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ever, that he had got into bed, having him. Titmouse attempted once or once more spelt over the note in ques- twice, during the week, to obtain a sition, he felt as despondent as ever, tuation elsewhere, but in vain. He and thought that Huckaback had not could expect no character from Tagknown what he had been talking about. rag; and when the 10th of August He also adverted to an apparently should have arrived, what was to becareless allusion by Huckaback to the come of him? These were the kind injuries which had been inflicted upon of thoughts often passing through his him by Titmouse on the Wednesday mind during the Sunday, which he night: and which, by the way, Huck- and Huckaback spent together in unaback determined it should be no fault ceasing conversation on the one abof his if Titmouse easily forgot! He sorbing event of the last week. Tithardly knew why-but he disliked mouse, poor puppy, had dressed himthis particularly:- Whom had he, self with just as much care as usual ; however, in the world, but Hucka- but as he was giving the finishing back ? In company with him alone, touches at his toilet, pumping up Titmouse felt that his pent-up feelings grievous sighs every half minute, the could discharge themselves. Huck- sum of his reflections might be stated aback had certainly a wonderful knack in the miserable significance of a of keeping up Titmouse's spirits, quaint saying of Poor Richard's, whatever cause he fancied he might - How hard is it to make an empty really have for depression. In short, sack stand upright!” he longed for the Sunday morning- Although the sun shone as vividly ushering in a day of rest and sympa- and beautifully as on the preceding
Titmouse would indeed then Sunday, to Titmouse's saddened eye have to look back upon an agitating there seemed a sort of gloom every and miserable week, what with the where. Up and down the Park he dismal upsetting of his hopes, in the and Huckaback walked, towards the manner I have described, and the ty close of the afternoon; but Titmouse rannical treatment he experienced at had not so elastic a strut as before. Dowlas and Co.'s. Mr Tag-rag began, He felt empty and sinking. Every at length, in some degree, to relax his body seemed to know what a sad preactive exertions against Titmouse, tender he was: and they quitted the simply because of the trouble it gave magic circle much earlier than had him to keep them up. He attributed been usual with Titmouse. What with the pallid cheek and depressed man- the fatigue of a long day's saunter, ner of Titmouse entirely to the dis- the vexation of having had but a hascipline which had been inflicted upon ty, inferior, and unrefreshing meal, him at the shop, and was gratified at which did not deserve the name of dinperceiving that all his other young ner, and their unpleasant thoughts, men seemed, especially in his presence, both seemed depressed as they walked to have imbibed his hatred of Tit- along the streets. At length they
What produced in Tag-rag arrived at the open doors of a gloomythis hatred of Titmouse ? Simply looking building, into which two or what had taken place on the Monday. three sad and prim-looking people Mr Tag-rag's dignity and power had were entering. After walking a few been doggedly set at nought by one paces past the doorm-' D'ye know, of his shopmen, who had since refused Huck," said Titmouse, stopping, to make the least submission, or offer " I've often thought that--thatany kind of apology. Such conduct there's something in Religion." struck at the root of subordination in “ To be sure there is, for those that his establishment. Again, there is like it--who doubts it? It's all very perhaps nothing in the world so cal- well in its place, no doubt," replied culated to enrage a petty and vulgar Huckaback, with much surprise, mind to the highest pitch of maligni- which increased, as he felt himself ty, as the calm persevering defiance slowly being swayed round towards of an inferior, whom it strives to de- the building in question. « Well,
“ spise, while it is only hating, which it but what of that ?"* at the same time feels to be the case. " Oh, nothing; but--hem ! hem !" Tag-rag now and then looked towards replied Titmouse, sinking his voice to Titmouse, as he stood behind the a whisper-'a touch of-religion counter, as if he could have murdered would not be so much amiss, just now.
I feel-uncommon inclined that way, sitting, and standing with exact prosomehow.”
priety, in the proper places; joining “ Religion's all very well for them audibly in the responses, and keeping that has much to be thankful for ; but his eyes pretty steadily on the prayerdevil take me! what have either you book, which he found lying there. He or me to be
even rebuked Huckaback for whis“ But, Huck-how do you know pering (during one of the most solemn but we might get something to be parts of the service) that “ there was thankful for, by praying-I've often a pretty gal in the next pew !”-He heard of great things;-Come." thought that the clergyman was an
Huckaback stood for a moment ir- uncommon fine preacher, and said resolute, twirling about his cane, and some things that he must have meant looking rather distastefully towards for him, Titmouse, in particular. the dingy building.
66 To be sure,” “ Curse me, Hucky !" said he said he, faintly. Titmouse drew him heatedly, as soon as they quitted the nearer ; but he suddenly started back. church, and were fairly in the street -“No! oh, 'tis only a meeting-house, - Curse me if-if-ever I felt so Tit! Curse Dissenters, how I hate comfortable-like in my mind before, 'em! No-I won't pray in a meeting- as I do now I'll go next Sunday house, let me be bad as I may. Give again." me a regular-like, respectable church, “ Lord, Tit, you don't really mean with a proper steeple, and parson, and -it's deuced dull." prayers, and all that."
“ Hang me if I don't, though! and Titmouse secretly acknowledged if any thing should come of it if I do the force of these observations ; and but get the estate-(I wonder now, the intelligent and piously disposed where Mr Gammon goes to church. couple, with perhaps a just, but cer- I should like to know !-I'd tainly a somewhat sudden regard for regularly)— But if I do get the thing orthodoxy, were not long before they -you see if I don't.” had found their way into a church “Ah, I don't know ; it's not much where evening service was being per- use praying for money, Tit; I've formed. They ascended the gallery tried it myself, once or twice, but it stair; and seeing no reason to be
didn't answer. ashamed of being at church, down 6 I'll take my oath you was staring they both went, with loud clattering at the gals all the while, Hucky!” steps and a bold air, into the very cen- Ah, Titty !" Huckaback winks tral seat in the front of the gallery, ed his eye, and put the tip of his forewhich happened to be vacant. Tit- finger to the tip of his nose, and mouse paid a most exemplary atten- laughed. tion to what was going on, kneeling,
ON THE TRUE RELATIONS TO CIVILISATION AND BARBARISM OF THE
ROMAN WESTERN EMPIRE.
It would be thought strange in. Augustan age, the eye caught glimpses deed, if there should exist a large-a by anticipation of some glorious El memorable section of history, traversed Dorado for human hopes. What was by many a scholar with various ob- the practical result for our historic jects, reviewed by many a reader in a experience ? Answer—A sterile Za. spirit of anxious scrutiny, and yet to arrah. Prelibations, as of some heaventhis hour misunderstood ; erroneously ly vintage, were inhaled by the Virgils appreciated; its tendencies mistaken, of the day looking forward in the and its whole meaning, import, value, spirit of prophetic rapture ; whilst in not so much inadequately-as falsely, the very sadness of truth, from that ignorantly, perversely — deciphered. age forwards the Roman world drank Primâ facie, one would pronounce this from stagnant marshes. A Paradise impossible. Nevertheless it is a truth; of roses was prefigured: a wilderness and it is a solemn truth; and what of thorns was found. gives to it this solemnity is the mys. Even this fact has been missed terious meaning, the obscure hint of a even the bare fact has been overlooked; still profounder meaning in the back- much more the causes, the principles, ground, which begins to dawn upon the philosophy of this fact. The rapid the eye when first piercing the dark- barbarism which closed in behind ness now resting on the subject. Per. Cæsar's chariot wheels, has been hid haps no one arc or segment, detached by the pomp and equipage of the imfrom the total cycle of human records, perial Court. The vast power and promises so much beforehand so much domination of the Roman empire, for instruction, so much gratification to the three centuries which followed the curiosity, so much splendour, so much battle of Actium, have dazzled the depth of interest, as the great period historic eye, and have had the usual
the systole and diastole, flux and re- re-action on the power of vision: flux-of the Western Roman Empire. a dazzled eye is always left in a con. Its parentage was magnificent and dition of darkness. The battle of Titanic. It was a birth out of the Actium was followed by the final con. death-struggles of the colossal repub- quest of Egypt. That conquest roundlic: its foundations were laid by that ed and integrated the glorious empire: sublime dictator, “the foremost man of it was now circular as a shield-orbiall this world,” who was unquestion- cular as the disk of a planet : the ably for comprehensive talents the Lu- great Julian arch was now locked into cifer, the Protagonist of all antiquity. the cohesion of granite by its last Its range, the compass of its extent, key-stone. From that day forward, was appalling to the imagination. for three hundred years, there was Coming last amongst what are called silence in the world: no muttering was the great monarchies of Prophecy, it heard: no eye winked beneath the was the only one which realized in wing. Winds of hostility might still perfection the idea of a monarchia, rave at intervals: but it was on the being (except for Parthia and the outside of the mighty empire: it was great fable of India beyond it) strictly at a dream-like distance; and, like the coincident with ouroujeer, or the ci- storms that beat against some monuvilized world. Civilisation and this mental castle, “and at the doors and empire were commensurate: they were windows seem to call,” they rather interchangeable ideas, and co-exten- irritated and vivified the sense of sesive. Finally, the path of this great curity than at all disturbed its luxuriEmpire, through its arch of progress, synchronised with that of Christianity: That seemed to all men the consumthe ascending orbit of each was pretty mation of political wisdom—the ultinearly the same, and traversed the mate object of all strife—the very same series of generations. These euthanasy of war. Except on some faelements, in combination seemed to bulous frontier, armies seemed gay promise a succession of golden har pageants of the Roman rank rather vests : from the specular station of the than necessary bulwarks of the Roman
power: spear and shield were idle four winds proclaimed his own death trophies of the past : “the trumpet by murder. Not as any thing extraspoke not to the alarmed throng.” ordinary; for, in fact, violent deathHush, ye palpitations of Rome! was death by assassination—was the reguthe cry of the superb Aurelian,* from lar portal (the porta Libitina, or funehis far-off pavilion in the deserts of the ral gate,) through which the Cæsars Euphrates—Hush, fluttering heart of passed out of this world ; and to die in
; the eternal city! Fall back into slum- their beds was the very rare exception ber, ye wars, and rumours of wars ! to that stern rule of fate. Not, there. Turn upon your couches of down, ye fore, as in itself at all noticeable, but children of Romulus-sink back into because this particular murder of your voluptuous repose: We, your al- Probus stands scenically contrasted mighty armies, have chased into dark- with the great vision of Peace, which ness those phantoms that had broken he fancied as lying in clear revelation your dreams. We have chased, we before him, permit us, before we prohave besieged, we have crucified, we ceed with our argument, to rehearse have slain. “ Nihil est, Romulei Qui- his golden promises.
The sabres rites, quod timere possitis. Ego efficiam were already unsheathed, the shirtne sit aliqua solicitudo Romana. Vacate sleeves were already pushed up from ludis-vacate circensibus. Nos publicæ those murderous hands, which were to necessitates teneant : vos occupent vo- lacerate his throat, and to pierce his luptates.”-Did ever Siren warble so heart, when he ascended the Pisgah dulcet a song to ears already prepos- from which he descried the Saturnian sessed and medicated with spells of ages to succeed :-“ Brevi,” said he, Circean effeminacy?
66 milites non necessarios habebimus. But in this world all things re-act: Romanus jam miles erit nullus. Omnia and the very extremity of any force is possidebimus. Respublica orbis terrathe seed and nucleus of a counter- rum, ubique secura, non arma fabricaagency. You might have thought it as bit. Boves habebuntur aratro : equus easy (in the words of Shakspeare) to nascetur ad pacem. Nulla erunt bella : “ Wound the loud winds, or with be
nulla captivitas. Ubique pax : ubique mock'd-at stabs
Romanæ leges: ubique judices nostri.” Kill the still-closing waters,”
The historian himself, tame and creep
ing as he is in his ordinary style, as to violate the majesty of the im- warms in sympathy with the Emperor: perial eagle, or to ruffle s one dowle his diction blazes up into a sudden that's in his plume.” But luxurious explosion of prophetic grandeur : and ease is the surest harbinger of pain ; he adopts all the views of Cæsar. and the dead lulls of tropical seas are 66 Nonne omnes barbaras nationes the immediate forerunners of torna- subjecerat pedibus ?” he demands with does. The more absolute was the lyrical tumult: and then, while consecurity obtained by Cæsar for his fessing the immediate disappointment people, the more inevitable was his of his hopes, thus repeats the great own ruin. Scarcely had Aurelian elements of the public felicity whensung his requiem to the agitations of ever they should be realised by a Rome, before a requiem was sung by Cæsar equally martial for others, but his assassins to his own warlike spirit. more fortunate for himself:
ÆterScarcely had Probus, another Aure- nos thesauros haberet Romana respublian, proclaimed the eternity of peace, lica. Nihil expenderetur à principe; and, by way of attesting his own mar- nihil à possessore redderetur. Aureum tial supremacy, had commanded “ that profecto seculum promittebat. Nulla the brazen throat of war should cease futura erant castra : nusquam lituus to roar," when the trumpets of the audiendus : arma non erant fabricanda.
*" Of the superb Aurelian:”—The particular occasion was the insurrection in the East, of which the ostensible leaders were the great lieutenants of Palmyra_Odenathus, and bis widow, Zenobia. The alarm at Rome was out of all proportion to the danger, and well illustrated the force of the great historian's aphorism— Omne ignotum pro magnifico. In one sentence of his despatch Aurelian aimed at a contest with the great Julian gasconade of Veni, vidi, vici. His words are--Fugavimus, obsedimus, crusiavimus, occidimus."
Populus iste militantium, qui nunc but (laying the stress on the word bellis civilibus Rempublicam vexat”. possidebimus) meant to say, with re. aye! how was that to be absorbed ? gard to property already their ownHow would that vast crowd of half. « We shall no longer hold it as jointpay emeriti employ itself? “ Araret: proprietors with the state, and as studiis incumberet : erudiretur arti- liable to fluctuating taxation, but shall bus : navigaret." And he closes his henceforwards possess it in absolute prophetic raptures thus : “ Adde quod exclusive property.” This is what he nullus occideretur in bello. Dii boni! indicates in saying-Boves habebuntur quid tandem vos offenderet Respublicâ aratro : that is, the oxen, one and all Romanâ, cui talem principem sustu- available for the plough, shall no listis ?"
longer be open to the everlasting Even in his lamentations, it is clear claims of the public frumentarii for that he mourns as for a blessing de conveying supplies to the frontier layed—not finally denied. The land armies. This is what he indicates in of promise still lay, as before, in saying of the individual liable to millsteady vision below his feet ; only tary service that he should no longer that it waited for some happier Au live to slay or to be slain, for barren gustus, who, in the great lottery of bloodshed or violence, but that henceCæsarian destinies, might happen to forth “ araret," or “navigaret." All draw the rare prize of a prosperous these passages, by pointing the exreign not prematurely blighted by the pectations emphatically to benefits of assassin ; with whose purple alourgis purse exonerated, and industry eman. might mingle no fasciæ of crape-with cipated, sufficiently argue the class whose imperial laurels might entwine of interests which then suffered by no ominous cypress. The hope of a war: that it was the interests of primillennial armistice, of an eternal vate property, of agricultural imrest for the earth, was not dead : once provement, of commercial industry, again only, and for a time, it was upon which exclusively fell the evils sleeping in abeyance and expectation. of a belligerent state under the Roman That blessing, that millennial bless. empire: and there already lies a mighty ing, it seems, might be the gift of blessing achieved for social existence Imperial Rome.
-when sleep is made sacred, and
thresholds secure ; when the temple II.- Well : and why not ? the of human life is safe, and the temple reader demands. What have we of female honour is hallowed. These to say against it ? This Cæsar, or great interests, it is admitted, were that historian, may have carried his sheltered under the mighty dome of views a little too far, or too prema- the Roman empire: that is already turely; yet, after all, the very enor. an advance made towards the highest mity of what they promised must be civilisation : and this is not shaken held to argue the enormity of what because a particular emperor should had been accomplished. To give any be extravagant, or a particular histoplausibility to a scheme of perpetual rian romantic. peace, war must already have become No, certainly: but stop a moment rare, and must have been banished to at this point. Civilisation, to the exa prodigious distance.
It was no tent of security for life, and the primal longer the hearths and the altars, rights of man, necessarily grows out home and religious worship, which of every strong government. And it quaked under the tumults of war. It follows also that, as this government
purse which suffered the ex- widens its sphere-as it pushes back chequer of the state; secondly, the its frontiers, ultra et Garamantas et exchequer of each individual ; thirdly, Indos, in that proportion will the danand in the end, the interests of agri. ger diminish (for in fact the possibility culture, of commerce, of navigation. diminishes) of foreign incursions. The This is what the historian indicates, sense of permanent security from conin promising his brother Romans quest, or from the inroad of maraudthat “omnia possidebimus :" by which, ers, must of course have been prodiperhaps, he did not mean to lay the giously increased when the nearest stress on omnia," as if, in addition standing enemy of Rome was beyond to their own property, they were to the Tigris and the Inn-as compared have that of alien or frontier nations, with those times when Carthage, Spain,