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became the home and mold of the early other men that trouble, but simply to teach church, and why the plain meeting-house them how. Revelation has not yet ceased, has so often helped to keep religion sweet in spite of theories about inspiration. So and pure when the cathedral could not. long as even one man can be found who is The one was the home of the hearer, the sure that there is yet more light to break other the home of the seer.
from God's wisdom, it never will cease. Jesus as the master seer, and the seer's The proof that Jesus meant that each insight the right of every Christian—this follower of his should be a seer like himis the thought which leads us this morn- self is found in the fact that this was in ing. It is pitiful to see how often men him more than an instinct. It became have turned to the temple, the priest, and an intuition. It is just here that so many the law rather than trust themselves to the of his disciples have misinterpreted him. synagogue, the prophet, and the seer's They have looked upon this marvelous intuition. It will be equally pitiful if we insight of his as the joint result of his shall think that because Jesus saw God human and divine endowment alone, a we do not need to see him for ourselves. gift rather than an acquirement. But Jesus did not declare that those who be- Jesus was no mere automaton. “Talents," lieved a doctrine about his divinity should he taught, “ were to be developed.” Insee God. The pure in heart should see stinct might become intuition. The latent him. He did not say, “ Because I have power of seeing might become a sixth seen, therefore all men are blessed," but, sense under use. He never claimed a “ Blessed are those who, not having seen, divine right of kingship exempting him yet believe.” We are indebted to a from spiritual exertion. Labor precedes Frenchman of our own time for the growth. The Christian was not an amethought that faith cannot deal with fact. ba, living simply by absorption. “To Fact means knowledge. Faith deals with him that hath shall be given." the unseen which is not yet knowledge. will to do His will, he shall know the docOut of the unseen it brings the seen. That trine.” And the “ willing to do ” was as is why Jesus over and over insisted that serious an expenditure of vitality as heal. the men with whom he was dealing should ing the sick, or climbing a mountain that show faith for themselves. To them he he might be alone. Jesus' claim to divinwas himself an unknown quantity: “ Be- ity is not the common error that he was lieve in me ” meant, therefore, belief in so simply because God had richly endowed the unseen in his own personality, and him, but that he had sought the Father's through him faith in the unseen, untrusted will and lived it. It was not only that Father. There was no other way than he and the Father were one in nature, but that. · Because I live, ye shall live also," that the Father had worked hitherto, and meant, in its lowest terms, “ Because I am he must work also. Nowhere shall we a seer you must also be seers, for the seer find richer proof of this increment of shall live.” Jesus never taught that his power through use than by reading befaith absolved others from having faith. tween the lines of the temptation which He was divine because he was spiritually follows his baptism. Its value for us is alive. His spiritual life made him the in part its closeness to the temptations Son of God. If he is to be the first-born which men experience to-day, and in part among many brethren, it must be because its proof that intuition can be developed the many have the same spiritual insight into an accurate sense. as he himself. That insight of his, let me The first temptation is physical hunger. remind you again, did not come because The blind seer of Edinburgh finds in it he was in the lineage of the temple priest the temptation to become solely a social hood, nor yet from the law. The law was reformer. The people all about him were to be filled full with a new life. Whence murmuring for easier lives, for the satiscould this life come but from his Father? faction of the daily needs. These are the “Whatsoever the Father giveth me, that I men to whom he wished to bring the kingspeak,” is not Oriental pantheism, but dom of heaven. Why not hasten this the deliberate choice of his own will to result by satisfying these every-day needs listen Godward. Jesus was pre-eminently of the body, and so gain the leadership the listener. Yet this was not to save which should also bring the spiritual result?
Doubtless this is the otherward side of supply bread for all the people. The the temptation, and its sequel comes in a most conservative class, as always, tries most positive form when, after the feeding to clear its conscience by the old-fashioned of the five thousand, the people would charity. The latter is by all odds the have made him a king by sheer force. worst. One takes no account of characBut there is also a personal side. It is ter; the other loftily ignores equivalents. not simply the hunger of others, but his Either programme is partial. To let own, which makes the temptation so real. things drift is worse than either. We He has just come from the exaltation of cannot make men better by letting them a great spiritual vision. He realizes that starve, neither should we pauperize them. he is to be the seer for Israel. Shall it Competition as a remedy has degenerated be as a professional or as an independent into a contest between the strongest and rabbi ? The curse on the house of Eli the weakest, instead of between the has already touched the priesthood, and stronger and the strongest. Separation men are cringing for the priest's office of the stronger from the weaker is the that they may be sure of their daily bread. answer of the world to this temptation in Jesus meets the same temptation, not as its modern form. Identification of the a priest, but as a rabbi. Should he sim- stronger with the weaker is the answer ply become one of the wise men, living in which Christ forces upon the Christian. comparative comfort, sure of his bread Only by drinking the same cup of suffereven though not luxurious, respected in ing can a man help his fellow. Redempthe community, neither too rich so that tion is not external but from within, both men would hate him, nor yet so poor that in the individual and society. How comhe would be constantly hampered? Or, plete this identification can be is a purely should he identify himself with the poor, personal question. Is one a rabbi ? Then the sinners, the excommunicate, taking let him beware of the professionalism neither scrip nor shoes, living on charity, which is death to the sympathies and so with no place to lay his head, and so to the spiritual insight. Is it a question redeem Israel by sharing vicariously its of your income over against your ideals? extremest suffering and want, its daily Then remember the young man who anxiety for bread? Could he best teach came eagerly running to Jesus, but who, God's serenity in the comfort of the syna- under a like test, went away sorrowing to gogue rabbihood, or by drinking the same the remorse of a dissatisfied self. There cup as those despised “common people"? can be no insight without sympathy. And
We know his answer. When he sends there can be no reform of present condiout the disciples, it is to serve an appren- tions unless this sympathetic insight beticeship like his own. ecause he preaches comes the common possession of the from the people's level, they listen. “Give Church, because the peculiar talent of each us this day our bread ” was to be a daily Christian. There must be insight, not prayer. “Be not anxious” was his daily only into the causes of poverty, but also mood. Brooding deeply on what he saw, of wealth. To oppose the man who inthere came the positive conviction that sists that life is but the getting of bread bread alone would simply make the peo- and does not stand on the method of the ple careless and irresponsible. Living in getting, and to risk the weak suspicion part as they did, he could say, “ Live of the man who has no bread at all in wholly as I do." Jesus deliberately refus- your appeal to the life that is more than ing the dangers of the professional life meat—this takes a courage that is based and intuitively choosing the hard lot of on insight like this shown by Jesus in the the humblest Jew is the answer to this wilderness. It will not be ours unless we, temptation.
too, attempt to realize the wilderness visTo-day men are trying to walk in his ion when we have again come among men. steps. They must not fear to face the The second temptation has well been same temptation. The cry for bread is called that of the imperial way. Rome's relatively just as bitter as then. Men of magnificent organization was everywhere deep sympathies are increasingly identi- in evidence. That power was deemed fied with social reform. The extremest invincible. Why not strike hands with of these, the Socialists, openly promise to Cæsar and so bring the kingdom of heaven at once ? And then this same of Finland and proposals to dismember deepening insight taught Jesus the inevi- China—these all ignore the spirit of Jesus' table end. He would be a slave, a mere reply to the second temptation. The tool in the hands of the Augustus who kingdom of heaven does not come with already was claiming divine honors. He violence even if it suffers violence, and saw clearly that the man who would be the sword is not a civilizing agency. There free to proclaim his own message must be is no permanent expansion except through absolutely free. The seer must have no the ideals, the spirit, and the method of impure thought, the prophet no over-lord, Jesus of Nazareth. the kingdom of men no entangling alli- The last temptation was the sacrificial. ance, the kingdom of God no power save The Temple was the accepted religious its own.
When, later on, the Church and center of the nation. Why not go to State did become one, at least outwardly, Jerusalem and cast himself down from the the kingdom was really farther away than Temple height before the people in a here as the unrealized vision of the young great symbolic act, like Jeremiah walking Jewish seer. He saw, what some have not in sackcloth, or Ezekiel carrying his seen, that the kingdom comes from within household stuff on his shoulder ? The rather than from without. Thinking of it yearning to gather the people of Jerusalem simply as a vision, he taught that the and the nation is already burning in his kingdom was already in the midst of them. heart. If he is to be the chief shepherd,
The parallel to this temptation is with must not some startling feat like David's us also. In grosser form it is the appeal be performed ? Must not the people be to ostentation, to the magnificent ritual, dazzled and overpowered by some act of and to an outward conformity. I wish, heroism and of sacrifice which should however, to speak of a more subtile form- prove beyond all doubt that he was indeed the honest atten.pt to stamp a congrega
the Paschal lamb ? tion, a community, or a nation with the The temptation to become an Essene seal of the kingdom before the kingdom was yet more real. These were men of a has come in the heart itself. It is one John the Baptist type, pure in life, sternly thing for a Church to say to a man of sus- simple in food and dress, prophets and picious ethics, “Come with us, and we healers, men of austere life yet trusted will do you good." It is another and a because they were genuine. But Jesus sad thing when the Church by its attitude did not become an Essene. Identifying says, “ Come with us, that we may have a himself with no party, and destroying only share of your goods.” That suspicion that he might fulfill, he met this temptalies upon the Church in part to-day. It tion through his whole life by refusing to would not be there if it had not been in become a mere ascetic. His work, he some measure deserved. Yet one can see saw, must be among men, not apart from the signs of the new Puritanism which them. No single act, not even the sushall insist that Christianity is nothing if premest sacrifice, could save his people. not ethical, and that the plain life of the Only as they had his gift of seeing and synagogue, if pure, is worth more than the God's gift of life could his people be magnificence of the temple built out of saved. injustice and industrial slavery. The new In Tissot's picture of “The Temptacreed which is even now being written tion ” Jesus is represented as carried declares that the man who may be doc- through the air on the finger-tips of a trinally sound, but is wholly and brutally great specter. The picture repels at first, selfish, is not in the kingdom of heaven; until it flashes upon one that the gigantic while the man whose theology is a chaos, figure is Jesus' own shadow. We needed yet who has clean hands and a pure heart, Tissot's reminder of that which the Gosis already entering in.
pel so clearly teaches, that the background What is true of the Church is true of of temptation is one's own self. The nations. Without details from our current third of Jesus' temptations is to his folhistory, the forcing of opium on China lowers to-day the most real. “Master, I and the saloon into the Philippines, the would lay down my life for your sake,” is burden of taxation on India and the dis. the thought of many a heart. And the memberment of South Africa, the crushing quiet answer is always, “I do not ask
your life, but that you shall live for me.” waste of life in a delusion of sacrifice, we We have no more right to throw away our shall lose life in gaining it as well as gain lives than had Jesus. Many a Christian life through saving it. The end must is casting himself down from the pinnacle justify the sacrifice. The power of disof the temple in weakly yielding to the tinguishing between self-delusion and selftyranny of useless church machinery and sacrifice is the gift of Christ to the Chrismistaken and unneeded philanthropies. tian. Substituting friendships with the few for “For I have given you an example,” acquaintance with the many may do the he would say to us in this as in all else. most for some of us toward bringing the · As I increased in wisdom, so must you." kingdom of heaven into the earth. The As he developed his gift until he saw as Christian who becomes an ascetic or well as felt, so may we.
Perhaps he adds, hermit is not cor quering teniptation as we talk with him by the way, “ And did his Lord. It is God's will that the greater things shall ye see, because I have earth shall be saved, not abandoned. To gone to the Father.” We shall have know how to do one's duty rather than become kings and priests when, some day dissipate strength in the luxury of doing on the isle or in the wilderness, he shall small things is the Christian's fine art of breathe on us, and we, too, shall see the new living. Avoiding, on the one hand, self- city coming down out of heaven, which, satisfaction, and, on the other, a reckless because seen, shall possess the earth.
Books of the Week
This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. The absence of comment in this department in many cases indicates that extended ret'iew will be made at a later date. Any of these book's will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, posipan, to any address on receipt of the published price. Adventures of Joel Pepper (The). By Margaret oughness and accuracy which characterize this
Sidney. Jilustrated. The Lothrop Publishing Co., series of model guide books.
Boston. 5x71, n. 461 pages. $1.5. The chiidren who enjoy the “ Pepper Books " Boy Donald. By Penn Shirley. Lee & Shepwill welcome their old acquaintances, Polly ard, Boston. 537 01, in. 185 pages, and Joel and Dave Pepper.
This sprightly story for children continues Air, Water, and Food from a Sanitary Stand
the author's tale of · The Happy Six.” The point. By Ellen H. Richards and Alpheus G. Wood
story is laid in southern Calitornia. man. John Wiley & Sons, New Bork. 51,*9 in. 200 pages. $2.
Century of American Diplomacy (A). By John Mrs. Richards is widely recognized as an ex
W. Foster. Houghton, Millin & Co., Boston.
in. 497 pages. pert in domestic science, and with her collaborator, who is, like herself, an instructor in
This work is the outgrowth of ex-Secretary sanitary chemistry in the Massachusetts Insti
Foster's series of lectures before the School of tute of Technology, she has presented here
Diplomacy of Columbian University. We rethoroughly and with scientific formula those
serve it for critical notice hereafter. things which should be known to all of us Chat-Wood. By Paterson Du Bois. Thomas relating to the three essentials for healthful Y. Crowell & Co., New York, *x6 in. 185 pages. numan life named in the title of the book.
Soc. Alphabet of Indians (An). By Emery Lever.
Chess Strategetics. By Franklin K. Young, ett Williams. Jllustrated. R. H. Russell, New
Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 64 in. York. 9. 12 in. 56 pages. $2.
284 pages. $2.54 A delightful holiday gift for young children is
The author delves deep into the scienunc this. A full-page picture of an Indian repre- theory of chess. His book is not merely a senting his respective tribe, and another page compendium of openings, games, and problems, of large-print description, face each other as but an elaborate study of tactics and underlyone turns the pages from A to Z. The drawing principles of chess. To many good players ings are bold and free, and typify the salient even it will be puzzling and hard reading, as points of tribal life.
it is filled with such formulas as—“ The object Baedeker's Handbook for Travelers. With
of the column of support is to occupy a point
of junction on the kindred logistic horizon." Maps and Plans. Northern Germany. 44*01, in. 431 pages. $2.10. London. 44. in.
One may doubt if even such an expert as $180. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Morphy might not find this method of study. New editions revised to date with the thor- ing chess somewhat abstruse.
China and the Present Crisis. By Joseph panied by a little picture of Chinese life directly
Walton, M.P. (With a Map of China) Charles reproduced from a photograph. It is interestScribner's Sons, New York. 5x712 in. 319 pages. $2.
ing to see that such common English nursery Disappointment awaits those who expect vivid
rhymes as and picturesque treatment of Chinese prob- a-Cake, Pat-a-Cake,” have their Chinese pro
Lady-bug, Lady-bug,” and “Patlems and of the Chinese people in this latest edition to the rapidly increasing list of books ingly pretty and suitable form given by the
totypes. A word should be said of the exceedon the Flowery Kingdom. Mr. Walton frankly publishers to the book. The paper was informs his readers that his work is without especially designed, the covers show quaint literary pretension. Though he might have
and amusing conceits, and in every respect added that its commercial worth was notable,
the book is at the same time thoroughly he modestly allows the reader to grasp that
Chinese and yet attractive to the eyes of for himself. The reader will not get far into
American children. the volume without realizing that he has here the most up-to-date summary of Chinese com- Clearing-Houses. By James G. Cannon. Illusmerce and the keenest forecast of its extension. trated. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 549X844 in.
383 pages. $2.50. With the exception of Lord Charles Beresford's “ The Break-up of China," no book has
A clearly written book containing a great essayed to do what this does; it effectually general public as well as to bankers. The
deal of information which is interesting to the supplements Lord Charles's otherwise admirable work, in so far as that did not contain
author recounts with great frankness the parthe latest statistics, and that it was written
tial success of various clearing-house associaby a sailor, not by a trained commercial
tions in establishing uniform rates of interest
on deposits and uniform charges for collecman.
tions, etc. In some associations, he says, the China's Only Hope. An Appeal by Her Great
legality of these combinations is questioned, est Viceroy, Chang Chi Tung. Translated from the Chinese Edition by Samuel 1. Woodbridge. The
but others have not hesitated to check comFleming H. Revell Co., New York. 5x7", in. 151 petition among their members in this way, pages. 75c.
and have reaped large profits from the agreeThis is the important work of which more ments entered into. The long chapter devoted than a million copies have been circulated in to clearing-house loan certificates is of great the Chinese Empire, some of them by order of value to all students of finance. Emperor Kuangsu himself. It is a work which will be read with peculiar interest out
Diary of a Dreamer (The). By Alice Dewside of China also, as it gives a remarkable
Smith. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 5x 814 in.
296 pages. $1.50. insight into the sentiments and opinions of the cultured and witty English woman who the governing classes there. The Viceroy's here records the daily doings, happenings, and opinion of international law is worth quoting. reflections that weave in the brighter colors in He thinks that those who place implicit con
the loom of life, combines with a love of nature fidence in international law are as stupid as
and genial sympathies an engaging faculty of those who depend on the Disarmament Society
appreciating the humorous side of things, and for peace; he therefore concludes that disarm
of discovering amusement where others find ament is an international joke, and inter
none of it or the reverse of it. national law a deception! As to religious toleration, he says that he desires freedom for
Dido: An Epic Tragedy. A Dramatization
from the Æneid of Vergil. Arranged and translated Christianity, just as freedom is assured to
by Frank J. Miller., Stage-settings, Actions, and Buddhism and Taoism. He admits that Con- Music by J. Raleigh Nelson. Silver, Burdett & Co., fucianism, as now practiced, is inadequate to
New York. 5x7!4 in. 87 pages. $1. lift the Chinese from their present plight, and Dr. North and His Friends. By S. Weir then asks, “ Why retaliate by scoffing at other Mitchell, M.D. The Century Co., New York. 544X7% religions ?” As to the Boxers, he roundly
in. 499 pages. $1.50. declares that the Chinese who create disturb
A subtle and analytical study of character and ances are lunatics. The book is full of pithy,
of social phases is the predominating feature quotable epigrams, and deserves a wide cir
of Dr. Mitchell's new book. It is in many culation. No one can read it without becoming
ways different from the ordinary novel, and convinced that, while Chang-Chi-Tung is a
can, indeed, hardly be described as a novel at real reformer so far as political and social
all. The plot interest is entirely subordinated excrescences concerned, he carefully
to the presentation of psychological and per. attacks nothing ancient except abuses.
sonal characteristics. This is a book based Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes. Translated
on wide and unusual experience of life, and and Hustrated by Isaac Taylor Headland. The
one that could only have been written by a Fleming H. Revell Co., New York. 612X 9 in. 160
man who looks at life subjectively as well
as objectively. Many readers will remember We have rarely seen a more charming book Dr. Mitchell's “Characteristics," and the for children than this. Certainly it is in the typical men-poet, physician, novelist, and fullest sense unique. Dr. Headland has spent sculptor—there introduced. Here the same many years in China and has made a peculiarly group of friends with their wives meet from full and careful study of Chinese domestic time to time, and discuss informally and with life. Here he has translated many rhymes much wit as well as wisdom all sorts of common in the Chinese nursery, and each matters relating to literature, thought, art, and page presents one of these rhymes, both in society. A rough, self-made, rich, and in some the Chinese characters and in an English ways unscrupulous railroad king serves as a translation into verse, while each is accom- contrast to the general refinement of this circle