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PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES
THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES,
AT THE SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS, BEGUN AT THE CITY
OF WASHINGTON, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1820.
Monday, November 13, 1820.
The result was, that the term of service of Mr. The second session of the Sixteenth Congress Holmes will expire on the 3d March next, and commenced this day, at the City of Washington, that of Mr. Chandler on the 3d of March two conformably to the act, approved the thirteenth of years thereafter. May, one thousand eight hundred and twenty, en
Mr. King, of Alabama, moved the appointment titled “An act fixing the time for the next meeting of a committee to acquaint the President of the of Congress," and the Senate assembled. United States of the organization of the Senate,
and of its readiness to receive any
from him; whereupon, Messrs. King, of Alabama, David L. Morril and John F. PARROTT, from and Macon were appointed. the State of New Hampshire.
On motion of Mr. Morril, JAMES Burrill, jr., from Rhode Island. Resolved, That two Chaplains, of different deIsaac TICHENOR, from Vermont.
nominations, be appointed to Congress, during the Rufus King and'Nathan Sanford, from New present session, one by each House, who shall inYork.
terchange weekly Mahlon DICKERSON and JAMES J. Wilson,
The orders usual at the commencement of the from New Jersey.
session having been made, the Senate adjourned. Jonathan ROBERTS and WALTER LOWRIE, from Pennsylvania.
Tuesday, November 14.
William A. PALMER, from the State of VerJames Barbour and James Pleasants, from mont, and John Williams, from the State of Virginia.
Tennessee, severally attended. Nathaniel Macon, from North Carolina.
The PRESIDENT communicated a copy of the JOAN GAILLARD and William Smith, from
constitution, as adopted for the government of the South Carolina.
State of Missouri, which was read. RICHARD M. Johnson, from Kentucky.
Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Smith, John Henry Eaton, from Tennessee.
Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inBENJAMIN Ruggles and WILLIAM A. Trimble, quire whether any, and if any, what, legislative from Ohio.
measures may be necessary for admitting the State James Brown and Henry Johnson, from Lou- of Missouri into the Union. isiana.
Messrs. Smith, Burrill, and Macon, were apWALLER Taylor and JAMES Noble, from In- pointed the committee. diana.
The Senate adjourned to two o'clock, to await Thomas H. Williams and David Holmes, and met again, but finding the House of Repre
the organization of the House of Representatives, from Mississippi.
Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. Thomas, from sentatives had not yet elected a Speaker, they adIlipois.
journed until to-morrow. William R. King and John W. Walker, from Alabama.
WEDNESDAY, November 15. John CHANDLER and John HOLMES, from Samuel W. Dana, from the State of ConnectiMaine.
cut, attended. Joan GAILLARD, President pro tempore, resumed Mr. BURRill communicated a resolution, passed the Chair.
by the Legislature of the State of Rhode Island The new members having qualified and taken and Providence Plantations, instructing their Sentheir seats, they were classed, by lot, as is usual. ators, and requesting their Representatives in Con
President's Annual Message.
gress, to exert their influence to reduce the com- been shaken, and the long and destructive wars in pensation of members of Congress to six dollars which all were engaged, with their sudden transition per day; and the resolution was read.
to a state of peace, presenting, in the first instance, On motion by Mr. WALKER, of Alabama, the unusual encouragement to our commerce, and withSenate adjourned to one o'clock in the afternoon. drawing it in the second, even within its wonted limit,
could not fail to be sensibly felt here. The station, One o'clock in the afternoon.
too, which we had to support through this long conA message from the House of Representatives fict, compelled as we were finally to become a party informed the Senate that a quorum of the House to it with a principal Power, and to make great er. of Representatives is assembled, and bave elected ertions, suffer beavy losses, and to contract considerable John W. Taylor, one of the Representatives from debts, disturbing the ordinary course of affairs, by aug. the State of New York, their Speaker, in the place menting. to a vast amount, the circulating medium, of Henry Clay, resigned, and are ready to proceed and thereby elevating, at one time, the price of every to business; and that they have appointed a com
article above a just standard, and depressing it at anomittee on their part to join the committee appoint-ther below it
, bad likewise its due effect. ed on the part of the Senate, to wait on the Presi
It is manifest that the pressures of which we comdent of the United States, and inform him that a plain bave proceeded, in a great measure, from these quorum of the two Houses is assembled, and ready
When, then, we take into view the prosperto receive any communications he may be pleased great circumstances which constitute the felicity of a
ous and happy condition of our country, in all the to make to them. Mr. King, of Alabama, reported, from the joint his rights: the Union blessed with plenty, and rapidly
nation--every individual in the full enjoyment of all committee, that they had waited on the President rising to greatness
, under a national Government, of the United States, and that the President in which operates with complete effect in every part, withformed the committee that he would make a com- out being felt in any, except by the ample protection munication to the two Houses forth with.
which it affords, and under State governments which perPRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
form their equal share, according to a wise distribution
of power between them, in promoting the public hapThe following Message was received from the piness—it is impossible to behold so gratifying, so gloPRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES :
rious a spectacle, without being penetrated with the Fellow-citizens of the Senate
most profound and grateful acknowledgments to the and of the House of Representatives : Supreme Author of all good for such manifold and inIn communicating to you a just view of public af- estimable blessings. Deeply impressed with these fairs, at the commencement of your present labors, I sentiments, I cannot regard the pressures to which I do it with great satisfaction ; because, taking all cir. have adverted otherwise than in the light of mild and cumstances into consideration which claim attention, instructive admonitions; warning us of dangers to be I see much cause to rejoice in the felicity of our situa- shunned in future; teaching us lessons of economy, tion. In making this remark, I do not wish to be un corresponding with the simplicity and purity of our derstood to imply that an unvaried prosperity is to be institutions, and best adapted to their support ; evinseen in every interest of this great community. In the cing the connexion and dependence which the various progress of a nation, inhabiting a territory of such vast parts of our happy Union have on each other, thereby extent and great variety of climate, every portion of augmenting daily our social incorporation, and adding, which is engaged in foreign commerce, and liable to by its strong ties, new strength and vigor to the politbe affected, in some degree, by the changes which oc- ical ; opening a wider range, and with new encourcur in the condition and regulations of foreign coun- agement, to the industry and enterprise of our fellowtries, it would be strange if the produce of our soil and citizens at home and abroad; and more especially by the industry and enterprise of our fellow-citizens re. the multiplied proofs wbich it has accumulated of the ceived at all times, and in every quarter, an uniform great perfection of our most excellent system of govand equal encouragement. This would be more than ernment, the powerful instrument, in the hands of our we would have a right to expect, under circumstances all-merciful Creator, in securing to us these blessings. the most favorable. Pressures on certain interests, it Happy as our situation is, it does not exempt us is admitted, has been felt; but allowing to these their from solicitude and care for the future. On the congreatest extent, they detract but little from the force of trary, as the blessings which we enjoy are great, prothe remarks already made. In forming a just esti- portionably great should be our vigilance, zeal, and mate of our present situation, it is proper to look at activity, to preserve them. Foreigo wars may again the whole, in the outline, as well as in the detail. A expose us to new wrongs, which would impose on us free, virtuous, and enlightened people know well the new duties, for which we ought to be prepared. The great principles and causes on which their happiness state of Europe is unsettled, and how long peace may depends; and even those who suffer most, occasion. be preserved is altogether uncertain ; in addition to ally, in their transitory concerns, find great relief un- which, we have interests of our own to adjust, which der their sufferings, from the blessings which they will require particular attention. A correct view of otherwise enjoy, and in the consoling and animating our relations with each Power will enable you to form hope which they administer. From whence do these a just idea of existing difficulties, and of the measures pressures come? Not from a Government which is of precaution best adapted to them. founded by, administered for, and supported by the Respecting our relations with Spain, nothing expeople. W trace them to the peculiar character of plicit can now be communicated. On the adjournthe epoch in which we live, and to the extraordinary ment of Congress in May last, the Minister Plenipooccurrences which have signalized it. The convul- tentiary of the United States, at Madrid, was instruct. sions with which several of the Powers of Europe have ed to inform the Government of Spain that, if His
President's Annual Message.
Catholic Majesty should then ratify the treaty, this France before its existence was known, have entered Government would accept the ratification, so far as the ports of the United States, and been subject to its to submit to the decision of the Senate, the question, operation, without that previous notice which the genwhether such ratification should be received in ex-eral spirit of our laws gives to individuals in similar change for that of the United States, heretofore given
The object of that law having been merely to By letters from the Minister of the United States to countervail the inequalities which existed to the dis. the Secretary of State, it appears that a communica- advantage of the United States, in their commercial tion, in conformity with his instructions, had been intercourse with France, it is subinitted, also, to the made to tha Government of Spain, and that the Cortes consideration of Congress, whether, in the spirit of had the subject under consideration. The result of the amity and conciliation which it is no less the inclinadeliberations of that body, which is daily expected, tion than the policy of the United States to preserve, will be made known to Congress as soon as it re in their intercourse with other Powers, it may not be ceived. The friendly sentiment which was expressed proper to extend relief to the individuals interested in on the part of the United States, in the Message of the chose cases, hy exempting from the operation of the 9th of May last, is still entertained for Spain. Among law all those vessels which have entered our ports the causes of regret, however, which are inseparable without having had the means of previously knowing from the delay attending this transaction, it is proper the existence of the additional duty. to state that satisfactory information has been received, The contest between Spain and the Colonies, acthat measures have been recently adopted, by design- cording to the most authentic information, is maining persons, to convert certain parts of the Province tained by the latter with improved success. The of Florida into depots for the reception of foreigo unfortunate divisions which were known to exist some goods, from whence to smuggle them into the United time since, at Buenos Ayres, it is understood, still States. By opening a port within the limits of Flor- prevail. In no part of South America has Spain made ida, immediately on our boundary, where there was any impression on the colonies, while, in many parts, no settlement, the object could not be misunderstood. and particularly in Venezuela and New Granada, the An early accommodation of differences will, it is hoped, colonies have gained strength and acquired reputation, prevent all such fraudulent and pernicious practices, both for the management of the war, in which they and place the relations of the two countries on a very have been successful, and for the order of the internal amicable and permanent basis.
administration. The late change in the Government The commercial relations between the United States of Spain, by the re-establishment of the constitution and the British colonies in the West Indies, and on of 1812, is an event which promises to be favorable to this continent, have undergone no change; the British the Revolution. Under the authority of the Cortes, Government still preferring to leave that commerce the Congress of Angostura was invited to open a neunder the restriction heretofore imposed on it, on each gotiation for the settlement of differences between the side. It is satisfactory to recollect that the restraints parties, to which it was replied, that they would wilresorted to by the United States were defensive only, lingly open the negotiation, provided the acknowledgintended to prevent a monopoly, under British regu- ment of their independence was made its basis, but lations, in favor of Great Britain; as it likewise is 10 not otherwise. Or further proceedings between them know that the experiment is advancing in a spirit of we are uninformed. No facts are known to this Gure amity between the parties.
ernment, to warrant the belief, that any of the Powers The question depending between the United States of Europe will take part in the contest; whence, it and Great Britain, respecting the construction of the may be inferred, considering all circumstances, which first article of the Treaty of Ghent, has been referred, must have weight in producing the result, that an adby both Governments, to the decision of the Emperor justment will finally take place, on the basis proposed of Russia, who has accepted the umpirage.
by the colonies. To promote that result, by friendly An attempt has been made with the Government of counsels, with other Powers, including Spain herself, France, to regulate, by treaty, the commerce between has been the uniform policy of this Government. the two countries, on the principle of reciprocity and In looking to the internal concerns of our country, equality. By the last communication from the Minister you will, I am persuaded, derive much satisfaction Plenipotentiary of the United States at Paris, to whom from a view of the several objects to which, in the disfull power had been given, we learn that the negotia- charge of your official duties, your attention will be tion had been commenced there ; but, serious difficul. drawn. Among these, none holds a more important ties baring occurred, the French Government had place than the public revenue, from the direct operation resolved to transfer it to the United States, for which of the power, by which it is raised, on the people, and purpose the Minister Plenipotentiary of France had by its influence in giving effect to every other power been ordered to repair to this city, and whose arrival of the Government. The revenue depends on the remight soon be expected. It is hoped that this impor sources of the country, and the faciliiy by which the tant interest may be arranged on just conditions, and amount required is raised, is a strong proof of the extent in a manner equally satisfactory to both parties. It is of the resources, and the efficiency of the Government. submitted to Congress to decide, until such arrange- A few prominent facts will place this great interest in ment is made, how far it may be proper, on the prio-a just light before you. On the 30th of Septeinber, ciple of the act of the last session, which augmented 1815, the funded and fuating debt of the United States the tonnage duty on French vessels, to adopt other
was estimated at one hundred and nineteen millions measures for carrying more completely into effect the six hundred and thirty-five thousand five hundred and policy of that act.
fifty-eight dollars. Ii to this sum be added the amount The act referred to, which imposed new tonnage on of five per cent. stock subscribed to the Bank of the French vessels, having been in force from and after United States, the amount of Mississippi slock, and the first day of July, it has happened that several ves of the stock which was issued subsequently to that sels of that nation which had been despatched from date, the balances ascertained to be due to certain
President's Annual Message.
States, for military services, and to individuals, for present season, in examining the coast and its various supplies furnished, and services rendered during the bays and other inlets ; in the collection of materials, late war, the public debt may be estimated as and in the construction of fortifications for the defence amounting, at that date, and as afterwards liquida- of the Union, at several of the positions at which it has ted, to one hundred and fifty-eight millions seven hun- been decided to erect such works. At Mobile Point dred and thirteen thousand forty-nine dollars. On and Dauphin Island, and at the Rigolets, leading to the 30th of September, 1820, it amounted to ninety-one Lake Pontchartrain, materials to a considerable amount millions nine hundred and ninety-three thousand eight have been collected and all the necessary preparations hundred and eighty-three dollars, having been reduced made for the commencement of the works. At Old in that interval, by payments, sixty-six millions eight Point Comfort, at the mouth of James river, and at hundred and seventy-nine thousand one hundred and the Rip-Rap, on the opposite shore, in the Chesapeake sixty-five dollars. During this term, the expenses of Bay, materials to a vast amount have been collected; the Government of the United States were likewise and at the Old Point some progress has been made in defrayed, in every branch of the civil, military, and the construction of the fortification, which is on a very naval establishments ; the public edifices in this city extensive scale. The work at Fort Washington, on have been rebuilt, with considerable additions; exten- this river, will be completed early in the next Spring; sive fortifications have been commenced, and are in a and that on the Pea Patch, in the Delaware, in the train of execution; permanent arsenals and magazines course of the next season. Fort Diamond, at the have been erected in various parts of the Union ; our Narrows, in the harbor of New York, will be finished Navy has been considerably augmented, and the ord this year. The works at Boston, New York, Baltinance, munitions of war, and stores, of the Army and more, Norfolk, Charleston, and Niagara, have been in Navy, which were much exhausted during the war, part repaired; and the coast of North Carolina, ex. have been replenished.
tending south to Cape Fear, has been examined, as By the discharge of so large a proportion of the have likewise other parts of the coast eastward of Bospublic debt, and the execution of such extensive and ton. Great exertions have been made to push forward important operations, in so short a time, a just estimate these works with the utmost despatch possible ; but, may be formed of the great extent of our national re- when their extent is considered, with the important
The demonstration is the more complete and purposes for which they are intended, the defence of gratifying, when it is recollected that the direct tax the whole coast, and in consequence of the whole inand excise were repealed soon after the termination of terior, and that they are to last for ages, it will be manthe late war, and that the revenue applied to these ifest that a well-digested plan, founded on military purposes has been derived almost wholly from other principles, connecting the whole together, combining
security with economy, could not be prepared without The receipts into the Treasury, from every source, repeated examinations of the most exposed and diffi. to the 30th of September last, have amounted to six- cult parts, and that it would also take considerable teen millions seven hundred and ninety-four thousand time to collect the materials at the several points where one hundred and seven dollars and sixty-six cents; they would be required. From all the light that has whilst the public expenditures, to the same period, been shed on this subject, I am satisfied that every amounted to sixteen millions eight hundred and sev. favorable anticipation which has been formed of this enty-one thousand five hundred and thirty-four dollars great undertaking will be verified, and that when comand seventy-two cents; leaving in the 'Treasury, on pleted it will afford very great, if not complete, protecthat day, a sum estimated at one million nine hundred tion to our Atlantic frontier in the event of another and fifty thousand dollars. For the probable receipts war; a protection sufficient to counterbalance in a of the following year, I refer you to the statement | single campaign with an enemy powerful at sea the which will be transmitted from the Treasury.
expense of all these works, without taking into the The sum of three millions of dollars, authorized to estimate the saving of the lives of so many of our citibe raised by loan, by an act of the last session of Con- zens, the protection of our towns and other property, gress, has been obtained upon terms advantageous to or the tendency of such works to prevent war. the Government, indicating, not only an increased Our military positions have been maintained at confidence in the faith of the nation, but the existence Belle Point, on the Arkansas, at Council Bluffs, on the of a large amount of capital seeking that mode of in- Missouri, at St. Peter's, on the Mississippi, and at Green vestment, at a rate of interest not exceeding five per Bay, on the Upper lakes. Commodious barracks have centum per annum.
already been erected at most of these posts, with such It is proper to add, that there is now due to the works as were necessary for their defence. Progress Treasury, for the sale of public lands, twenty-two mil- has also been made in opening communications belions nine hundred and ninety-six thousand five hun-tween them, and in raising supplies at each for the dred and forty-five dollars. In bringing this subject support of the troops by their own labor, particularly to view, I consider it my duty to submit to Congress, those most remote. whether it may not be advisable to extend to the pur- With the Indians peace has been preserved, and a chasers of these lands, in consideration of the unfa- progress made in carrying into effect the act of Convorable change which has occurred since the sales, a gress, making an appropriation for their civilization, reasonable indulgence. It is known that the purcha- with the prospect of favorable results. As connected ses were made when the price of every article had risen cqually with both these objects, our trade with those to its greatest height, and that the instalments are tribes is thought to merit the attention of Congress. becoming due at a period of great depression. It is in their original state, game is their sustenance and presumed that some plan may be devised, by the wis- war their occupation : and if they find no employment dom of Congress, compatible with the public interest, from civilized Powers, they destroy each other. Left which would afford great relief to these purchasers. to themselves, their extirpation is inevitable. By a
Considerable progress has been made, during the judicious regulation of our trade with them, we supply