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OF PETROLEUM VAPOR,

A YACHT PROPELLED BY THE EXPLOSION composed almost wholly of iron, which

is kñown as meteoric iron. It is always Messrs. Samuel and John Secor, of alloyed with nickel and a few other met

als, and contains carbon free or in comBrooklyn, have had a yacht 100 feet bination, as in steel, with frequently sullong, built at Poillon's shipyard. The motive power of this vessel is a modified phuret and phosphuret of iron în scattered

globules and grains. It is always recog. form of gas engine, in which the gases nizable by a single peculiarity, in its resulting from the explosion of a mixture structure. If we moisten a polished surof air and petroleum vapor are made to face of it with an acid, we shall immeimpinge directly upon the water through diately observe the appearance of numersuitable portholes beneath the surface, The Scientific American says:

ous straigbt lines, as fine and as true in " When

their parallelism as if made with an enthe motor was first started, the only re- gravers' tool, and crossing one another in sults of the explosion were seen in the a net work of regular geometrical figures. bubbling of the water at her stern; but These designs, called ihe figures of Widas the machinery became heated, and the manstaetten, after the first observer of explosions more numerous and violent, them, result from the fact that the metal the vessel moved forward with fairly is not of homogeneous constitution. It smooth motion, and the gas came to the is composed of two alloys of iron and surface of the water in fine bubbles some nickel, in a crystalline condition, one of distance from the stern. Considerable which, not being affected by the acid, difficulty has been experienced in the vi- stands out in relief from the other, which brations produced when the first explo- is attacked by it. The meteorites of this sions take place and before the boat is group are called holosiderites, or all iron, under headway. But these have been in distinction from the others, which greatly reduced, and it is not too much contain also stony matters. They are to hope that they can be entirely avoided vastly more rare than those of the other when the mechanism is perfected. There

groups. The stony substances of the is at present but very little ground upon other groups consist chiefly of silica in which to calculate the probable economy combination with the magnesia and perof the vessel. At first sight there would oxide of iron, as peridote or pyroxene. appear to be good grounds for hoping If these silicates are in small proportion desirable results, and doubtless the ex- and thinly scattered through the iron, periments will settle the matter.

they are syssiderites; if it is the iron that is in relatively small proportion and ap.

pearing only in isolated grains, they As the meteors come to the earth with ites, comparatively few in number, no

are sporadosiderites. In other meteorout undergoing any change except as to metallic iron can be perceived, and they their superficial vitrification, we are able, are called asiderites. The most interby subjecting them to analysis, to derive esting specimens among them are re. from them some precise facts respecting marked by their dull-black color, and a the constitution of the bodies in space. general appearance like that of peat or The first fact, which comes out from hundreds of analyses, is, that they have lignite. Besides stony matters, they connot brought a single substance which is tain carbon in combination with hydro

and oxygen

a chemical quality foreign to our globe. About twenty-two which has led to their being examined elements, all known to the chemistry of for remains of organic beings. But no the earth, have been recognized as present trace of anything of the kind has been in them. Among these, iron, silicon, discovered. magnesium, nickel, sulphur, phosphorus, and carbon, are the most important. While they are all clad externally in a common livery, meteorites, when exam- The microscopic determination of the ine

in their fractured parts, along with different qualities of iron and steel is traits of similarity, present considerable now regarded as one of the most valuable differences. They have been classified aids in metallurgical industries. Thus the according to their tyres, into four groups, crystals of iron are double pyramids in according to the proportion of iron they which the proportion of the axes to the contained. Those of the first group are basis varies with the quantity of the iron.

WHAT THE METEORS BRING TO US.

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IRON AND STEEL CRYSTALS.

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the smallness of the crystals and the height of the pyramids composing each element are in proportion to the quality and density of the metal, which are seen

THE BRAKE QUESTION. also in the fineness of the surface; and as the proportion of the carbon diminishes

Railway managers are now called upon in the steel, the pyramids have so much to consider the numerous advantages of the less height.

power brakes for freight locomotives and In pig iron and the lower qualities of automatic brakes for freight cars in comhard steel the crystals approach more parison with the old fashioned band closely the cubic form. Forged iron has

brakes. If economy and a reasonable its pyramids flattened and reduced to regard for the safety of human life alike superposed parallel leaves, whose struct demand that the old should give place to ure constitutes what is called the nerve the new, no false ideas of conservatism of the steel; and the best quality of steel or expense should delay the desirable has all its crystals disposed in parallel movement. lines, each crystal filling in the interstices

The importance of the ability to quickbetween the angles of those adjoining, ly stop freight trains cannot be overestithese crystals having their axes in the di mated. The number of such trains and rection of the percussion they undergo the rate of speed have been largely induring the working. Practically, good creased during the last fifteen years, and steel has the appearance, microscopically, although, by careful watching, the use of of large groups of beautiful crystals.

the telegraph and electrical and other signals, the danger of accidents has been

lessened, collisions are still of too freDr. Widmark, a Swedish surgeon, quent occurrence. In spite of the most having as a patient a young girl in whom careful management trains run into each he was unable to detect the slightest path other and life and property are destroyed. ological changes of the right eye, but If quicker stops could be made, fewer who was yet completely blind on that accidents on account of obstructions side, observing considerable defects in would happen. Every company now has the teeth, sent her to M. Skogsborg, a a long list of claims to settle for stock dental surgeon, who found that all the killed or injured which would be lessened upper and lower molars were completely if engineers were able to better control decayed, and that in many of them the their trains. The stops at stations, crossroots were inflamed. He extracted the ings and water tanks, consume more time remains of the molars on the right side, because the heavy trains must slacken up and in four days' time the sight of the when far away from the halting place. right eye began to return, and on the This is especially the case when on a down eleventh day after the extraction of the grade. teeth it had become quite normal. The Freight and equipment are seriously diseased fangs of the other side were injured by the violent shocks they receive subsequently removed, lest they should when the trains are being made up. Because a return of the ophthalmic affec- sides the loss of time consumed in shunttion.

ing, the locomotives and cars are bruised

and injured and the brakemen exposed to According to the Canada Medical Rec- greater risks, all because the unwieldy ord, Pavesi recommends a liniment com- switch engines have no power brakes to posed of camphorated chloral 21 parts, control their movements. pure glycerine 1612 parts, and oil of It may be remarked here, that while sweet almonds, 10 parts. This is to be the old fashioned hand-brakes are better well mixed and preserved in a hermetic- than nothing, they are entirely inadequate ally closed bottle. A pledget of very for their intended purpose. Possibly soft cotton is to be soaked in the liniment they did moderately well in the old times and then introduced as far as possible in- when the freight cars were light and the to the affected ear, two applications being locomotive small and imperfect. Now made daily. Frictions may also be made the cars are loaded twice as heavily as ten each day with the preparation behind the years ago and the locomotives weigh two ear. It is claimed that the pain is almost or three times as much. In consequence immediately relieved, and even in many of this greater power in the engines the cases the inflammation is subdued. trains are larger. But the grades on the roads have not been reduced nor has the power brakes for freight locomotives and power of the brakes been increased. The automatic brakes for freight cars have. results can be inferred.

been discovered which do substantially One of the greatest defects of the band all that is desired of them. brakes was the inability to quickly apply The advantages of these appliances are them in case of emergency. When the numerous and the first one is that, while brakemen were at their posts in approach- comparatively inexpensive, they do their ing stations stops were made with reason work infinitely better. The wear and able promptness but when the danger sig- tear is much less and the saving amounts nal was given out on the road it almost to thousands of dollars annually. invariably found the brakemen in the

The demand of the times is for fast caboose. Hasten as they might it was freight trains. On the important through several minutes before they could set any lines through freights make passenger brakes at all. If the train was made up time. Now recollect the deficiencies of of open cars loaded with machinery or the hand brakes and the necessities for lumber, progre:ss was slower and risk to quick stops and consider how this inlife greater. When the brakes were ready crease in the speed of trains increases the to be applied the train was in the ditch or dangers to the crews, to passenger trains the cars piled up on the track.

and to property of the companies generRight here may be noted the powerless-ally. What chance does a heavy freight ness of the hand brakes to protect life. on a down grade stand of coming to a The brakemen have always taken their halt if an obstacle is met? What chance lives in their own hands. If the night do the crew have for their lives when the was dark or stormy, or the tops of the danger whistle sounds? cars slippery with ice and snow or rain, the brakemen had to crawl along the tops road how can they halt at the stations

As these heavy trains rush over the of the cars with the greatest caution and and crossings without a long preparation. even then many a gallant fellow went At the tanks and coal chutes there is gen

erally considerable backing and pulling an obstruction was suddenly sighted on before the right position is reached. a dark stormy night to call for brakes. The damage to equipment caused by this is avoided and the stops are made

With the power and automatic brakes all this lack of power in the brakes was and twice as quickly and easily. It is estiis in the aggregate enormous. Whenever mated by reliable authority that, in makan obstruction was met or a sudden stop ing up trains and in switching, an engine from any reason became necessary, the having the power brakes will bandle engineer would reverse his engine. The fifty per cent. more cars than one with. effects of this were dangerous in the ex. ouť these appliances. The consequent treme for drawheads and bumpers were saving in the wear and tear of equipment broken, trucks were thrown out, train

is enormous. With the hand brakes it is. men killed, and the sparks and cinders believed that every time a train goes over in the steam chest and cylinders, cutting the road the loss of wear and breakage and roughening the smooth surfaces and and loss of link pins and couplers valves, did serious injury to the locomo- amounts to $10 or $15. With the auto tive. In making up trains and in switch- matic and power brakes this cost is reing the same destructive defects were duced to a minimum One year's savings were noticed. If rough usage is ever to

would apply the new inventions. be found it is seen in every yard and terminal station. The wonder is that equip

If the trains could stop quickly, less ment is not damaged more.

stock would be killed and fewer colliThe loss of time on account of these sions would occur or derailments hapdefective brakes in the aggregate amounts pen,

And what shall be said of the protecto hours and days. A few minutes unnecessary delay of every freight at every tion to human life to be caused by the stopping place causes a large per cent. of general application of these new brakes, additional expense,

giving the engineer control of his train. Clear it is from these facts that some Is this to be estimated in money? Surely appliances were needed whereby these de- for this saving, if for no other reason, fects might be cured and the evils rem- the new appliances must come into uniedied. The tests and experience of the versal use.

Thoughtful railway men must be conpast year seems to conclusively show that

Excluding interest:

feet,

33
4

middle

vinced by these facts that self interest NOVELTIES IN LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. and a slight regard for economy as well One of the recent novelties in locomoas a decent respect for humanity demand tive construction is to be found in the dethe application of these power and auto sign of M. Estrade, which he proposes to matic freight train brakes. When the try on the southern lines in France. M. change is made all will wonder how they Estrade in fact has not confined himself ever did without them for they will be to the locomotive, but has also designed considered indispensable,

à complete system of rolling stock for a The time for this change and the adop: passenger train, which has been exhibited tion of these appliances has come.—R. Ř. in model forn at the Conservatoire des Register.

Arts et Metiers, and will shortly be put

to the practical test. Convinced of the FAST TIME.

value of large wheels, M. Estrade fits not The Master Car Builders held their an only his locomotive, but also the tender nual convention at Niagara Falls recently, and coaches with wheels 874 feet in diclosing June 11. The Western members / ameter. His locomotive is of the outside were taken by a special train of four cars cylinder type, with slide-valve on the top over the Western Division of the Grand of cylinder, and all the gear carried outTrunk, and a remarkable fast run was side, according to the general plan on the made: leaving Niagara Falls at 9:45 A. M. continent. The six wheels of 84 feet and arriving at Windsor, a distance of diameter are coupled and placed as close 22912 miles, at 2:55 P. M.-5 hours and together as possible, as will be seen from 10 minutes, including stops, of which the following table of dimensions, which there were 13, and three of them, 17, 10 will be studied with curiosity, if not with and 8 minutes respectively. Excluding stops, the run was made in 3 hours and Total length.. 57 minutes—or 22912 miles in 237 min- Width between longitudinals.. utes. With the exception of 11 miles on Distance between axles, rear to

874 the Copetown grade, a uniform speed of

812 60 miles an hour was maintained through Distance between axles, middle out, and the roadbed is in such excellent

to leading

834 condition that the cars ran se steadily

Cylinders-diameter.

1892 inches. that it was observed water in a glass near

6% feet. ly full on the table did not spill.

2434 sq. feet. Heating surface

1,408 Capacity of boiler

cu. feet. Weight of engine, empty

Weight of engine, loaded.. According to the Scientific Commercial, It is calculated that this engine will be the following are the dates of the intro- capable of maintaining speeds of 72 to duction of railways in the various coun- 78 miles an hour. The tender has wheels tries from 1825 to 1860: England, Sep. 8/4 feet in diameter, and is arranged to tember 27, 1825; Austria, September 30, carry as much water and coal as possible, 1828; France, October 1, 1828; United but otherwise presents no features of States, December 28, 1829; Belgium, May novelty. The coaches are peculiar in 3, 1835; Germany, December 7, 1835; 1 that they are carried inside iron girders, Island of Cuba, in the year 1837; Rus- while the wheels run under the center of sia, April 4, 1838; Italy, September, the longitudinal seats. Two axles, 16 1839; Switzerland, July 15, 1844; Jamai- feet apart, support, through elliptic ca, November 21, 1845; Spain, October springs mounted upon the oil-boxes, these 24, 1848; Canada, May, 1850; Mexico, in longitudinal girders, which have ends the year 1850; Peru, in the year 1850; curving toward the ground. Each girder Sweden, in the year 1851; Chili

, January, carries three other elliptic springs, from 1852; East Indies, April 18, 1853; Nor- which is suspended, by means of iron way, July, 1853; Portugal, in the year rods, the lower frame on which the body 1854; Brazil, April 30, °1854; Victoria, of the car is supported. The coach is September 14, 1854; Colombia, January separated into two stories, the lower of 28, 1855; New South Wales, September which is made in three pendent sections 25, 1855; Egypt, January, 1856; Middle with doors, which may be used as bag. Australia, April 21, 1856; Natal, June gage rooms, etc. Above is a single com26, 1860; Turkey, October 4, 1860. partment with central passageway.

2712

stroke..

from axis to axis.. Grate surface

sq. feet.

144
38
42

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tons, tons.

INTRODUCTION OF RAILROADS.

THE HOLDING POWER OF BOILER FLUES

STEAM GAUGES SHOULD BE TESTED. showing 150 pounds. Further investiga

There is a tendency on the part of en. tion showed an astonishing state of affairs. gineers to trust implicitly in their steam The ends of the boiler above the flues gauges

. These are usually the only and had been forced out, tearing the stays last resort for determining the steam loose from the head and the boiler forced pressure under which the boiler may be out of shape in other respects, and yet working. But the best gauges are liable the flues set in the ordinary way held the to err, and after long use to require re boiler head securely, even after the stays adjustment. It is fortunate that the had given way. error is usually on the safe side of indi- Just what pressure was reached has not cating more than the actual pressure. as yet been definitely determined, but the But there is danger in even this, for the cylinder oil, for which a fire test' of 600° careless engineer, after finding out that is claimed, was completely burned up, his gauge marks too high, is apt to disre- and the babbitt bushing in the valve rod gard it entirely and not know how much stuffing-box was absolutely melted by too high it indicates. The steam gauge the heat of the steam in the steam chest. should be periodically examined, tested, It is proposed to ascertain if possible the and adjusted, and that, too, by a gauge melting point of this same piece of babthat is known to be

correct, or, what is bitt metal and so get the actual pressure. better still, by a mercury column that cannot go wrong. The reason why the NEW ELEVATED RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE, gauge is usually neglected is probably the fact that its working parts are so en

The mechanical department of the New tirely inc:osed that they remain some

York Elevated Railroad have recently what of a mystery to the man whose designed a new locomotive for service on movements they regulate.

the road. This engine is intended as the heaviest standard, and was designed with a view of handling the five-car trains

now run during commission hours. A PREVENTS AN EXPLOSION.

modification of the Belpaire fire-box is. During the recent meeting of the Mas- used, but the outside shell, while kept ter Mechanics, the question of the hold- flat, is not sloped in a way that might ing power of boiler tubes when beaded restrict the steam space. The only woodand unbeaded, was indirectly brought up, work used about this engine is the boilerand as a recent case of boiler experience lagging and the cab window linings, has quite a bearing on that point, as well Steel is used for every piece and casting as being of general interest, we give the where its application could reduce the account as it has been given to us, know- weight. Steam chest casings and dome ing the statement, so far as the impor-casings are steel castings, and the diatant facts are concerned, to be correct. mond truck castings are mostly of steel.

A new engine and boiler of modern The fire-box and grate area have been indesign and best construction had recently creased, and the boiler has got 154 tubes been erected and ran with promising sat- 122 inch diameter, that being 22 more isfaction for some days. The first indica- than the other boilers. tion of anything being wrong was a leak The cylinders have one inch more diage around the valve stem of the engine ameter than the other engines, and in It was the aim of the proprietor to run working order the engine is one ton at from 80 to 100 pounds boiler pressure, heavier. One engine of this type was built but the safety-valve lever was only grad at the company's shops at Ninety-eighth uated to 90 pounds, and in order to deter- street, New York, lately, and is now in mine the action of the engine at 100 service. A very close record of her perpounds extra weights were ordered to be formance has been kept. She is doing placed upon it. The pressure gauge in the work on 29 pounds of coal to the dicating but 80 pounds, and the safety train-mile, and is evaporating 774 pounds valve still continuing to blow, more of water to the pound of coal. The link weights were added until the idea oc- motion is new, and was designed by Mr. curred to some one that perhaps the pres- John D. Campbell, general foreman of sure gauge pipe was clogged. This was the shops, who schemed it to give as nearfound to be the case, and after being ly as possible equal distribution of steam cleaned out and the gauge replaced, the for forward and back gear.–National Car hand immediately went round to the pin and Locomotive Builder.

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