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subject to the future action of the Congress of the United States, and in the mean time to be used solely to maintain peace and order within the 'borders of the States respectively. “3d. The recognition, by the Executive of the United States, of the several State Governments, on their officers and Legislatures taking the oath prescribed by the Constitution of the United States; and, when conflicting State Governments have resulted from the war, the legitimacy of all shall be submitted to the Supreme Court of the United States. “4th. The réestablishment of all Federal courts in the several States, with powers as defined by the Constitution and the laws of Congress. “5th. The people and inhabitants of all States to be guaranteed, so far as the Executive can, their political rights and franchises, as well as their rights of person and property, as defined by the Constitution of the |United States and of the States respectively. “6th. The executive authority or Government of the United States not to disturb any of the people, by reason of the late war, so long as they live in peace and quiet, and abstain from acts of armed hostility, and obey the laws in existence at the place of their residence. “7th. In general terms, it is announced that the war is to cease; a general amnesty, so far as the Executive of the United States can command, on condition of the disbandment of the Confederate armies, the distribution of arms and the resumption of peaceful pursuits by officers and men hitherto composing said armies. Not being fully empowered by our respective principals to fulfill these terms, we individually and officially pledge ourselves to promptly obtain authority, and will endeavor to carry out the above programme. “W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-General, *Commanding Army of the U. S. in North Carolina. “J. E. JosiNstoN, General,
* Commanding Confederate States Army in North Carolina.”
Gen. Sherman had already received" with horror the tidings of President Lincoln's assassination; but he had not adequately realized the effect of that atrocious deed on the temper and spirit of the loyal millions and their rulers. This statement is made in explanation simply. He had seen Gen. Weitzel’s permission to the Rebel Legislature of Vir
ginia to réassemble at Richmond; he
“1st. It was an exercise of authority not vested in Gen. Sherman, and, on its face, shows that both he and Johnston knew that Gen. Sherman had no authority to enter into any such arrangements.
“2d. It was a practical acknowledgment of the Rebel Government.
* April 17. voL. II.-48.
* April 21.
“3d. It undertook to réestablish Rebel State governments that had been overthrown at the sacrifice of many thousand loyal lives and immense treasure, and placed arms and munitions of war in the hands of Rebels at their respective capitals, which might be used, so soon as the armies of the |United States were disbanded, and used to conquer and subdue loyal States. “4th. By the restoration of Rebel authority in their respective States, they would be enabled to rêestablish Slavery. “5th. It might furnish a ground of responsibility on the part of the Federal Government to pay the Rebel debt, and certainly subjects loyal citizens of Rebel States to debts contracted by Rebels in the name of the State. “6th. It puts in dispute the existence of loyal State governments, and the new State of West Virginia, which had been recognized by every department of the United States Government. “7th. It practically abolished confiscation laws, and relieved Rebels of every degree, who had slaughtered our people, from all pains and penalties for their crimes. “8th. It gave terms that had been deliberately, repeatedly, and solemnly, rejected by President Lincoln, and better terms than the Rebels had ever asked in their most prosperous condition. “9th. It formed no basis of true and lasting peace, but relieved Rebels from the presence of our victorious armies, and left them in a condition to renew their efforts to overthrow the United States Government and subdue the loyal States whenever their strength was recruited and any opportunity should offer.”
Gen. Grant was sent post-haste to Raleigh to announce the rejection of the Sherman-Johnston programme, and to direct an immediate and general resumption of hostilities. On reaching Morehead City,” he dispatched the decision of the Government to Sherman at Raleigh, who instantly transmitted its purport to Johnston, adding a notification that the truce would close 48 hours after the receipt hereof at the Rebel lines, with a demand that Johnston's army be forthwith surrendered on the identical terms accorded by Grant to Lee. He at once directed his subordinate
- . . commanders to be ready to resume the offensive at noon on the 26th. Grant reached Raleigh on the 25th; when another invitation to a confer. ence was received from Johnston by Sherman, who referred it to his superior. Grant declined to relieve Sherman from command, as he was authorized to do, and urged him to meet Johnston as requested; so the 26th was appointed for their third and final interview; at which John. ston’s army was surrendered on the terms already accorded to Lee's. The agreement was signed by Sherman and Johnston, but indorsed, “Approved: U. S. Grant, Lieut.-General:" and thus passed out of existence the second army of the Confederacy.
Mr. Jefferson Davis, with his staff and civilian associates, having journeyed by rail from Richmond to Danville," he there halted, and set up his Government; issuing" thence a stir ring proclamation, designed to inJ'April 5.'
spirit the Confederates to a determined prosecution of the contest; saying: “We have now entered upon a new phase of the struggle. Relieved from the necessity of guarding particular points, our army will be free to move from point to point to strike the enemy in detail far from his base. Let us but will it, and we are free. “Animated by that confidence in your spirit and fortitude which never yet failed me, I announce to you, fellow-countrymen, that it is my purpose to maintain your cause with my whole heart and soul; that I will never consent to abandon to the enemy one foot of the soil of any one of the States of the Confederacy. That Virginia—noble State—whose ancient renown has been eclipsed by her still more glorious recent history—whose bosom has been bared to receive the main shock of this war—whose sons and daughters have exhibited heroism so sublime as to render her illustrious in all time to come—that Virginia, with the help of the people and by the blessing of Providence, shall be held and defended, and no peace ever be made with the infamous invaders of her territory. “If, by the stress of numbers, we should ever be compelled to a temporary withdrawal from her limits, or those of any other Border State, again and again will we return, until the baffled and exhausted enemy shall abandon in despair his endless and impossible task of making slaves of a people resolved to be free. “Let us, then, not despond, my countrymen; but, relying on God, meet the foe with fresh defiance and with unconquered and unconquerable hearts. “JEFFERSoN DAVIs.”
He waited there several days, in anxious expectation of the approach of Lee, or at least of tidings that he Was still confronting and baffling the Union forces; until astounded” by advices of his surrender at Apponattox. The Confederacy thereupon took to wheels again—there being no *Ceptable alternative—and retreated by rail to Greensboro’, N. C., where *nother considerable halt was made the days and nights spent mainly * the cars by President, Cabinet, *nd followers; since very few of the
citizens saw fit to throw open their
houses — when the imminence of Johnston's surrender compelled an
other flitting”—this time in wagons
and on horseback: the railroad hav
ing been disabled by Stoneman—via Salisbury to Charlotte, N. C., where its foundering ark again rested for a few days; and where, unlike their fare at Greensboro’, the falling President and his Cabinet were received with consideration and hospitality— until, alarmed by the reported approach of Stoneman's cavalry, it resumed its flittings southward, via Yorkville and Abbeville, S.C.; being now compelled to take entirely to horse, and escorted by 2,000 cavalry, who, as well as the Presidential cortege, gradually dwindled by the way: thus reaching” Washington, Ga., where the rapidly dissolving view of
a Government was dispensed with— most of the Cabinet itself having by this time abandoned the sinking craft, leaving Davis attended by Reagan (late Postmaster-General, now acting Secretary of the Treasury) and his military staff; and the remaining fugitives, with a small but select escort of mounted men, took their way southward: perhaps intent on joining Dick Taylor or Kirby Smith, should either or both be still belligerent, or, at the worst, hoping to make their way to some petty port on the coast, and thence out of the country. Mr. Davis had even separated, for greater safety, from his family; but, on an alarm of peril to which they were said to be exposed from a conspiracy to rob them of the gold they were supposed to be carrying off, had rejoined them over night; when his
sylvan encampment near Irwinsville,
* April 15,
Ga., was struck” by Lt.-Col. Pritchard, 4th Michigan cavalry, who, upon advices that what remained of the Rebellion was making its way furtively southward through Georgia, had been dispatched” by Gen. Wilson from Macon in quest of him; as had also the 1st Wisconsin cavalry, Lt.-Col. Harden. These two commands, moving by different roads down the Ocmulgee, Pritchard at length struck the trail he was seeking, and followed it to the encampment aforesaid; which he surprised at early dawn; easily taking captive” Mr. Davis, his wife, her sister, and his children; but being, directly thereafter, involved in a fight with the 1st Wisconsin, which was closing in on the quarry from another quarter, and —each taking the other for enemies —the two commands opened a reciprocal fire, whereby two men were killed and several wounded before the mutual mistake was discovered. The dead were borne sadly to Abbeville, and there buried; the wounded, with the prisoners, were conveyed to
*May 11. *May 7. *With regard to Davis's alleged attempt to elude his captors in female guise, the following statement by Lt. C. E. L. Stuart, of his staff, probably embodies the literal truth:
“When the musketry-firing was hoard in the morning, at ‘dim, gray dawn,” it was supposed to be between the apprehended [Rebel] marauders and Mrs. Davis's few camp-defenders. Under this impression, Mr. Davis hurriedly put on his boots, and prepared to go out for the purpose of interposing, saying: “‘They will at least as yet respect me.' “As he got to the tent door thus hastily equipped, and with this good intention of preventing an effusion of blood by an appeal in the name of a fading but not wholly faded authority, he saw a few cavalry ride up the road and deloy in front. “‘Ha, Federals I' was his exclamation. “‘Then you are captured!' cried Mrs. Davis, with emotion. “In a moment, she caught an idea—a woman's idea—and, as quickly as women in an emergency execute their designs, it was done. He slept in
Macon,” whence Davis was taken, via Savannah and the ocean, to Fortress Monroe; where he was long closely and rigorously imprisoned, while his family were returned by water to Savannah and there set at liberty. Secretary Reagan—the only person of consequence captured with Davis—was taken to Boston, and confined, with Vice-President Stephens (captured about this time also in Georgia), in Fort Warren; but each was liberated on parole a few months thereafter.
The following general order seemed for a time to menace a protracted, though not doubtful, struggle in Texas:
“HEADQ'Rs TRANs-Mississippi DEP'T., } SHREVEpoRT, LA., April 21, '65. “Soldiers of the trans-Mississippi Army: | “The crisis of our revolution is at hand. Great disasters have overtaken us. The Army of Northern Virginia and our Commander-in-Chief are prisoners of war. With you rest the hopes of our nation, and upon your action depends the fate of our people. I appeal to you in the name of the cause you have so heroically maintained—in the name
a wrapper—a loose one. It was yet around him: "This she fastened, ere he was aware of it, and then, bidding him adieu, urged him togo to the spring, a short distance off, where his horses and arms were. Strange as it may seem, there was not even a pistol in the tent. Davis felt that his only course was to reach his horse and arms, and complied. As he was leaving the door, followed by a servant with a water. bucket, Miss Howell flung a shawl over his head. There was no time toremove it without exposure and embarrassment; and, as he had not far to go, he ran the chance exactly as it was devised for him. In these two articles, consisted the woman's attire of which so much nonsense has been spoken and written; and, under these cir- | cumstances and in this way was Jefferson Davis going forth to perfect his escape. No bonnet, no gown, no petticoats, no crinoline—nothings of all these. And what there was, happened
to be excusable under ordinary circumstances, and perfectly natural as things were: ofut it was too late for any effort to reach his horses; and the Confederate President was in the hands of the United *May 13.
at last a prisoner States.”