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I. ESSAYS ON PHRENOLOGY; OR AN INQUIRY INTO THE PRINCIPLES AND UTILITY OF THE SYSTEM OF DRS GALL AND SPURZHEIM. -FHRENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CEREBRAL DEVELOPEMENT CP DAVID HAGGART.
III-LIFE OF DAVID HAGGART, WRITTEN BY HIMSELF WHILE UNDER SEX
TENCE OF DEATH.
IV. SPURZHEIM ON EDUCATION.
THE most inveterate enemies of Gall and Spurzheim must now be convinced-convicted-of the blind folly of their opposition to the doctrines of those great discoverers in the philosophy of the human mind. Fortunately for mankind, David Haggart murdered the jailor of the Dumfries prison; and that distinguished Craniologist, Mr George Combe, having, according to the method of induction prescribed by his predecessor, Lord Bacon, and explained by his contemporary, Mr Macvey Napier, studied the natural character of the murderer, as indicated by his cerebral organization, he has been enabled to place Phrenology among the number of the exact sciences. Looking upon this achievement as by far the greatest that has been performed in our day, we shall endeavour to present our readers with a short sketch of Mr Combe's discoveries, which have thus formed an era in the history of human knowledge.
Mr George Combe, who possesses a tenderness of sensibility rarely found united with great intellectual power, made his experiments on Mr David Haggart, who was yet unexecuted, with a kindness and a courtesy which cannot be too highly eulogized, or too warmly recommended to the practice of other men of true science. Though Mr Haggart had dedicated his youth, with an almost exclusive passion, to the pursuits of pocket-picking, thieving in general, highway robbery, and murder; yet Mr Combe wisely and humanely saw in this no reason against treating him with delicacy and respect; and accordingly, there is something very touching in the account of the first interview between the great craniologist and the great criminal. "On going over his head," says Mr Combe, "I mentioned to him THE FEELINGS AND POWERS which it indicated; but he made no remarks as to the correctness or incorrectness of the observations. On telling him that
he had a greater developement of BENEVOLENCE AND JUSTICE than I had anticipated, his countenance softened. and he almost shed a tear." The mos flinty bosom must be softened-the most stony eye melt-we should this -at this simple recital. Mr Combe with his hand slowly moving up ar down, and round about Mr Haggart youthful and devoted head-the ev of the tender-hearted murderer gradually becoming suffused with tearsthe silk and spotted pocket-handker chief purchased, no doubt, from the man at the corner, softly applied by the sympathizing phrenologist to the face of the too sensitive assassin-M J. R. Sibbald, jailor, we presume, and Mr James Law, junior, a gentleman to us unknown-standing silent by each probably with a face as long a his arm-furnish a scene, inferior dignified and solemn pathos, perhaps only to the death of Socrates. W recommend it as a subject to M Geddes, far more likely to attract public attention than the discovery the Regalia. A set of quizzical la officers, with gowns and wigs, peep ing into a great chest, like a mea garnel, or staring about them wit ugly and unmeaning faces, upon most unmeaning of all possible occa sions, could never be put into com petition, for a single moment, wit the first philosopher and the first fel of the age, laying their heads togethe for the completion of mental science in the presence of two awe-struck and reverential disciples.
This tender interview was befor condemnation. But David was trie
and ordered to be hanged by the neck till dead, between the hours of eight and nine in the morning of J 18, 1821. That restraint under which he had laboured during this afflicti interview, was now removed. There was now, alas! no longer any reaso for concealing the truth-and Combe now saw that many little trai
David's character as a thief, a rober, and a murderer-many little nice id delicate shades of iniquity, which id formerly been concealed, would ow appear to the inspection of the e of science, and that, by their apication to the Theory, new light ould be thrown on the whole moral ad intellectual nature of man.
It does not appear from Mr Combe's atement at least if it does, it has caped our notice that he performed y process of manipulation on the cebral organization of Mr Haggart, fter condemnation. But he drew up character of the criminal from the evelopement of his head, as formerly oted, and submitted it to his own servation, as to correctness. In dog so, Mr Combe still observed the me laudable delicacy and refined umanity towards him, who was the abject of his queries, and soon about kewise to be the subject of the still ore searching home-thrusts of Dr Ionro, that had marked the whole of is behaviour during their interview. n the sketch submitted to Mr Hagart, every expression was avoided that ight seem in any way to convey any arsh and needless disapprobation of hat peculiar mode of life, which he ad chalked out for himself, or any ant of sympathy with those peccailloes, which had brought him withn a very few days journey of the scafold. Mr Combe, with the wisdom of philosopher, and the charity of a Christian, blandly intimates to David, 'that the motive of doing so is not to ndulge in idle curiosity, but to throw ight upon the natural dispositions which particularly lead a young man into I sporting line of life!! for the purpose of devising effectual means to relaim young offenders at the outset of heir career, by placing them in circumstances calculated to cultivate the good, and restrain the evil tendencies of their nature. The present conversation is entirely confidential, and will not be abused. Ďavid Haggart is therefore requested to be open and completely candid in his remarks." The expression, "sporting line of life," is most judiciously selected by Mr Combe, from the vocabulary most familiar to the gentleman whom he addressed, and is well calculated to keep in the back-ground all those painful and distressing associations, which the mind is but too apt to connect with the
words, burglary, robbery, and murder. It throws a certain air of cheerfulness and merriment over crimes of the blackest dye, which, in a great measure, reconciles us to them, and thereby enables us to look on them with little or no disturbance, so that we can the better judge of their real character. An ordinary person cannot think of bloody crimes with too great agitation of abhorrence; but a philosopher, like Mr Combe, is superior to these delusions of the imagination, and therefore thinks and writes rationally of murders and murderers. Next to the wisdom implied in such phraseology, appears to us that shewn in the penultimate sentence of the paragraph now quoted. Hitherto we have known nothing of the natural dispositions which lead young men into a sporting line of life, or what makes them robbers and murderers. The whole subject has lain hid in utter darkness. No attempt ever has been made to speculate on it; and consequently no effectual means ever adopted to educate the young people of this or any other country. Mr Combe's object, therefore, was to ascertain facts never before understood, and thence to deduce rules for a grand system of moral education or regeneration. And these views he recommended, as was proper, to the enlightened mind and enlarged understanding of Mr Haggart, who appears to have entered into them with his usual energy, and with a zeal, which, considering the peculiar circumstances of his situation, may be thought by some to class him among the most disinterested benefactors of our species.
The result of Mr Combe's observations, and of Mr Haggart's own remarks upon them, is a more perfect knowledge of the sources of wickedness and crime in the human heart, than has ever before been possessed by any people; and now it becomes an imperious duty on Mr Combe, and a duty indeed, which he pledged himself to the late Mr Haggart and his executors forthwith to perform, to devise effectual means for reclaiming young offenders at the outset of their career. As soon as this plan is published, we shall think it our duty to lay an account of it before the public; and if it is to be carried into effect by subscription, we put our name down, Christopher North, Esq. ten gui
neas; and there can be no doubt, that our example will be speedily followed by Lord Grey, Mr Lambton, Mr Wilbraham Bootle, Gale Jones, J. A. Murray, Esq. &c. But we positively object to Sir James Macintosh being treasurer, for reasons which we shall be happy to communicate to him, whenever he writes to us upon the subject. It is plain, that had Mr Combe's intended plan been carried into effect, "for reclaiming young offenders at the outset of their career," some late subscriptions, and, among others, that for Sir Robert, would have been uncalled for.
The real character of the late lamented Mr Haggart, as indicated by his cerebral organization, may be supposed by shallow thinkers to be at variance (in some of the minuter points) with his supposed character, as indicated by some of his actions. This discrepancy, however, disappears before the eye of philosophy.
"The developement of Haggart's head, as it appears upon the cast of the skull, is as follows:
1. Amativeness, moderate. 2. Philoprogenitiveness, large. 3. Inhabitiveness, large. 4. Adhesiveness, moderate. 5. Combativeness, very large. 6. Destructiveness, full. 7. Constructiveness, large. 8. Acquisitiveness, moderate. 9. Secretiveness, very large. 10. Self-esteem, very large. 11. Love of approbation, small. 12. Cautiousness, full. 13. Benevolence, large. 14. Veneration, moderate. 15. Hope, rather small. 16. Ideality, very small. 17. Conscientiousness, small. 18. Firmness, very large. 19. Individuality, moderate. 20. Form, full.
21. Size, moderate.
22. Weight, unascertained. 23. Colouring, small.
24. Locality, large.
25. Order, full.
26. Time, moderate.
27. Number, moderate.
28. Tune, full.
29. Language, full.
As the above is, beyond all doubt, his real character, just let us observe how it tallies with his life, and ac
knowledge what an excellent young man he must have been, as young men go.
1. Amativeness. It was moderate. Now this is just what amativeness ought to be in a human creature. A man is not a horse, a bull, or a ram; and therefore David Haggart's organ of amativeness was moderate. Accord ingly, Mr Combe prettily writes, "You would not be the slave of the sexual passion; you could resist that tendency, without a great effort, when you wished to do so." This remark David rather misunderstood. He seems to have forgot Mr Combe's philosophi cal character, and the great aim of all his inquiries, namely, to establish a new system of education, and to have suspected that his friend was sneering on a point, on which all men are extremely tender, be the size of their or gan of amativeness what it may. So David rather pettishly replies:
"You have mistaken me in this point of sexual passion; for it was my greatest failing, that I had a great inclination to the fair sex,-not, however, of those called Prostitutes; for I never could bear the thought of a whore, although I was the means of leading away and betraying the innocence of young women, and then leaving them to the freedom of their own will. I believe that I was the master of that art more than any other that I followed."
Now all this is perfectly consistent with a moderate sized amative organ. "An inclination for the fair sex," to employ Mr Haggart's moderate and well-chosen expression, does not imply extreme criminality; and his natu ral and acquired abhorrence of " those called prostitutes," is much in favour both of himself and of Mr Combe. "Leading away and betraying the innocence of young women, and then lea ving them to the freedom of their own will," was certainly far from being one of the most amiable habits of this accomplished young man; but it is by no means conduct inconsistent with the possession of a moderate organ of amativeness; for in Haggart it seems to have proceeded from a mixed feeling. Pride of art, vanity, &c. were gratified by these successful amours; and he knows little indeed of Mr Haggart's character-little indeed of human nature in general-perhaps little of his own, who does not know that even this mixed, compounded, and complex emotion, excited Captain Smith of Halifax to the seduction
he unfortunate Miss Baillie. Besides, erhaps, there is a little embellishment 1 this picture from Mr Haggart's nagination. Wiser and better men han he, have been apt to stretch a long ow in love matters; and let us hope hat David was not so ruinous to the aid-servantry of Scotland as this conession, so much in the spirit of Rouscau, might lead us to suppose. His me seems to have been rather too uch occupied to have left him any isure hours for such exploits, which ve should conjecture must often prove dious and protracted even to the most exterous; and his opportunities of rming acquaintance with modest oung women, in decent private famies, could not have been very great. Here and there too, during his Meoirs, as dictated to his amanuensis, Ir Robertson, he seems to talk of "those alled prostitutes," in a way rather inConsistent with his language on that lass of society, in his remarks on Combe. We hear of him passing whole months houses of bad fame, and a scene of uch profligacy and wickedness in an rish Jail is alluded to, that Mr Hagart's modesty prevents him from layng the details before the public. In ct, notwithstanding his abhorrence to those called prostitutes," he seems ɔ have lived in their company at all imes when not with his male palls, ollowing the more or less active duties f his profession; and let us hope, that, n the same principle of historic truth, e abstained entirely from the comany of those modest virgins whom te says he found so much pleasure in leluding. Still, in whatever concluon the mind may ultimately rest, here is no reason to doubt that his onduct is reconcileable to the fact of moderate organ of amativeness, which s the point contended for by us and Mr Combe.
2. Philoprogenitiveness, LARGE.— This is an exceedingly amiable trait in he natural character of Haggart. This organ is in general larger in females than in males; and its great size indicates the feminine tenderness of Haggart's heart. No doubt, had he been the father of a family, he would have been a most indulgent one,-perhaps spoiled his children by giving them too much of their own way,-unless, indeed, his firmness, which we shall see he possessed in an eminent degree, had counteracted the tendency to this
amiable weakness, and made him occasionally apply the rod. He says nothing of natural children, in his Memoirs, so that this organ had never been brought into play.
3. Inhabitiveness, LARGE. According to Spurzheim, the positive evidence of the existence of this faculty is insufficient; and it is stated only as conjectural. Perhaps, therefore, the organ which is now supposed to be that of inhabitiveness, may afterwards turn out to be for some totally different purpose. This also is conjectural. Haggart had it large; and it appears from almost every page of his Memoirs, that he had the faculty in great perfection. He took up his habitation any where—in lodging-houses,—in bagnios,-in prisons,-in sheds,-in hay-stacks,-in woods,-in ditchesno place came amiss to him. animals," says Mr Combe, tial to high regions, some to low countries and plains, and others to marshes." Haggart was not so nice-but would sleep one night in the Figgite Whins, one inch above the level of the sea, and another on the top of Arthur's Seat, 800 feet above high water.
4. Adhesiveness, MODERATE. "The function of this faculty is to give attachment in general." See Combe on Phrenology, p. 145. "When too strong,-excessive regret at a loss of a friend, or excessive uneasiness at leaving our country, called Nostalgia, is the result." Ibidem.-Haggart seems to have mixed a good deal with society; but then it is to be remembered, that it was not from the feeling of "adhesiveness," or attachment to the parties, but simply in order to pick their pockets. He certainly says that he loved his friend Barney, but it was not pure disinterested attachment. It was rather admiration of superior talents and acquirements—and when Barney's own feelings of adhesiveness were violently rent asunder by transportation for fourteen years to BotanyBay, it appears that Haggart mourned, not for the loss of a bosom friend, but for the withdrawing of the guiding genius of his profession. good spirit, he says, forsook him when Barney was lagged, and he never prospered afterwards. No symptoms of Nostalgia ever shewed themselves in David. Indeed, he was preparing to go to France, and we have understood that he would willingly
have had sentence of death commuted for that of transportation for life. Therefore his organ of adhesiveness was but moderate.
5. Combativeness, VERY LARGE. 6. Destructiveness, FULL. Haggart, according to his own account, was a tolerable pugilist. But unluckily he was but poorly made about the chest, shoulders, and arms. He was an eleven stone man; but he could not have stood for ten minutes before the Sprig of Myrtle, who weighs only a few pounds above eight. We saw him dissected by Dr Monro, and that skilful anatomist observed the defects we have now spoken of. At school, &c. he used to fight boys bigger than himself; and in Ireland, on one occasion, he fought a Paddy, and smashed him all round the ring. So he says. On another occasion, he and Barney together knocked down a man in a flash-house, and Haggart struck him when down with the heels of his shoes. There are other anecdotes to which we might refer to prove his combativeness. He knocked down a pig-drover at an Irish fair; and also struck a man on horseback from behind with the butt-end of his whip. His destructiveness was exhibited by his shooting a Newcastle beak, and by fracturing the skull of the Dumfries jailor. He had also in tended to drown a justice of the peace, we forget where, and to shoot an Edinburgh police-officer.
7. Constructiveness, LARGE. This organ was, we understand, very large in the late Mr Rennie, who designed the Waterloo Bridge, and the Plymouth Breakwater. Why it should have been so large in Haggart, who does not appear to have studied architecture, it is hard to say. But he had a mechanical turn, and could construct false keys. He had also a singular felicity in pulling down walls, and getting out of places of confinement. This shewed he excelled in one part of the mason's trade. Besides, Mr Combe says in his Phrenology, p. 150, "That it does not form ideas of the objects to be constructed."- "Its function is to produce the desire or impulse to construct in general."
8. Acquisitiveness, MODERATE. No. 8, in Mr Combe's great work, is called Covetiveness; and he observes, " that the intention of nature in giving this faculty, is to inspire us with the desire of acquiring; so that, in consequence
of its activity, we may possess when the day of want comes, and not be left to the uncertain provision which could be made from the mere dictates of reason, after tracing a long chain of consequences.' In Haggart this organ was moderate. Now it appears, that he never shewed the least disposition to hoard. We do not read of his having lodged money with Sir William Forbes, or lent it out on heritable bonds, or dabbled in the stocks. Mr Combe adds, "This faculty, when too energetic, and not controlled by superior powers, produces theft." But he ought to have added, that the individual must, in that case, be both a thief and a miser. Now Haggart, as we have seen, was no miser; therefore, though a thief, his organ of acquisitiveness was moderate.
9. Secretiveness, VERY LARGE. "The function of this faculty," says Mr Combe, “ appears to be to conceal in general, without delivering the object and the manner of concealing. Many persons conceal their opinions and intentions, and sometimes maintain in conversation, in writing, or in public, an opinion opposite to their own. The faculty gives the propensity in poets to construct interesting plots for romances and dramatic pieces; and it appears to inspire that compound of dissimulation and intrigue which is designated scavoir faire. In animals it produces slyness."—" When the faculty is very powerful, it produces a slyness of look, a peculiar side-long rolling cast of the eyes, and a stiffened approach of the shoulders to the head." Mr Haggart excelled in concealment. He concealed bank-notes in the palm of his hand so dextrously, that they were invisible to the searching eyes of the beak. He concealed his very name, and assumed divers alias's. He not only concealed all his intentions, but he concealed himself for two days in a hay-stack. Had he written for the stage, no doubt he would have constructed interesting plots for romances and dramatic pieces; and we regret that Mr Murray had not retained him about the theatre here as stage-poet. We believe also, that Haggart's general appearance corresponded very nearly with the above description. We never but once had the pleasure of see ing him; and then we particularly remarked "the stiffened approach the shoulders to the head." But can