death was attributed to poisoning, The head is of the same type as most of his though we know now that many forms of representations of women. There is another malarial disease, for some of which Italy has reputed portrait of Lucrezia in the Louvre, always been noted, cause death as sudden and but Cavalcaselle says the picture is not even mysterious as poison. There were in Lippi's day by Fra Filippo, and attributes it to Peselli. At no tests and no post-mortems, and suspicion Prato, in the gallery, there is a madonna by was universal. And where suspicion of poisonFilippo, and in the municipal gallery a Virgin ing arose a motive was sure to be supplied. and Child with attendant saints. In the refec- Current rumors are not evidence sufficient to tory of S. Dominico there is an extremely fine establish accusations of such gravity that if Nativity, which, with the frescos noted in the recognized by the ecclesiastical authorities they cathedral, shows that Fra Filippo's stay in Prato would have brought Fra Filippo before the must have been a considerable one. His work Inquisition. there however seems to have suffered several It is possible, and indeed probable, that the