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ouched in this unequivocal lanuage:
To the Commander of the United States Jorces, Columbus, Joy. : “Fully capable of taking Columbus and s garrison by force, I desire to avoid sheding blood. I therefore demand the uncontional surrender of the forces under your »mmand. Should you surrender, the ne'oes now in arms will be returned to their asters. Should I be compelled to take the ace by force, no quarter will be shown ‘gro troops whatever; White troops will be eated as prisoners of war. “I am, Sir, yours, “A. BUFoRD, Brig.-Gen.”
It is in vain, in the face of these ocuments, that Forrest—giving his 'ss at 20 killed and 60 wounded, nd claiming to have buried 228 of ur men on the evening of the assault, eside “quite a number” next day— retends that all these were killed in ir fight, or “by a destructive fire to the rear of the retreating and anic-stricken garrison;” and that his uperior, Lee, thus pettifogs the case * the subordinate assassin:
“The garrison was summoned in the ual manner, and its commanding officer sumed the responsibility of refusing to rrender, after having been informed by en. Forrest of his ability to take the fort, ld of his fears as to what the result would in case the demand was not complied ith. The assault was made under a heavy e, and with considerable loss to the atcking party. Your colors were never wered, and your garrison never surrenred, but retreated under cover of a gunlat, with arms in their hands and conantly using them. This was true particutly of your colored troops, who had been mly convinced by your teachings of the rtainty of slaughter in case of capture. ren under these circumstances, many of ur men—White and Black—were taken isoners. I respectfully refer you to hisry for numerous cases of indiscriminate ughter after successful assault, even unr less aggravated circumstances. It is nerally conceded, by all military precent, that where the issue had been fairly esented and the ability displayed, fearful sults are expected to follow a refusal to
surrender. The case under consideration is almost an extreme one. You had a servile race armed against their masters, and in a country which had been desolated by almost unprecedented outrages. “I assert that our officers, with all the circumstances against them, endeavored to prevent the effusion of blood; and, as an evidence of this, I refer you to the fact that both White and Colored prisoners were taken, and are now in our hands.”
All this can not weigh against the solemn oaths of scores of unimpeached witnesses, several of whom were themselves shot and left for deadlong after the fighting had utterly ceased, when they were known to have surrendered, and several of whom testify that they saw prisoners thus butchered next day. And the evidence” of Whites and Blacks proves that the murderers a hundred times declared that they shot the Blacks because they were “niggers,” and the Whites for “fighting with niggers.” If human testimony ever did or can establish any thing, then this is proved a case of deliberate, wholesale massacre of prisoners of war after they had sur. rendered—many of them long after —and for the naked reason that some of them were Black, and others were fighting in Black company.
Forrest retreated rapidly from the scene of this achievement into Mississippi, and was not effectively pursued; there being no adequate cavalry force at hand for the purpose.
Gen. S. D. Sturgis, with 12,000 men, was sent after” Forrest; advancing from Memphis to Bolivar; but of course did not come near him: in fact, there was no chance of over. taking him after he had passed Wolf river and the forces guarding our lines in that quarter.
* Special Report of the Committee on the nduct of the War (House No. 65), 38th Con
gress, 1st session. The testimonyis there given in full. * April 30.
Some weeks later, a similar and in good part the same force, but including most of A. J. Smith's corps, now returned from the luckless Red river campaign, was sent from Memphis af. ter Forrest, with instructions to push on till he was found and beaten, so as to prevent the transfer of a large part of his force to Jo. Johnston, then resisting Sherman in northern Georgia. Maj.-Gen. S. D. Sturgis—in spite of
overwhelming proofs of his aggrava
ted unfitness—was again intrusted with the command. IIis force consisted of 9,000 infantry and artillery, with 3,000 cavalry led by Gen. Grierson. Sturgis had advanced E. S. E. nearly 100 miles, through West Tennessee and northern Mississippi, meeting little opposition till near GUNTowN, on the Mobile railroad; where Grierson's troopers found.” Forrest's cavalry, and pushed it vigorously back on his infantry, which was strongly posted on a semi-circular ridge or crest, with a naked slope in front, and a small creek at its foot, which could with difficulty be forded by infantry at a few points only. Word was sent back to the infantry, now 5 or 6 miles behind; and, in an intensely hot day, they were pushed forward at double-quick to the scene of action, arriving thoroughly blown and incapable of exertion. As if this were not folly enough, the train of more than 200 wagons came rushing up with them, filling the road and impeding the movement of the troops; being hurried over the bridge and parked within sight and range of the enemy's lines. And now, without rest or proper formation, without an attempt to flank the enemy's strong position, or exhibit any common sense
whatever, our exhausted infantry was sent in to the support of the already engaged cavalry; and both, of course, were speedily, thoroughly routed, and in most disorderly flight, over a bad, narrow road, with their train utterly lost at once, and no supplies, no place of refuge, no réenforcements, within three days’ march. The 1st cavalry brigade, Col. Geo. E. Waring, had been carved up to give an escort to the commanding General, and for various details, until not enough was left to present an imposing front; but the 2d brigade, Col. E. F. Winslow, was disposed as a rear-guard, and did what it could to cover the retreat of the hungry mob of fugitives on foot. After crossing a stream at Ripley,” a stand was made and a sharp fight ensued, whereby the pursuit was checked, but with a considerable loss in prisoners on our side. Thenceforward, the pursuit was less eager; but it was continued nearly to Memphis: no attempt being made by Sturgis to réorganize his infantry or do any thing effective to mitigate the severity of the disaster. Our loss, mainly in captives, was variously stated at 3,000 to 4,000; but it is probable that the force that Sturgis brought back to Memphis, counting guns, wagons, and supplies (all lost), was not half so efficient as that with which he set out. Among our killed were Col. T. W. IIumphrey, 95th, and Col. Geo. W. McKeag, 120th Illinois; the former for months acting Brigadier, and both excellent officers. Another expedition, also numbering 12,000, was promptly organized to wipe out the recollection of this most needless disgrace; Gen. A. J. Smith ing placed in command. It was lly equipped at Salisbury, 50 miles st of Memphis, advancing” thence, irmishing incessantly with Forrest's valry, to Tupelo, where the Rebel ief had concentrated his command, timated by our officers at 14,000, d where he had decided to fight. rice his infantry assaulted” our les, and were each time repulsed th heavy loss; being finally driven \m the field, leaving on it as many his men killed or desperately bunded as the whole number of r killed, wounded, and missing. Gen. Smith made no farther adnce; but there was a sharp, indeive cavalry skirmish next day at d Town creek; after which our my was withdrawn to the vicinity Memphis; whence Smith once bre advanced,” with 10,000 men, IIolly Springs to the Tallatehie :" but found no enemy to ht, save a very small body of cavy. Forrest's main body had been awn off for service elsewhere. hith remained in this region sevedays, and then returned to Memis; whence he was soon called to aid of Rosecrans in Missouri, as s already been stated. But while Smith was vainly hunt; for Forrest in Mississippi, that eftain reported himself in person Memphis. Taking 3,000 of his st-mounted men, Forrest flanked” army by night, and made a ced march to Memphis, which he orged into at dawn; * making ditly for the Gayoso house and other els, where his spies had assured n that Gens. IIurlbut, Washburne, | Buckland, were quartered. IIe ed to clutch either of them, but
* June 10.
** June 11.
captured several staff and other officers, with soldiers enough to make a total of 300. Yet he failed to carry Irving prison, where the Rebel captives were in durance, made no attempt on the fort, and was driven out or ran out of the city after a stay of two hours, in which he had done considerable damage and appropriated some plunder. He lost some 200 men here and at Lane's, outside; where a smart skirmish occurred on his retreat, and Cols. Starr and Kendrick on our side were wounded. On the whole, the raid can hardly be deemed a success, and can not have realized the enemy's expectations, unless they were very moderate. As Hurlbut had at least 6,000 men in or about the city, it was not practicable to do more; and Forrest left not a moment too soon. He made his way back to Mississippi unharmed.
In East Tennessee, Gen. Longstreet’s withdrawal into Virginia, af. ter his failure at Knoxville, was at first closely pursued by our cavalry under Shackleford, on whom he turned” at Bean's station, near Morristown, and a spirited fight ensued, with no decided result; but Shackleford does not appear to have hurried Longstreet thereafter.
Wheeler, with 1,200 mounted men, struck” a supply train from Chattanooga to Knoxville, guarded by Col. Siebert, near Charlestown, on the Hiwassee, and had easily captured it—Siebert having but 100 men— when Col. Long, 4th Ohio cavalry, came to his aid with 150 more cavalry and Col. Laibold's 2d Missou: ri infantry; wherewith he quickly retook the train, and hurled the
raiders back on the road to Georgia, with a loss of 41 killed or wounded and 123 prisoners. We lost but 16. Gen. S. D. Sturgis, commanding our advance east of Knoxville, had a fight” at Mossy creek, near Newmarket, with a Rebel force reported by him at 6,000, led by Martin Armstrong and John Morgan; wherein the Rebels were worsted. Our loss was 18 killed, 82 wounded. Sturgis reports the enemy’s at 250 to 400; saying that he buried 22 of their dead and took 44 prisoners. Our advance eastward from Knoxville, having occupied “Dandridge, was attacked there next day, and more determinedly at 3 P. M. the day after ; holding the town till after dark, when our men fell back to Strawberry Plains. Gen. Vance, with 500 mounted men and 2 guns, crossed Smoky mountain from North Carolina into East Tennessee, making for Seviersville; near which place he, with 175 picked men, charged and captured a train of 17 Union wagons, making 26 prisoners. Attempting to return, however, he was surrounded” on Cosby creek by the 4th Illinois cavalry, Maj. Davidson, who routed and captured him, with 100 of his men. Sturgis had several further collisions" with the Rebel cavalry under Martin and Morgan, wherein he claimed the advantage, with a superior loss inflicted on the enemy; but, as he began them near Dandridge and Newmarket, and left off at Maryville —some 30 miles fartherback—it is not safe to credit his estimates of the re
spective losses. IIe claims to have taken 150 prisoners in a cavalry fight near Seviersville; another account
says he lost 200 when the Rebels captured Strawberry Plains. It was supposed on our side that this Rebel advance presaged a fresh attempt on Knoxville by Longstreet; but that able General was doubtless masking the movement of the bulk of his forces into Virginia, whither he retired next month. Of course, that ended the pressure on our lines east of Knoxville.
Morgan remained in East Tennessee—hiding, as well as he could, the paucity of his numbers—till the 1st of June; when he started on another raid, via Pound gap, into Kentucky; evading Gen. Burbridge, who was in that quarter with a superior force, meditating an advance into southwestern Virginia, in concert with the advance of Crook and Averill up the Kanawha. Morgan had but 2,500 followers, and these not so well mounted as they would have been two years earlier. Still, sending forward small parties to purvey as many good horses as possible, he moved, so swiftly as he might, by Paintville, IIazel Green, Owingsville, Flemingsburg, and Maysville, into and through the richest part of the State; capturing Mount Sterling, Paris, Cynthiana, and Williamstown, burning trains, tearing up railroads, &c., almost without resistance. The most amazing feature of this raid was the capture of Gen. Hobson, with 1,600 well-armed Unionists, by Col. Giltner, one of Morgan’s lieutenants, who had 300 only, by crowding him into a bend of the Licking, and then threatening him from the opposite bank so that he was glad to surrender. It is added that the Rebels were nearly out of ammunition. It is o be hoped that they paroled their risoners not to serve again during he War, unless on their side. Gen. Burbridge, who had promptly tarted on Morgan's track, had, by a orced march of 90 miles, struck” im heavily at Mount Sterling; Mor'an decamping at the close to coninue his career. I’art of his force ntered Lexington at 2 next mornng, burned the railroad dépôt, and eft, heading for Frankfort and Reorgetown. T'art of Cynthiana was urned by another detachmentt. But, ear that place, Burbridge fell" on he Itebel raiders while at breakfast; illing and wounding 300 of them, apturing 400, beside 1,000 horses, nd liberating some of IIobson's men. Iobson and staff were recaptured Oon afterward. Our loss in this conict was but 150. Morgan fled to outh-western Virginia with the wreck f his command, which was no longer force. IIe had only gathered a mall band, with which he occupied }reenville, East Tennessee, when he :as surprised” and killed by Gen. Hillem ; who, being apprised of his rrival, had made a forced march of 6 miles from Bull's gap to catch him. Burbridge was detained for weeks n Kentucky, réorganizing and remounting his overmarched force; then he resumed the movement ‘hich had been arrested by Moran’s raid. IIe struck directly for he salt-works at Saltville, near Abngdon; where he found himself con'onted" in strong force by Breckindge, by whom he was beaten off with loss of 350 men, including Col. Ma»n, 11th Michigan, killed. He drew if during the night after the conict, alleging a lack of ammunition; * June 9. "June 12. "Sept. 3.
* Dec. 29. * Jan. 15, 1SG4.
* Jan. 15. * Jan. 16–2S.
but, as he left his wounded to the enemy, it would seem that the real difficulty was a superfluity rather than a scarcity at least of balls. Gen. Gillem, still posted near Bull's gap, finding a Rebel force, composed of the brigades of Waughan and Palmer, in his rear at Morristown, suddenly attacked" and routed them, with a loss on their side of 400 men and 4 guns. Two weeks later, Breckinridge in like manner surprised Gillem by a night attack;" routing him utterly, with the loss of his battery, train, and most of his small arms, which his men threw away to expedite their flight. The darkness was intense, and Burbridge admits a loss of 220 men only. He took refuge in Knoxville, leaving Breckinridge transiently master of the situation. Johnson's island, Lake Erie, near Sandusky, Ohio, having been made a prison-camp, where several thousands of captive Rebels were usually confined, plots were laid by certain of the IRebel agents and refugees in Canada to liberate them. To this: end, the unarmed steamboat Philo Parsons, on her way" from Detroit to Sandusky, stopping at Malden, Canada, there took on board 20 passengers, who, at 6 P.M., proclaiming themselves Confederate soldiers, seiz: ed the boat, and with her captured the Island Queen; soon scuttling the latter; then standing in for Sandusky, where they expected, in concert with secret allies in that city, to capture the U.S. gunboat Michigan; but their signals were not answered, and they soon put off; running the boat on the Canada shore near Sandwich, and escaping. ** Oct. 28.
* Oct. 2.
* Sept. 19.
** Nov. 13.