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About this time also arrived lord Baltimore, a Roman catholick nobleman, who had previously settled in Newfoundland, but was attracted to Virginia by the fame of its growing prosperity. As the settlement of catholicks in Virginia had been prohibited by the colonial charters, the assembly thought proper to tender to his lordship the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. These oaths he refused to take, preferring an exile from the blessings of colonial protection and favour to base subjection to the unreasonable restraints imposed by government.

Lord Baltimore was fortunate enough however to obtain a grant of a large territory on the north east corner of Virginia, which was settled in the reign of queen Mary, and in honour of that princess was called Maryland.

Meanwhile the Indians continued their incursions, and the Pamunkies and Chickahomonies in particular, made frequent attacks on the colony, marking their course with terror and devastation, the constant attendants on In. dian warfare. Many of the English were carried off prisoners, and made the victims of remorseless cruelty or implacable revenge.

Captain F. West, in the year 1628, was succeeded in the government by John Pott, during whose administration the colonial assembly was twice convened, and many regulations made for the defence of the colony.

Pott was succeeded, in the year 1629, by sir John Hervey, a man of an arbitrary and ambitious mind. His administration, however, was attended with some advantages to the colony and marked by some atttention to public interest. The establishment of a court at Jamestown, to meet twice a month, in which the members of the council were to preside in turn; the erection of a fort at Point Comfort, and the encouragement given to the establishment of salt works in Accomack, were among the wise measures of this administration. Some parts of the governor's conduct however, excited much discontent among the people; and the assembly which met during his administration showed the apprehensions they entertained from his tyranny, by the re

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strictions they imposed on his prerogative, They forbade by law the imposition of any porbidden

1624. tax without the consent of the assembly. They likewise prohibited the raising of troops without their order, unwilling to admit in the representative of the crown a power not claimed by the crown itself. In the year 1635 Hervey was, for his rapacity and tyranny, suspended from his office, and captain F. West appointed in his room. But as the former had been appointed by royal commission, the assembly deemed it necessary to exhibit articles of impeachment against him, and for this purpose they appointed commissioners to visit the court of England, for the purpose of preferring the accusation. The commissioners were received with coldness by Charles, and their accusations against Hervey dismissed with but little regard. This odious man was reinstated, and continued in office till the year 1639, when he was succeeded by sir Francis Wyatt. The term of Wyatt's administration was short, for in the year 1641, it appears that sir William Berkeley became governor of the colony.


About this time the Indians, under the command of Opechancanough, made an irruption into the colony, marking their course, as usual, with slaughter and dismay. This massacre, like the former conducted by the same chief, had nigh proved fatal to the colony. The loss was estimated at about five hundred persons, the greater part of whom were slain about the heads of the rivers; particularly York and Pa. munky, where Opechancanough commanded in person. The militia were immediately armed, and the colony put in a posture of defence. A body composed of every twentieth man, and commanded by sir William Berkeley in person, marched against the enemy to revenge the murders so recently perpetrated on their countrymen.

Little is now known, nor is it very important to know much of the events of this war. It is only necessary to observe, that hostilities were brought to a close by the capture and death of Opechancanough. This chief, who was now grown old, but who still appeared at the head of his warriors, was at last surprised by a party of the English, and carried in triumph to Jamestown. The hoary monarch showed no signs of fear while in the hands of his enemies, but supported in captivity that majestic deportment and contempt for pain that distinguished his more prosperous years. He was cruelly murdered by one of his guards, whose recollection of injuries sustained by the hand of the chief probably prompted the bloody deed.

The dissolution of the Powhatan confederacy followed the death of Opechancanough, and a general peace succeeded to the horrors of war.

In the year 1644 sir William Berkeley returned to England, and during his absence of about twelve months Richard Kempe officiated as governor.

About this time commenced in England the civil war, betwixt Charles the First and his parliament. During this struggle, which proved so unfortunate for the monarch, Virginia ad. hered to the royal cause.

The parliament, after the establishment of their power, despatched a fleet with a body of

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