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is a poor man, born to look upwards to Ping, it seems, had suffered his father's his fellow-men and not to look house to be burned down: the outhouses down upon any body but slaves. He were burned along with the house : and goes, therefore, to the palace of some in one of these the pigs by accident grandee, some top-sawyer of the Se. were roasted to a turn. Memorable natorian order. This great man, for were the results for all future China all his greatness, has turned out even and future civilisation. Ping, who sooner than himself. For he also has (like all China beside) had hitherto had no candles and no cigars; and eaten his pig raw, now for the first he well knows, that before the sun time tasted it in a state of torrefaclooks into his por all his halls will tion. Of course he made his peace be overflowing and buzzing with the with his father by a part (tradition matin susurrus of courtiers the says a leg) of the new dish. The 6s mane salutantes."* It is as much as father was so astounded with the dishis popularity is worth to absent him- covery, that he burned his house down self, or to keep people waiting. But once a-year for the sake of coming at surely, the reader may think, this poor an annual banquet of roast pig. A man he might keep waiting. No, he curious prying sort of fellow, might not; for, though poor, being a Chang Pang, got to know of this. He citizen, he is a gentleman. That was also burned down a house with a pig the consequence of keeping slaves. in it, and had his eyes opened. The Wherever there is a class of slaves, secret was ill kept. The discovery he that enjoys the jus suffragii (no spread. Many great conversions were matter how poor) is a gentleman. The made. Houses were blazing in every true Latin word for a gentleman is part of the Celestial Empire. The ingenuus--a freeman and the son of insurance offices took the matter up. a freeman.
One Chong Pong, detected in the very Yet even here there were distinc- act of shutting up a pig in his drawtions. Under the Emperors, the cour- ingroom, and then firing a train, was tiers were divided into two classes ; indicted on a charge of arson. The with respect to the superior class, it chief-justice of Pekin, on that occawas said of the sovereign—that he saw sion, requested an officer of the court them, (videbat :) with respect to the to hand him a piece of the roast pig, other that he was seen, ("s videba- the corpus delicti ; for pure curiosity tur.") Even Plutarch mentions it as led him to taste: but within two days a common boast in his times, specs siden after it was observed that his lordship’s • BoorasusCæsar is in the habit of town-house was burned down. seeing me; or, as a common plea forevad- short, all China apostatized to the ing a suit, ετερες δρα μαλλον-Iam sorry new faith; and it was not until to say he is more inclined to look upon some centuries had passed, that a great others. And this usage derived itself genius arose, who established the (mark that well!) from the republican second era in the history of roast pig, era. Theaulic spirit was propagated by by showing that it could be had withthe Empire, but from a republican root. out burning down a house.
Having paid his court, you will sup- No such genius had yet arisen in pose that our friend comes home to Rome. Breakfast was not suspected. breakfast. Not at all : no such dis- No prophecy, no type of breakfast covery as “breakfast” had then been had been published. In fact, it took made : breakfast was not invented as much time and research to arrive for many centuries after that. at that great discovery as at the Cohave always admired, and always shall pernican system. True it is, reader, admire, as the very best of all human that you have heard of such a word as stories, Charles Lamb's account of the jentaculum ; and your dictionary transorigin of roast pig in China. Ching lates that old heathen word by the Chris
* “The mane salutantes:"— There can be no doubt that the levees of modern princes and ministers have been inherited from this ancient usage of Rome ; one which belonged to Rome republican, as well as Rome imperial. The fiction in our modern practice is that we wait upon the levé, or rising of the prince. In France, at one era, this fiction was realized: the courtiers did really attend the king's dressing And, as to the queen even up to the Revolution, Marie Antoinette, almost from ne cessity, gave audience at her toilette.
tian word breakfast. But dictionaries, may this word dry happen to mean? one and all, are dull deceivers. Be- « Does it mean stale bread?”
says tween jentaculum and breakfast the Salmasius.' “ Shall we suppose," says differences are as wide as between a he, in querulous words,“ molli et horse-chestnut and chestnut horse ; recenti opponi," and from that antidifferences in the time when, in the thesis conclude it to be, “ durum place where, in the manner how, but non recens coctum, eoque sicciorem?' pre-eminently in the thing which. Hard and stale, and for that reason
Galen is a good authority upon such the more arid! Not quite so bad as a subject, since if (like other Pagans) that, we hope. Or again-" siccum he ate no breakfast himself, in some pro biscocto, ut hodie vocamus, sumesense he may be called the cause of mus ? By hodie Salmasius means, breakfast to other men, by treating of amongst his countrymen of France, those things which could safely be where biscoctus is verbatim reproduced taken upon an empty stomach. As in the word bis (twice) cuit, (baked ;) to the time, he (like many other au
Biscuit thors) says, asga tgotny, n (To uaugotipov) might do very well, could we be sure wife titapanu, about the third, or at that it was cabin biscuit: but Salmasius farthest about the fourth hour: and so argues—that in this case he takes it to exact is he, that he assumes the day to mean “buccellatum, qui est panis naulie exactly between six and six o'clock, ticus ;" that is, the ship company's and to be divided into thirteen equal biscuit, broken with a sledge-hanımer. portions. So the time will be a few In Greek, for the benefit ag of the minutes before nine, or a few minutes learned reader, it is termed So Trufas, before ten, in the forenoon. That indicating that it has passed twice seems fair enough. But it is not under the action of fire. time in respect to its location that we
« Well," you say,
no matter if it are so much concerned with, as time had passed fifty times—and through in respect to its duration. Now, heaps the fires of Moloch; only let us have of authorities take it for granted, that this biscuit such as it is.” In good you are not to sit down : you are to faith, then, fasting reader, you are stand: and as to the place, that any not likely to see much more than place will do: “any corner of the you have seen. It is a very Barmeforum,” says Galen," any corner that cide feast, we do assure you—this same you fancy” which is like referring a “jentaculum;" at which abstinence
:" man for his salle à manger to West. and patience are much more exercised minster Hall or Fleet Street. Augus. than the teeth ; faith and hope are the tus, in a letter still surviving, tells us chief graces cultivated ; together with that he jentabat, or took his jentaculum that species of the magnificum which in his carriage ; now in a wheel car. is founded on the ignotum. Even this riage, (in essedo,) now in a litter or biscuit was allowed in the most limited palanquin (in lecticâ.) This careless quantities : for which reason it is that and disorderly way as to time and the Greeks called this apology for a place, and other circumstances of haste, meal by the name of Barziouos, a word sufficiently indicate the quality of the formed (as many words were in the meal you are to expect. Already you Post-Augustan ages) from a Latin are “sagacious of your quarry from so word-viz., buccea, a mouthful ; not far. Not that we would presume, literally such, but so much as excellent reader, to liken you to Death, polished man could allow himself to or to insinuate that you are " a grim put into his mouth at once.
6 We feature." But would it not make a took a mouthful,” says Sir William saint - grim” to hear of such prepa- Waller, the Parliamentary general, rations for the morning meal ? And “ took a mouthful; paid our reckthen to hear of such consummations oning ; mounted ; and were off.” as panis siccus, dry bread; or, (if the But there Sir William means, by learned reader thinks it will taste bet- his plausible “ mouthful," something ter in Greek,) aptos Engos! And what very much beyond either nine or nine
" Or again, ' siccum pro biscocto sumemus ?'”—It is odd enough that a scholar so complete as Salinasius, whom nothing ever escapes, should have overlooked so obvious an alternative as that of siccus meaning without opsonium—Scoticè, without “kitchen."
teen ordinary quantities of that deno. friend to join you in an orange. No mination, whereas the Roman “jenta- man makes “two bites of a cherry." culum" was literally such; and, ac- So let us pass on to the other stages cordingly, one of the varieties under of the day. Only in taking leave of which the ancient vocabularies express this morning stage, throw your eyes this model of evanescent quantities is back with us, Christian reader, upon gustatio, a mere tasting; and again it this truly heathen meal, fit for idolais called by another variety, gustus, a trous dogs like your
your mere taste : (whence by the usual Romans ; survey through the vista of suppression of the s, comes the French ages, that thrice-cursed biscuit, with word for a collation or luncheon, viz. half a fig, perhaps, by way of garnish, gouter.] Speaking of his uncle, Pliny and a huge hammer by its side, to sethe Younger says—“ Post solem ple. cure the certainty of mastication, by rumque lavabatur: deinde gustabat; previous comminution. Then turn dormiebat minimum; mox, quasi alio your eyes to a Christian breakfastdie, studebat in cænæ tempus.” “ After hot rolls, eggs, coffee, beef; but down, taking the air he bathed ; after that he down, rebellious visions : we need say broke his fast on a bit of biscuit, and no more! You, reader, like ourselves, took a very slight siesta : which done, will breathe a malediction on the class. as if awaking to a new day, he set in ical era, and thank your stars for regularly to his studies, and pursued making you a Romanticist. Every them to dinner-time.” Gustabat here morning we thank ours for keepmeant that nondescript meal which ing us back, and reserving us to an arose at Rome when jentaculum and age in which breakfast liad been alprandium were fused into one, and that ready invented. In the words of Ovid only a taste or mouthful of biscuit, as
we say :we shall show farther on.
“Prisca juvent alios : ego me nunc denique Possibly, however, most excellent reader, like some epicurean traveller,
Gratulor. Hæc ætas moribus apta meis.” who, in crossing the Alps, finds himself weather-bound at St Bernard's on Our friend, the Roman cit, has Ash-Wednesday, you surmise a rem
therefore thus far, in his progress edy: you descry some opening from through life, obtained no breakfast, if “ the loopholes of retreat," through he ever contemplated an idea so franwhich a few delicacies might be insi- tic. But it occurs to you, our faithful nuated to spread verdure on this arid reader, that perhaps he will not always desert of biscuit. Casuistry can do be thus unhappy. We could bring much. A dead hand at casuistry has waggon-loads of sentiments, Greek as often proved more than a match for well as Roman, which prove, more Lent with all his quarantines. But clearly than the most eminent pikestaff, sorry we are to say that, in this case, that, as the wheel of fortune revolves, no relief is hinted at in any ancient simply out of the fact that it has carauthor. A grape or two, (not a bunch ried a man downwards, it must subseof grapes,) a raisin or two, a date, an quently carry him upwards, no matter olive-these are the whole amount of what dislike that wheel, or any of its relief* which the chancery of the Ro- spokes, may bear to that man: “non, man kitchen granted in such cases. si male nunc sit, et olim sic erit ;' All things here hang together, and and that if a man, through the madprove each other; the time, the place, ness of his nation, misses coffee and the mode, the thing. Well might man
hot rolls at nine, he may easily run eat standing, or eat in public, such a into a leg of mutton at twelve. True trifle as this. Go home to such a it is he may do so: truth is commend. breakfast as this! You would as soon able: and we will not deny that a man think of ordering a cloth to be laid in may sometimes, by losing a breakfast, order to eat a peach, or of asking a gain a dinner. Such things have been
* 66 The whole amount of relief;" from which it appears how grossly Locke (see his Education) was deceived in fancying that Augustus practised any remarkable abstinence in taking only a bit of bread and a raisin or two, by way of luncheon. Augustus did no more than most people did ; secondly, he abstained only with a view to dinner; and thirdly, for this dinner he never waited longer than up to four o'clock.
1; that is,
in various ages, and will be again, but
What is the single circumnot at Rome. There are reasons stance common to both which causes against it.
We have heard of men us to denominate them by the common who consider life under the idea of a name of dinner? It is that in both we wilderness-dry as “a remainder bis- recognise the principal meal of the cuit after a voyage :” and who consi- day, the meal upon which is thrown der a day under the idea of a little life. the onus of the day's support.
In Life is the macrocosm, or world at every thing else they are as wide large: day is the microcosm, or world asunder as the poles; but they agree in miniature. Consequently, if life is in this one point of their function. a wilderness, then day, as a little life, Is it credible that, to represent such a is a little wilderness. And this wilder. meal amongst ourselves, we select a ness can be safely traversed only by Roman word so notoriously expressing having relays of fountains, or stages a mere shadow, a pure apology, that for refreshment. Such stages, they very few people ever tasted it—nobody conceive, are found iu the several meals sate down to it--not many washed which Providence has stationed at due their hands after it, and gradually the intervals through the day, whenever very name of it became interchangeable the perverseness of man does not break with another name, implying the the chain, or derange the order of suc- slightest possible act of trying or sipcession.
ping? “ Post lavationem sine mensa These are the anchors by which man prandium,” says Seneca, post quod rides in that billowy ocean between non sunt lavandæ manus ; morning and night. The first anchor, or after bathing, I take a prandium viz. breakfast, having given way in without sitting down to table, and Rome, the more need there is that he such a prandium as brings after itself should pull up by the second; and no need of washing the hands." No; that is often reputed to be dinner. And moonshine as little soils the hands as as your dictionary, good reader, trans
it oppresses the stomach. lated breakfast by that vain word jen. Reader! we, as well as Pliny, had taculum, so, doubtless, it will translate an uncle, an East Indian uncle; doubt. dinner by that still vainer word pran- less you have such an uncle ; every dium. Sincerely we hope that your body has an Indian uncle. Generally own dinner on this day, and through such a person is “ rather yellow, all time coming, may have a better rather yellow,” [to quote Canning root in fact and substance than this versus Lord Durham :] that is the most visionary of all baseless things, chief fault with his physics; but, as the Roman prandium, of which we shall to his inorals, he is universally a man presently show you that the most ap- of princely aspirations and habits. proved translation is moonshine. He is not always so orientally rich
Reader, we are not jesting here. In as he is reputed; but he is always the very spirit of serious truth, we as- orientally munificent. sure you, that the delusion about “jen- him at any hour from two to five, taculum" is even exceeded by this other he insists on your taking tiffin: and delusion about“ prandium." Salmasius such a tiffin ! The English correhimself, for whom a natural prejudice sponding term is luncheon : but how of place and time partially obscured meagre a shadow is the European the truth, admits, however, that pran- meal to its glowing Asiatic cousin ! dium was a meal which the ancients Still, gloriously as tiffin shines, does rarely took; his very words are- any body imagine that it is a vicarious " raro prandebant veteres.” Now,judge dinner, or ever meant to be the subfor yourself of the good sense which stitute of dinner? Wait till eight, is shown in translating by the word and you will have your eyes opendinner, which must of necessity mean ed on that subject. So of the Ro. the chief meal-a Roman word which man prandium : had it been as luxurepresents a fancy meal, a meal of ca- rious as it was simple, stillit was always price, a meal which few people took. viewed as something meant only to At this moment, what is the single stay the stomach, as a prologue to point of agreement between the noon something beyond. The prandium was meal of the English labourer and the far enough from giving the feeblest evening meal of the English gentle- idea of the English luncheon ; yet it
stood in the same relation to the Ro- thinks all this might happen to the man day. Now to Englishmen that English dinner-that might be neglectmeal scarcely exists; and were it not ed; supper might be generally préfor women, whose delicacy of organiza- ferred ; and, nevertheless, dinner tion does not allow them to fast so would be as truly entitled to the name long as men, would probably be of dinner as before. Many a student abolished. It is singular in this, as neglects his dinner; enthusiasm in other points, how nearly England in any pursuit must often have ex. and ancient Rome approximate. We tinguished appetite for all of us. all know how hard it is to tempt à Many a time and oft did this happen man generally into spoiling his appe- to Sir Isaac Newton. Evidence is on tite, by eating before dinner. The record, that such a deponent at eight same dislike of violating what they o'clock A.M., found Sir Isaac with one called the integrity of the appetite, stocking on, one off ; at two, said de[integram famem,] existed at Rome. ponent called him to dinner. Being Every man who knows any thing of interrogated, whether Sir Isaac had Latin critically, sees the connexion of pulled on the minus stocking, or garthe word integer with in and tetigi: tered the plus stocking, witness replied integer means what is intact, unviola- that he had not. Being asked if Sir ted by touch. Cicero, when protest. Isaac came to dinner, replied that he ing against spoiling his appetite for did not. Being again asked, " at sundinner, by tasting any thing before- set, did you look in on Sir Isaac ?” hand, says, integram famem ad cenam Witness replied, I did. And now, afferam ; I shall bring to dinner an upon your conscience, sir, by the virtue appetite untampered with. Nay, so of your oath, in what state were the much stress did the Romans lay on stockings ? Ans. In statu quo ante maintaining this primitive state of the bellum.
It seems Sir Isaac had appetite undisturbed, that any prelu- fought through that whole battle of a sions with either jentaculum or pran. long day, so trying a campaign to dium were said, by a very strong many people, he had traversed that phrase indeed, polluere fumem, to whole sandy Zaarrah, without calling, pollute the sanctity of the appetite. or needing to call at one of those founThe appetite was regarded as a holy tains, stages, or mansiones, * by which vestal flame, soaring upwards towards (according to our former explariation) dinner throughout the day: if unde- Providence has relieved the continuity bauched, it tended to its natural con- of arid soil which else disfigures that summation in cæna: expired like a long dreary level. This happens to phænix, to rise again out of its own all; but was dinner not dinner, and ashes. On this theory, to which lan- did supper become dinner, because Sir guage had accommodated itself, the Isaac Newton ate nothing at the first, two prelusive meals of nine o'clock A.M., and threw the whole day's support and of one P. M., so far from being ra- upon the last ? No, you will say, a tified by the public sense, and adopted rule is not defeated by one casual deviinto the economy of the day, were re- ation, nor by one person's constant degarded gloomily as gross irregulari. viation. Every body else was still dining ties, enormities, debauchers of the at two, though Sir Isaac might not; natural instinct ; and, in so far as and Sir Isaac himself on most days no they thwarted that instinct, lessened more deferred his dinner beyond + wo, it, or depraved it, were universally than he sate with one stocking ofi. But held to be full of pollution ; and, what if every body, Sir Isaac included, finally, to profane a motion of nature. had deferred his substantial meal until Such was the language.
night, and taken a slight refection only But we guess what is passing in the at two ? The question put does really reader's mind. He thinks that all this represent the very case which bas proves the prandium to have been a happened with us in England, In meal of little account; and in very many 1700, a large part of London took a cases absolutely unknown. But still he meal at two P.M., and another at seven
* “ Mansiones ”-the halts of the Roman legions, the stationary places of repose which divided the marches, were so called,