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Secondly, they are laws of holiness for the land of N.B.—The appropriateness of this precept, as clos. Canaan regarded as the abode of Jehovah and His ing a section, will be manifest on consideration. people. And the land is considered

(5) Laws concerning the Conjugal Relations of (1) As the seat of the worship of Jehovah (chaps.

God's People (chap. xxii. 13-30). xii. 1–xvi. 17 inclusive). Here it is enacted N.B.-Again it should be observed how the last verse that every monument of idolatry must be of this chapter recalls the principle of Lev. xviii. 6, &c. destroyed (chap. xii. 2–4). The place of (6) Laws concerning the Purity of the Congregasacrifice and national worship must be chosen

tion of Israel (chap. xxiii. 1-8). For the by Jehovah (chap. xii. 5—14). What must be

sequence of (5) and (6) comp. Matt. xix. 1-12, sacrificed and eaten there, and what may be

13-15. slain and eaten elsewhere (chap. xii. 15—28). (7) Laws concerning the Purity of the Camp in Abolition of all idolatrous rites (chap. xii.

war (chap. xxiii. 9—14). 29—32). Utter extermination of all prophets (8) Divers Laws of Holiness, to preserve the Land or promoters of idolatry (chap. xiii). Personal

of Jehovah as a Land of Humanity, Purity, purity of Jehovah's worshippers, and especially

and Truth. – Humanity to escaped slaves from unclean animals in food (chap. xiv. 1-21).

(chap. xxiii. 15, 16); purity from fornication The second tithe, the holy food that either

and other deadly sin (chap. xxiii. 17); - With. they or their poor must eat before Him (chap.

out are dogs and whoremongers” (chap. xxiii. xiv. 22–29). The poor law of His holy land

18); no usury (chap. xxiii. 19, 20); fidelity in (chap. xv. 1–18). Law of firstlings (arising

vows (chap. xxiii. 21-23); the right of way. out of the Exodus) (chap. xv. 19-23); and

farers (chap. xxiii. 24, 25); conjugal fidelity the three great feasts, beginning with the

(chap. xxiv. 1-4); domestic felicity (chap. passover (chap. xvi. 1–17).

xxiv. 5); humanity to the poor and friendless (2) As the seat of the kingdom of Jehovah (chap.

and fatherless (chap. xxiv. 6—22), and to crimi. xvi. 18 to end of xviii). Judges and officers

nals (chap. xxv. 1-3), and to beasts (chap. in every city, to judge justly (chap. xvi.

xxv. 4), and to the childless dead, and to their 18—20). No secret rites or images allowed

widows (chap. xxv. 5—10), and in quarrels therein (chap. xvi. 21, 22). Nounclean victims

(chap. xxv. 11, 12); honesty in trade (chap. to be offered (chap. xvii. 1). “ Offer it now

xxv. 13-16); the cruel race of Amalek unto thy governor, will he be pleased with

the embodiment of inhumanity in Scripturethee, or accept thy person ?” (Mal. i. 8). No

to be exterminated (chap. xxv. 17, 18). idolaters to live (chap. xvii. 2—7). The N.B.— With this section compare the miscellaneous written law to be supreme, whether with priest precepts of Lev. xix. or judge or king; and the requirements of The land and its inhabitants are hallowed, and we are the kingdom (chap. xvii. 8—20). The require- told at last who “shall in no wise enter therein.” The ments of the priest (chap. xviii. 145); of the precepts in this section would supply a complete parallel Lovite (chap. xviii. 6—8). No consultation to Rev. xxii. 15: “ Without are dogs, and sorcerers, and with familiar spirits and no hidden arts to be whoremongers, and murderers and whosoever permitted, but the Prophet to be above all loveth and maketh a lie.(chap. xviii. 15–22).

(9) The Services of Thanksgiving for the InheritObviously these two sections delineate the constitution

ance given to Israel, which are prescribed in of Israel in two aspects, as a church, and as a state.

chap. xxvi. appropriately conclude this portion. These were not separated under the theocracy. From We are now in a position to discuss a further imthese two aspects of the land of Israel arise the following portant question, namely, laws, namely:(3) Laws concerning the Person in the Land of II. The Date of the Deuteronomy.-The ques

Jehovah.-Cities of refuge for the manslayer tion, in its most recent aspect, especially concerns the (chap. xix. 1–10); punishment of the murderer portion we have just analysed—“the statutes and judg. (chaj). xix. 11–13), landmarks (chap. xix. 14); ments” of chaps. xii.-XXV. The earlier and later witnesses (chap. xix. 15—21); laws of warfare portions of the book are admitted to be the work of (chap. xx.); undiscovered homicide (chap. xxi. Moses. But an attempt has been made to separate 1-9); captive women (chap. xxi. 10–14); these specific enactments from the remainder of the the firstboru's birthright (chap. xxi. 15–17); book. It is maintained that these “statutes and judgthe incorrigible son in Israel (chap. xxi. ments” are the product (a) of Israel's maturity in Pales. 18–21); the death penalty and the Divine tine, or rather of that period of national decay which image (chap. xxi. 22, 23).

resulted in the Babylonish captivity, or (b) of the restorN.B.-It is remarkable how the precept given to ation. The age of Jeremiah, or Ezekiel, or Ezra, has Noah, “Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his been suggested as the source of these precepts. Their blood be shed, for in the image of God made he man,” position in Deuteronomy is ascribed to the hand of a embraces both the first and last laws of this section. later editor, who is said to have incorporated them with (4) Laws concerning Property in the Land of the work of Moses, and completed the Pentateuch in its

Jehovah. -Lost property (chap. xxii. 1-4); present shape.
distinction of dress for the sexes (chap. xxii. It is true that this theory does not require us to con-
5); the bird's nest and its rights (chap. xxii. tradict a series of sentences such as "The Lord spake
6, 7); the house (chap. xxii. 8); the vineyard unto Moses, saying,” which we find prefixed to Mosaic
(chap. xxii. 9); the plough (chap. xxii. 10); enactments in the earlier books. The name of Moses
the clothing (chap. xxii. 11); and, lastly, the does not occur in Deut. xii.—xxvi. But these statutes
memorial fringe, by which to remember all the and judgments are incorporated in the book as part of
commandments of Jehovah (chap. xxii. 12, and Moses' exhortation; and he speaks in the first person
comp. Numb. xv. 37–41).

in chap. xviii. 17 : “ The Lord said unto me, They have DEUTERONOMY.

well said that which they have spoken.” The portion Jeremiah only as being broken, and is by him expressly opens with the words of Moses, in language that can ascribed to the period of the Exodus (Jer. xxxiv. 13). bear no later date : "Ye are not yet come unto the rest The three great feasts are to be celebrated annually, and to the inheritance, which the Lord your God giveth in the place which the Lord shall choose ; but we are you." There is as yet no selected seat of worship. not told where. And it closes with words spoken in the name of Jehovah All this is perfectly consistent with the standpoint while Israel is still in the wilderness (chap. xxvi. 1), of Moses “in the plains of Moab, by Jordan near and entering into covenant with Jehovah there (chap. Jericho.” But it is not easy to discover any other xxvi. 16–19). Thus we have Moses in chaps. xii., period which would suggest it, or even in which it xviii., and xxvi. The analysis already given shows the would be intelligible. What writer of later date could perfect unity and order of the whole portion. Where so wholly ignore Shiloh, or Jerusalem, or Gerizim, or are the items that belong to a later date? By whose Samaria ? Granting the possibility, with what purpose authority were they incorporated with the Mosaic code ? could he take such a view ? Must not the alternative be

A code like this admits of being regarded in three between the Mosaic authorship and deliberate forgery? different aspects. Two of them would belong to it I have never been able to realise the discrepancy more especially as the work of Moses; the third would regarding the place of sacrifice, which is alleged by have little importance in his hands, but would be some,

between the rule of Exod. xx. on the one hand, essential in the view of those who ascribe these enact- and that of Dent. xii. on the other. The choice of ments to a later date. The law given here may be re- Jehovah makes the seat of worship in either passage. garded (1) As an Ideal Code or Standard of Behaviour; The seat of national worship will be (it is intimated) (2) As a Prophetical Code, a Picture of a State of " in one of thy tribes." But this does not preclude the Things yet to be ; (3) As a Practical Code, an Out- acceptance by Jehovah of an occasional sacrifice in come or Expression of the Aspirations of a People at another place. The point is that He, and not the wor. a certain Period of History.

shipper, must in every instance select that place. The Of these three, the (1) ideal and (2) prophetical code nations worshipped where they would. Israel must are almost neccessarily the work of an individual “not do so unto the Lord their God.” (See Notes on working under the inspiration of a Higher Power. The Deut xii. for more on this subject.) We may say that code, regarded as (3) an expression of national taste and in point of fact there was an intimate connection will, adjusts itself to the theory and practice of a certain between the religious and political unity of Israel. age, and will never be far in advance of the actual Before the seat of government and religion was firmly morality of the period which gives it birth. To which established at Jerusalem, and while the country was of these three views do the statutes and judgments of still unsettled and disturbed, we find that sacrifices Deuteronomy most easily adjust themselves? If the were accepted by Jehovah in various places, as from two first are prominent, we shall have obtained a strong Gideon at Ophrah, from Manoah at Zorah, from presumption in favour of the Mosaic authorship, other Samuel at Bethlehem and elsewhere. Again, after things being supposed consistent therewith. If, on the the disruption, Elijah offered on Carmel-Jerusalem, other hand, the Deuteronomic code seems rather to from the nature of the case, being inaccessible to reflect the practice of the people in later times, the Israel. But when the kingdom of Samaria was perishpresumption will be, so far, in favour of the modern ing in the reign of Hezekiah, and still more when it theory to which we have alluded above.

had passed away in the reign of Josiah, these kings Let us test the code in Deuteronomy in each of these rightly exerted their authority to centralise the three aspects. And let us take the last of the three first. national worship, to which political disunion was no CAN DEUTERONOMY BE REGARDED AS (3) A

longer any bar.

Or let us take the second section of the code, in MERELY PRACTICAL CODE?

which the land of Israel is regarded as the seat of the We have seen that the first section of the code government of Jehovah (chap. xvi. 18, to end of xviii). (Dent, xii. 1 to xvi. 17) contemplates the land of Israel The establishment of local courts of justice is ordered. as the seat of the worship of Jehovah; the second sec- We cannot conceive that Israel remained without them tion (chap. xvi. 18, to end of chap. xviii.) contemplates until the exile. In fact the "judges and officers” of it as the seat of His Kingdom. The remainder of the Deut. xvi. 18 were already appointed in the time of code gives rules of behaviour in detail—the laws of Joshua, and were summoned by him to the assembly person, property, and relation among His people. To which he convened before his death (Josh. xxiii. 2). what period of history will these rules adjust them. The presence of famous judges, kings, or prophets, selves ?

may have occasionally fostered a tendency to overIn the first section, the seat of worship is as yet not centralize the administration of justice (see 1 Sam. fixed. There is to be a “place” which Jehovah shall viii. 1-3; 2 Sam. xv. 4), but we cannot conceive the choose, but it is not yet chosen. The distance of this establishment of local courts, or the promulgation of place from the borders of Israel is matter of uncer. Jethro's admonitions against bribery (see Notes on tainty. The extent of the conquest is undefined. The Deut. xvi. 19) as having been deferred until the exile abominations of Canaanitish idolatry are still unex. or the return. The enactment against groves and plored by Israel. They are not known hitherto. The pillars (enforced by Joshua, chap. xxiii., upon these strictness of the enactments against idolatrous prophets judges and officers) is not likely to have originated at and teachers is beyond anything ever heard of in prac- a time when altars of Baal were as numerous as the tice, and is still matter of prophecy in the return

very streets.

The fact that Hezekiah and Josiah from the exile (see Zech. xiii. 2, 3). Nothing like (almost alone in all history) were found to carry out it, if we except the consternation occasioned by the the instructions of Deuteronomy will not prove that erection of the altar Ed (Josh. xxii), is discernable in these instructions originated with them. That their the general feeling of the nation of Israel-not only work was done in the face of popular feeling is until after the exile, but even until after the close of clear from the immediate restoration of idolatry by the Old Testament. The law of release is named by Manasseh, and by the successors of Josiah.



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code against idolatry was certainly not the expression spicuous than in the more general principles laid down of popular feeling at that date.

before. The law of the manslayer comes first. Its It is noticeable that twice over in Dent. xii. it is date is fixed beyond dispute by the cities of refuge. enacted that the teacher of idolatry shall be put to Three are not noticed; for they are already determined death“ because he hath sought to thrust thee away from on the east of Jordan (Deut. iv. 41-43). Three on the the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land west of Jordan are still to be separated, in the territory of Egypt(Deut. xiii. 5, 10). No later deliverance is conquered by Joshua.

Three more are regarded as allnded to. But even Joshua's exhortation against possibly necessary in the future. But they have never idolatry records later experiences than this (Josh. xxiv. been assigned yet (see notes on Deut. xix. 8-10). With 8-13).

what period of history is this piece of legislation conThe form of government in Israel, as depicted in sistent, except the last days of Moses's life Deut. xvii. xviii., shows as little fixity as the seat of We come next to the laws of warfare (chap. xx.), national worship. The priests the Levites, and and we find the nations of Canaan still mentioned as the judge that shall be in those days,” are not expres- unconquered. The distinction given between “the sions that we can assign to any given period of Israel's cities that are very far off," and the cities of the history in Canaan Natural enough, as coming from doomed nations, is the very same upon which the the lips of Moses, they are almost ludicrous as an Gibeonites traded as that which Jehovah had given expression of the national desire for a particular rule. to His servant Moses (Josh. ix. 24), and by which they The position of the king is depicted even more vaguely. contrived to save themselves from the sword of Joshua. We have observed in the Notes on Deut. xvii., that no Was the passage in Deuteronomy constructed from later writer could have ignored the throne of David that in Joshua ? If so, the plea of the Gibeonites still thus. And if Jeremiah foretold the cessation of the proves the antiquity of this distinction. Or was the kingdom (Jer. xxii. 30), how could the age of Jeremiah passage in Joshua fashioned to suit an enactment have given birth to the laws that concern the king ? which was the production of a later date? Take the Again, the relation of the prophet to the government law in Deuteronomy as the genuine work of Moses, is left far too uncertain for later Jewish history. When and the narrative in Joshua as true, and the agreement we consider the important part played by the priests in is perfect. It is difficult to devise any other hypothesis Judah from Jehoiada onwards, and the evident struggle which will account for either the history or the law. for religious supremacy between them and the kings, The laws of chap. xxi. bear the stamp of antiquity on with the equally important action of the prophets in their very face. The last of them, which concerns Israel, is it conceivable that any constitutional writer hanging, again supplies a striking coincidence with the of the date of Jeremiah or the exile, would have left us life of Joshua, who hanged the kings of Jericho, and the bare outline that we find in Deut xvii. xviii.? Not Ai, and the five kings of the southern confederacy upon less important is the position given to the written law trees until eventide, and buried them at sunset. The in chap. xvii. 8–13. It was absolutely essential to agreement with Joshua's practice is perfect. There is define this when Scripture first came into existence. If little notice of the practice of hanging in Israel in not settled then, when could it be? It agrees with later times. We know that the Assyrians constantly what we find in the opening of Joshua (see notes on left the bodies of their enemies impaled on stakes and Joshua i. 1-8), and whenever allusion is made to exposed to view between the earth and heaven, but Scripture in later times. But that Scripture should there is no proof that any such practice ever obtained be solemnly delivered to God's people and be preserved in Israel. The kings of the house of Israel are among them, and its authority remain for seven cen- merciful kings," was the consolation of the defeated turies wholly undefined, is inconceivable. Yet the Syrian monarch Ben-hadad (1 Kings xx. 31). Would definition is entirely suited to the period when nothing he have trusted himself to the hands of a king of but the law had been written down.

Assyria, as confidently as he surrendered himself to But if, on the other hand, it is asserted that these Ahab ? The Gibeonites who hanged Saul's sons in views of the church and state of Israel proceeded not Gibeah observed no such restriction as that which from national feeling at the time of the Exile or the Moses commanded in Deut. xxi. 23 (see 2 Sam. xxi. Return, but from the mind of some great reformer, 9, 10). The strict observance of this law by Joshua, some individual prophet, we may fairly demand an and its neglect in the days of David, are entirely con. explicit answer to the question, who that prophet or sistent with other examples of a similar kind. reformer might be? If Jeremiah, or Ezekiel, or Ezra The laws of property and conjugal relation in chap. is to be taken as the author of the code in Deuter. xxii. are an expansion of the code in Exodus and onomy, we are brought face to face with the question Leviticus. There is no inconsistency.

But some of of style and language. The language of Deuteronomy the details are unmistakably primitive, and point to is totally distinct from the extant writings of all these. a time when the country was very thinly peopled. They And if the author of Deuteronomy is an anonymous are suitable to the time of the first conquest by Joshua writer, a new difficulty presents itself. By what - not so suitable to later days. authority did he promulgate these laws, and how did When we come to the laws concerning the admission he contrive to get them accepted, not only as canonical of strangers or proselytes (chap. xxii.) we find un. Scripture, but as the work of the great national Law- questionable traces of the Lawgiver of the Exodus. giver? For “there arose not a prophet since in Israel The Ammonites and Moabites “ met not Israel with like unto Moses."

bread and water.” They “ hired Balaam to curse” the From these considerations it seems certain that the people. The part taken by the Ammonites in this view of the church and state of Israel in Palestine, enterprise is not recorded in Numbers. The details given in Deut. xii. to xviii. inclusive, is not that of any cannot be obtained from the narrative as given there. later period than the Exodus. The laws of person, The considerations urged in verse 7 are suitable to a property, social relation, and behaviour, given in time when the memory of Egypt was fresh. The words chapters xix, to xxvi., remain to be examined. In these spoken by Isaiah concerning proselytes (chap. lvi. 6, 7) laws the standpoint of the wilderness is no less con. are wholly different in character.

And these very



clauses of Deuteronomy are cited in Nehemiah (xiv. 1, 2) can create in any people a higher standard of practice as written in the book of Moses.

than is conformable to their nature. “ What the Law There remains only one more section to be con- could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh,sidered—the laws of humanity in chaps. xxiv., XXV. was to make its ideal the practical standard of be. Here once

more the personal recollections of the haviour. Even if the outward enactments are not Exodus, concerning Miriam and Amalek, are striking, infringed, the motive so constantly inculcated could and cannot be ascribed to any later date. The law that never become the law of the human heart, except spon. the children shall not die for the fathers (chap. xxiv. taneously; and this requires the new creation.” “I 16) is directly referred to in 2 Kings xiv. 6, as written will put my laws into their minds, and write them on in the book of the Law of Moses. Other details in this their hearts.” “ Thou shalt surely give him ” is a right portion which point to a primitive state of society which the Law may enforce. • Thine heart shall not have been indicated in the notes.

be grieved when thou givest unto him ” (Deut. xv. 10) The twenty-sixth chapter, with its services of thanks. is beyond the power of law to insure. “ It shall not giving on the entrance of Israel into Canaan, would seem hard unto thee when thou sendest him away free lose all the peculiar charm of freshness that it from thee” is a similar sentence (chap. xv. 18). “If possesses, if it were ascribed to a later date. From thou shalt keep all these commandments to do them, the lips of Moses it is singularly beautiful and ap- which I command thee this day, to love the Lord thy propriate, all the more when we remember his own God, and to walk ever in his ways(chap. xix. 9), eager desire to enter the land of promise-a desire proves that in the details of the Law no less than in which was not granted. The reference to Jacob as “ its general exposition, “ the end of the commandment Syrian ready to perish” is thoroughly natural in the

was love." historian of Genesis, and the whole thanksgiving is If this ideal aspect of Deuteronomy is recognised, itself a reflection of Jacob's words in Gen. xxxii. 10. we may at once set aside the notion that it was the But there is no reference to any experience later than mere expression of the national taste and will. Such the Exodus. And the mind that would place the origin ideals come, not from below, but from above. The of such a service in the time of Jeremiah, or after the heart of man, under the direct teaching of the Spirit of exile, must be strangely constituted.

God, may receive them; they were never formed by any If, then, the laws of Deut. xii. to xxvi. in all these process of abstraction and generalization, from the particulars evidently breathe the very air of the Exodus, common practice of any nation of mankind. and of that particular scene to which they are ascribed, When it is proved that the view of man's destiny what becomes of the view that they are the offspring given in Gen. i. 26, and his primæval state in Paradise of a later date? If we take away all that evidently as described in Gen. ii., were the laboured attainment of bears the stamp of primitive authorship, is there any- ages of human progress, then we may admit the first thing in the remainder that necessarily bears a different great commandment to have been evolved in the same stamp ? The supposed disagreement in the edicts re- way. The fall of Israel is interwoven with the whole garding tithes is refuted by Jewish practice. The of sacred history as closely as the fall of man. second tithe is an institution peculiar to Deuteronomy. Was this exalted standard of behaviour—the highest It does not contradict the law in Numbers, because it is ever inculcated upon mankind—a Divine revelation in & matter wholly distinct. It is the second tithe, not the beginning of their history, or did it arise in the the first ; a holy thing, and not a common rate. The dark days when Jehovah said, Though Moses and Jewish commentator Rashi speaks almost with derision Samuel stood before me, yet my mind could not be of those who would confuse the two. The supposed toward this people ; cast them out of my sight, and let difficulty concerning the priesthood is sufficiently met them go forth ?(Jer. xv. 1). To ask the question by the undesigned but explicit allusion to the rebellion almost answers it. The whole analogy of sacred of Num. xvi., in Deut. xi. 6, not to mention the history requires the ideal code of Israel to stand at Thummim and Urim in chap. xxxiii. 8.

the beginning of their national life. The shadow of There is also a further reason why the author of Sinai stretches over the whole length of the ages

from Deuteronomy should be comparatively silent regarding the Exodus of Israel to the Exodus of Christ. But if the special duties and position of the priests, except in it is urged that though the outlines of the code in relation to that which was now for the first time Deuteronomy may be primitive, yet the details are delivered to Israel—the book of the law of God. The modern, and were gradually developed during the priests themselves were there to guard their rights. course of Israelitish history, we may fairly demand to They were a family established by the highest sanction have these later details distinctly pointed out. After in a place of unapproachable dignity and authority close examination, we have failed to discover them even in Israel. Moses could not touch the subject without in the alleged discrepancies between the Deuteronomy reverting to the memory of his departed brother (only and other portions of the law. The Jewish Mishna six months dead) at every moment. Eleazar and supplies an abundance of details of the kind that arise Phinehas were now the guardians of Aaron's post. in a long and laboured application of legal principles

to particular cases. The language of Deuteronomy is We now revert to (1) THE IDEAL CODE.

singularly free from the kind of detail suggested by When we consider the Law of Deuteronomy as practical difficulties in the application of the law. It an ideal and prophetical code, our task becomes much is singularly free from any trace of contact with the easier. The commandments here given cannot be ob- history of Israel in later times. served in the letter without the spirit of loving fidelity to Jehovah. The attempt to reduce them to a system,

It remains to consider (2) THE PROPHETICAL CODE. and guard them from disobedience in the smallest Closely connected with the ideal aspect of Deuter. detail, resulted in the unbearable yoke of our Lord's onomy is the prophetical character of the code. That time, of which we have the tradition in the Talmud. the ideal has not been realised is as certain as anything It cannot be said that the exhortations of Deuteronomy in history. Was it intended to be ? and, if so, when ? contain in themselves any such system. But no law The book of Deuteronomy itself supplies a somewhat DEUTERONOMY.

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remarkable answer to this question in two passages, and that this fact was well known beforehand. From which are given here at length, and side by side, for chap. xxx. it is no less manifest that the great Lawthe purpose of comparison.

giver foresaw a time when Israel would return and CHAPTER XXXI.

repent after great affliction, and that they would then CHAPTER XXX.

be restored, and keep the law perfectly (see verses 6 (16) And the LORD said (1) And it shall come to and 8 above). unto Moses, Behold, thou

pass, when all these things Under what circumstances this event will take place, shalt sleep with thy faare come upon thee, the

and how far the precepts of the Deuteronomy may thers; and this people blessing and the curse,

hereafter be literally observed, it is perhaps impossible will rise up, and go a which I have set before

to determine. whoring after the gods of thee, and thou shalt call

The full answer to this question is one of “the secret the strangers of the land, them to mind among all

things that belong to the Lord.” But we may obtain whither they go to be

an approximation to the answer thus: The whole of the the nations, whither the among them, and will

Deuteronomic code is presented as an expansion of the LORD thy God hath forsake

and break my me,

Decalogue. It is the application of a sermon, of which driven thee, (2) and shalt covenant which I have

the “ten words” spoken on Sinai are the text. It is return unto the LORD thy the application of these words to Israel, God's chosen made with them. (17) Then

God, and shalt obey his people, in the promised land. Every particular applimy anger shall be kindled

voice according to all that cation of the Divine Law must be temporary in detail. against them in that day, I command thee this day, The more perfectly the code is suited to a given condi. and I will forsake them,

thou and thy children, with tion of affairs, the more transitory its application to and I will hide my face all thine heart, and with the minutiæ of daily life must necessarily be.

So from them, and they shall all thy soul; (3) that then long as the times are changeable, the permanent code be devoured, and many the LORD thy God will must be somewhat general, from the very nature of evils and troubles shall

the case. befall them ; so that they

turn thy captivity, and
have compassion upon

The most curious instance of a prophetical code in will say in that day, Are not these evils come upon thee, and will return and

Scripture is the code of Law given for Ezekiel's gather thee from all the

temple in the latter portion of his prophecy. I cannot us, because onr God is not nations, whither the LORD

find that this code was over held by the Israelites to among us ? (18) And I will

have the full force of law. It could not be fulfilled in thy God hath scattered surely hide my face in that

all particulars, from the very nature of the case, except day for all the evils which thee. (4) If any of thine

under certain conditions. That its promulgation as law be driven out unto the they shall have wrought, in outmost parts of heaven,

was contingent on the moral condition of the people, that they are turned unto

seems clear from Ezek. xliii. 10, 11. from thence will the LORD

If they be other gods. (19) Now therefore write ye this song thy God gather thee, and

ashamed of all that they have done, show them the

form of the house, and . all the laws thereof : and from thence will he fetch for you, and teach it the

write it in their sight, that they may keep the whole thee: (5) and the LORD children of Israel : put it

form thereof, and all the ordinances thereof, and do in their mouths, that this thy God will bring thee

them.. No one can prove that the laws of Ezekiel's into the land which thy song may be a witness for

temple have ever been kept; nor is it possible to say me against the children of fathers possessed, and thou how far they ever will be observed in the shape in which Israel. (20) For when I shalt possess it; and he they were delivered, for the supposition of the sentence shall have brought them will do thee good, and just quoted is, that these laws were suitable to the state into the land which multiply thee above thy of Israel at the time. If they were not minded to sware unto their fathers,

fathers. (6) And the LORD receive them, the fulfilment must be deferred. Supthat floweth with milk thy God will circumcise posing them not to be “ashamed of all that they had and honey; and they shall thine heart, and the heart

done” for more than twenty centuries after Ezekiel have eaten and filled them. of thy seed, to love the

wrote, the fulfilment of Ezekiel's ideal must take place selves, and waxen fat; LORD thy God with all

under wholly different circumstances; and many of its then will they turn into

details must of necessity be modified to suit the change thine heart, and with all of times. other gods, and thy soul, that thou mayest It is needless to add that the comparison between them, and provoke me, live. (7) And the LORD this portion of Ezekiel and the code in Deuteronomy and break my covenant. thy God will put all these cannot affect the question of the date of the Deutero(21) And it shall come to curses upon thine enemies, nomy in any way. pass, when many evils and and on them that hate thee,

The code in Deuteronomy is not so visibly prophetical troubles are befallen them, which persecuted thee. as the ritual of Ezekiel's temple, because the foundathat this shall testify

(8) And thou shalt return tion of the code in Deuteronomy is not an outward against them as a witness; and obey the voice of the

visible fact. But it is none the less true that the for it shall not be forgotten LORD, and do all his com

standard of morality in Deuteronomy is unattainable out of the mouths of their mandments which I com

except under one condition, and that is “ that the heart seed: for I know their

of Israel should be circumcised to love Jehovah their mand thee this day.

God with all their heart and with all their soul.” As imagination which they go

the ritual of Ezekiel's temple is impossible without the about, even now, before I

temple itself, so is the morality of Deuteronomy un. have bronght them into

attainable without this heart-circumcision. This is the land which I sware.

provided by the second covenant, the covenant made in

the land of Moab, “ besides the covenant in Horeb,” It appears from chap. xxxi. that the constitution which still holds Israel under its curse. given to Israel by Moses would be immediately violated, Manifestly the true fulfilment of the Deuteronomy in



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