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ists make no such accusation, but appeal to thetic with the Liberals and too gentle in his their fellow-Frenchmen to aid those Germans dealings with the Social Democrats; and, secwho are struggling for the peace with justice ond, that he was too conciliatory in his efforts for which France stands. Both protests are

to avoid a rupture with the United States on alike in this—that they both condemn Ger

the question of submarine warfare. In the eyes

of the landholding gentry in Prussia, who want many. It is also significant of the state of

the war carried on mercilessly, the last was an free speech in France and Germany that the

unpardonable weakness. French Socialists spoke openly in Parliament The spokesman of the “Junker" party is an while the German Socialists were forced to official named Kapp, who exercises the funcadopt a secret manifesto which the German tions of Generallandschaftsdirektor—that is to Government has tried by every means in its say, the administrative chief of all the provinpower to suppress.

cial agricultural associations. He is an inde

fatigable and capable administrator. Before A THREATENED DUEL

the war he established throughout Prussia inA correspondent of the “ Journal de

surance societies which greatly aided the progGenève " gives an interesting account of the

ress of agriculture. political struggle that is going on between Herr Kapp, continues the correspondent the German Imperial Chancellor, Herr von from whom the foregoing quotation is made, Bethmann Hollweg, and the Prussian landed is the author of one of the pamphlets against aristocracy, or “ Junkers.” The gulf that which the Chancellor made his attack. Beexists between the political standards of Ger- lieving that he was insulted by some of the many and those of England and the United phraseology employed by the Chancellor, he States is indicated by the fact that a contro- sent his seconds to the latter demanding the versy between the Chancellor and the satisfaction of a duel. The representatives spokesman of the Prussian “ Junkers ” nearly of the Chancellor decided that he had not resulted in a duel. The correspondent of gone beyond his rights in replying to the the “ Journal de Genève” writes as follows: attacks in the pamphlet by Herr. Kapp, and The situation in the domestic politics of Ger

that he did not need, therefore, to pay any many grows more and more complicated. The attention to the latter's demands. unexpected length of the war, the shortage of- The Journal de Genève " publishes the food, the growing discontent of the working complete text of the official statement which classes, are breaking down little by little the

Director Kapp has made of his quarrel with national unity of which the German people

the Chancellor. In it he says, in effect : “I displayed such signal proofs at the beginning of the conflict. Germany is forgetting that

accused the Chancellor of pursuing a weak

and inefficient policy. He replied in terms appeal for harmony which the Kaiser made at the outbreak of hostilities. Partisan quarrels

that I considered personally insulting. He are taking on their old-time bitterness.

refused to regard his words as falling within This explains the extreme irritability of the the domain of personal discussion. I therelast speech which the Chancellor made in the fore reserve the right to demand satisfaction Reichstag and the pains which he took to con- when the Chancellor can no longer hide demn the pamphleteers of the day. Herr von behind the protection which is given him Bethmann Hollweg is struggling with difficul. ties both without and within the Empire, and, of the newspapers.”

by the war, by his office, and by his muzzling although the Emperor has again given him signal manifestations of his confidence, the

Fancy Secretary Houston challenging SecChancellor's position is seriously tlıreatened.

retary Lansing to fight a duel because of The Prussian landed gentry are maintaining

some political disagreement ! against him an incessant and irrepressible opposition. This clannish group, to whose

UNIVERSITY FREEDOM machinations we owe the war, seems neither to The same correspondent goes on to point have forgotten anything nor to have learned

out other indications of the fact that public anything. Every German Chancellor has had

opinion in Germany is far from being a unit. trouble with them. Bismarck himself was too

" In spite of the severity of the censorship,” broad-minded in the eyes of the “Junkers."

he says, “ the truth about the war is filtering Nowhere in the world is there a social class

into Germany little by little and is spreading. more narrow, more selfish, or more egotistical. There are two things that the “Junkers"

When they can express themselves freely in cannot forgive in the policy of Herr von Beth- private conversations, many cultivated Germann Hollweg: First, that he is too sympa- mans to-day recognize that the Central Teutonic Powers desired and provoked the war.” ambiguity that I protest with all my might One of the most outspoken advocates of against every attempt to restrict my liberty this view is Professor Foerster, of the Uni- of teaching. The time has come when we versity of Munich. In lectures to his stu- must make an examination of our consciences. dents he has declared himself as having We must absolutely recognize the rights of become radically opposed to the traditions of critical thought, above all in our universities, Bismarck and of Treitschke. And he insists and in every domain of knowledge, including that these questions may be discussed even that of German history, in order that the in time of war, and in spite of the bitter youth of Germany may understand every denunciations that have been poured upon point of view.” him as a traitor to his country. In one of The correspondent of the “ Journal de his lectures he read some of the insulting Genève” believes that Professor Foerster letters that had been sent to him and also has taken an impregnable position, for freesome of the approving testimony that had dom of university teaching has always in the come to him personally from soldiers actually past been considered in Germany to be an at the front. “ Precisely,” said Professor inviolable principle—even in Prussia in periFoerster in a lecture on June 19, “because I ods when the Government was absolutist in wish to respect my opponents and to submit the extreme. myself to the principles for which I stand, “ Voices like that of Professor Foerster namely, absolute truth combined with a re- continue to be heard,” says this writer. spect for the feelings of others-precisely for “ More than that, they are listened to. They this reason I am bound to declare without form a significant sign of the times.”



[One of the most interesting student ciations is one of the most distinguished of orations delivered during the recent college all American universities. The rector, the Commencement season was that of a coal- University President, and the Governor, black young Negro at Hampton Institute. among others, made addresses full of respect Those who attended the Commencement and admiration for the profound and efficient or “ Anniversary” exercises at Hampton educational work which Hampton is doing. this year will remember the scene. On the The Governor, with that tact and skill to be floor of the large but simple auditorium expected from a Virginia gentleman in his sat the audience. At the right, on a great position, referred to the somewhat pathetic tier of seats rising like an athletic grand fact that the American Negro has always stand, were massed the thousand or more been intensely loyal to his country, which has young men and women students of the insti- not always been loyal to him. " You will lution in their neat and simple uniformos. find,” he said, “no hyphenated Americans Their wonderful singing of Negro "spir- among the Negroes." ituals ” and plantation songs was one of the It is significant of the respect which deeply moving features of the occasion. Hampton commands among the leading white

On the platform were grouped the distin- people of the South that upon the stage guished speakers and visitors of the day, where these distinguished white Southern including Governor Stuart, of the old and gentlemen spoke and sat there came four deservedly proud State of Virginia ; the rector graduating students to speak their Comof St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Richmond, mencement parts--a young Negro woman, which during the war was the church of the a young Indian, and two young Negro men. highest intellectual and political aristocracy The addresses of all four were excellent and of the Southern Confederacy; and President were full of interest because they came from Alderman, of the University of Virginia, the actual life and experiences of the speakers. which in history, tradition, and personal asso- We reproduce here one of the addresses-




that by George E. Coles, of the graduating class of 1916, which he entitled · From Newsboy to Machinist.”

Cold type cannot reveal the humor, the pathos, and the deep personal appeal of this Commencement speech. Bullet-headed, kinky-haired, black as the ace of spades, with gleaming white teeth and eyeballs, and an irresistible smile of good humor at the allusions which he frankly made to the joys and sorrows of his “pickaninny youth,” the speaker captivated his audience. We doubt if there was a more effective, genuine, and human “ Commencement part " spoken on any college or university stage in any part of the country during the recent graduating

We are glad to print this address because it is typical of the remarkable educational work which Hampton is doing in a spirit and by methods that ought to be more largely adopted by white educational institutions throughout the country.

This, perhaps, is the place to say that Hampton Institute needs a new auditorium, to be used, among other things, for its Commencement exercises, and that the Institute is endeavoring to raise one hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the erection of a memo



FTTIMES I have heard ante-bellum people say with great pride, “I was born before the war."

I, too, can say that I was born before the war, but the war in question was the SpanishAmerican War. In Petersburg, Virginia, only a few miles from the historic site of the Battle of the Crater, I first perceived this sinful world. I was born one hot Sunday afternoon in August ; it was the day after the unlucky thirteen in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred ninety-two. There were no hosts of people waiting outside to get a peep at the infant ; there were no sounds of stringed instruments and clanging cymbals ; but the steady drone of the bees on that still, hot air was music enough for the proud parents.

When I was quite young, I thought that life was a regular bed of roses ; but before I finished my schooling I was to realize that beneath that rose-bed were many sharp thorns that could and would prick when one least expected them to do so. I spent the first six years of my life waxing strong and enjoying myself with my playmates in this rose-bed; as yet the thorns had not begun to prick.

rial building in honor of the life and work of the late Robert C. Ogden, who did so much for Hampton. The corner-stone of this building was laid during Hampton Commencement week. The committee in charge has already raised ninety thousand dollars, and needs sixty thousand dollars more to complete the work. The General Education Board, in order to show its appreciation of the life and work of Mr. Ogden, and of the notable achievements of Hampton Institute under the direction of its modest but distinguished Principal, Dr. H. B. Frissell, has promised twenty-five thousand dollars. The interest of this sum is to be used towards the maintenance of the Ogden Memorial Building when completed. Those Americans who recognize that the so-called Negro problem is one of the greatest of the social problems of this country and who be. lieve, as we do, that Hampton Institute is perhaps the most important factor in the solution of that problem, will be glad, we are assured, to corne promptly to the aid of Dr. Frissell in raising the sum which is necessary to provide Hampton with this appropriate memorial and much-needed modern auditorium.—THE EDITORS.]

I was six years old when my mother hustled me off to school, and, like all small children, I loathed to strike into the unknown. I didn't want to be educated; for didn't it mean to my youthful mind absence from the open air with my playmates, absence from my mother's sight and from the bread which I used to run in for every half-hour ? Of course it did, and I resented this new move most strongly.

I was carried to school and placed in a room with some more of my kind.

All were crying, and I promptly joined them and cried and cried ; but soon I weighed the matter in my little mind and came to the conclusion that it was useless to cry. I desisted and began laughing at the other unfortunates; but when the autocrat of the class-room reminded me in a strong tone that I was in a class-room and not in the streets, I began sitting up and taking notice; and I have been trying to do the same thing ever since.

I remained in the public school at home for two terms, and then my mother, who had preceded me North, sent for me. I traveled to Cranford, New Jersey, with a little tag

swinging from my coat; this meant that I plete my high school course; second, to was in care of the conductor. My become a Hampton student. panion on this memorable trip was a yellow- My new duties were hard at times, but one striped kitten (I was very fond of cats). My must learn to undergo hardships without companion and I reached my mother in first flinching. I was to check up all freight that class condition. I began at once to adapt came on the wharf, and to do everything that myself to existing conditions, for I had never Captain Gibson or any teacher could think of before attended school with white children. having me do. I helped to deliver freight My little traveling companion, the kitten, through beating rain and blinding snow, began in the wrong way, for she pilfered through the heat of summer and the cold of everything that she could use for self-preser- winter. That work-year winter was coldvation ; and, as the wages of sin is death, in oh, so cold! it seemed as if it had waited a few short weeks a clean spot in a grassy for me to arrive in order to be the coldest plot and a few buttercups marked her last winter in twenty-five years.

But through resting-place.

the help of the Lord I survived that winter, I must have been a meddlesome sort of a and when the birds began to sing and the chap, for every day, much to my dislike, a green grass to appear I felt none the worse crowd of my white schoolmates would show for my experience. The summer passed me the way home in double time. The away uneventfully and soon my work-year two years that I remained in Cranford made came to a close. a decided change in my life, for here I On October 1, 1912, I entered the Trade learned most of my manners. Through con- School as a first-year machinist. I worked tact with the people for whom my mother hard and earnestly in the shop, my mother worked I gained many ideas of courtesy and did the same at home, and the thorns began etiquette. Also the time spent there helped to prick hard and incessantly. But the harder me immensely in my academic work, for they pricked the harder I struggled for my when I returned home I was advanced two goal. I clenched my teeth, shrugged my grades higher than I would have been if I shoulders, and plodded onward, upward, to had remained there.

the beacon light. I spent the summer of I didn't have any father to help me through 1913 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, working school, only a dear mother, and she worked hard to make ends meet, but money was early and late that I might procure an educa- tight, and I returned to Hampton with the tion. In order to relieve the strain a little I thorns still pricking. But I struggled through would sell papers after school, and soon I two more hard terms, and on May 27, 1915, became a kind of professional in that line. I I completed the machinist's trade, and spent could fill pages in relating the little incidents the summer of 1915 in Atlantic City again. that happened to me while running up and Most of the summer was very cool, the war down the streets and boarding the rapidly mov- was raging, and every one seemed to be trying cars, selling my papers, but time and space ing to see who could hold the eagle the tightwill not permit me. The thorns had begun est. But I determined to return and finish to prick just a little, but I didn't mind them. the academic course, and here I am.

When I reached the age of fourteen, I Soon I expect to leave dear old Hampton, became a worker in one of the crate factories soon I expect to try the hard world. Life at home. The earnings from this job, along is a struggle that all must face, and face it I with the money from my papers, enabled us will. For seventeen terms my mother has to get along pretty well. So time passed kept me in school; she has struggled for me swiftly by, and I was surely being educated. all of my life. She prayed to be spared to When I reached high school, the idea, which see me finish school, and I prayed for her to some of my mother's Northern friends gave live to enjoy the benefits of my education. her years ago, of sending me to Hampton Her prayer has been answered ; God grant reached a full size, and we began working mine will be answered too ! harder than ever to make that idea a possi- The people of my race are living in these bility.

thorny rose-beds; may I be able, while I am On June 8, 1911, I finished the high school helping my mother, to clear out some of the course, and the following September entered thorns of prejudice, poverty, and ignorance, Hampton as a work-year student. Two of and leave them, instead, education, race pride, my aims were accomplished : first, to com- and happiness!






Proverbs vi. 10: "Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a ings ! It seems as though breakfast would little folding of the hands to sleep."

never begin ; and there is such a fuss getting AVE you ever met any members of Peter Put-Off and Lily Lie-Abed and their

the Dilly Dally family ? I'm sure brothers and sisters, Bobby Behind-Time,

you have, for there are such a lot Tommy Tardy, Sally Slow-Coach, and Dicky of them. To begin with, there is little Peter Dawdle, started for Sunday-school. (I told Put-Off Dilly Dally-a very well-meaning you that the Dilly Dallies were a large family.) child, but who never wants to begin anything And I've forgotten Bessie Blame-the-Clock, he means to do right away. He means to who belongs to the Bible class. How annoystudy his lessons for to-morrow and know ing it is to their teachers to have them strollthem well, but instead of commencing on ing in when the session is half over and them this afternoon before the sleepy evening interrupting the lesson in their classes ! time comes he stays out a long while playing. And when the children are all off papa and “I'll surely get at them the instant I finish mamma hustle about, intending to be in time supper,” he thinks; but he hangs about for the church service ; but time has a way listening to his older brothers and sisters, of getting lost on Pokey Street. By and and by the time he opens his books the Sand by Mr. Never-Ready looks at his watch. Man has nearly filled his eyes, so he has to Gracious, my dear, church will begin in ten go to bed. He means to get up before minutes, and that terrible Dr. Prompt is such breakfast and do them, and he asks his sister a stickler for starting on the minute !" "My Lily to wake him.

dear, are you ready?” he calls up the stairs. But he has chosen a very poor alarm “Just a second.” But Mrs. Dilly Dally's clock, for Lily is Lily Lie-Abed Dilly Dally. seconds have a habit of stretching themselves You never saw such a girl to call in the out as though they were made of elastic. morning! Her mother raps on the door but When she does come down, where is her gets no answer, goes in and taps her and she husband ? He is looking all over for his rolls over, pokes her and she murmurs: “Oh, Sunday hat.

Never mind, take any hat; just five minutes more ; I'll surely get up we simply must start." Down Pokey Street then.” But her mother is no more than they hurry, when suddenly Mrs. Dilly Dally gone when Lily is again sound asleep. remembers that she has left her envelope

Peter and Lily have an older sister, Bessie with the money for the collection on her Blame-the-Clock Dilly Dally, who walks into bureau ; and back runs Mr. Dilly Dally. the room every morning just as the others Finally, Mr. and Mrs. Never-Ready walk down are finishing their breakfast, and says: the aisle when the service is more than a third “Dear me, am I late? Your watches must be wrong or my clock is slow." Her clock Now none of this Dilly Dally family are was all right the evening before, but some what you would call bad people, but they are how it has the habit of taking a twenty-minute really great sinners; for sin is being unlike nap in the middle of every night, for Bessie God, and God is always punctual. We never blames it regularly each morning.

need worry whether the sun will get up on time Mr. and Mrs. Never-Ready Dilly Dally can in the morning or be late in going to bed at hardly find fault with the ways of their chil night. Our Father in heaven who sees to dren. They live on Pokey Street, about fifteen the sun's rising and setting never fails us by minutes' walk from the church they attend ; a minute. To be his true. children is to be and you should see them on Sunday morn always exactly on time.


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