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county to county, and we get a country. The child then advances from country to country until be have something like a notion of the whole world. He may then return from his more general survey, and become more thoroughly acquainted with certain countries, and certain peculiarities of the earth's surface and configuration.*
The last law which we shall notice, is one which we deem of considerable importance, especially for giving interest to a class lesson. A large portion of the knowledge which we have to communicate to our pupils is not the result of our personal observation, or of our personal experience. It is the accumulated results of the personal experiences of a great variety of men, living at different periods, and in different countries. Our knowledge has grown, and is growing. In giving this accumulated knowledge to pupils, we should ever keep in mind how the knowledge was acquired originally, what motives led people to seek for the knowledge at first, and what motives would lead people to seek for it now. For instance, if I am to give a lesson on Canada, I am to ask myself, "Why should I care myself to know about Canada?" And how did civilised nations become acquainted with it? Or again, in an historical lesson, I mnst summon up before my eyes the great actors in the history, try to feel as an eyewitness of their deeds would have felt, and try to present it to my pupils in such a way that they may realise the feelings of eye-witnesses. In way the pupil naturally enters with interest into the lesson. He is not merely supplied with material for thought, but he is supplied also with a motive. And in all cases a teacher should endeavour to give the motive as well as the information; should continually help the child to realise the use of the lessons which he is learning, and should invest every task with the interest which inherently belongs to it. Hence, the teachers
*There is an extremely interesting discussion on the method of giving to pupils right geographical conceptions in Dr Friedrich Ueberweg's Die Entwicklung des Bewusstseins durch den Lehrer und Erzieher. Eine Reihe pädagogisch-didaktischer Anwendungen der Beneke'schen Bewusstseinstheorie, besonders auf den Unterricht an Gymnasien und Realschulen. Eine ekrönte Preisschrift. 1853.
should be well read in the history of sciences, in the history of the world, in books of travels, and in fact in every kind of knowledge that may create life and interest in his class.
Above everything the teacher must be patient, persevering, and gentle. We detailed in a recent article the classification of impressions which Beneke has given in his Psychology. They were satisfactory impressions, pleasure impressions, weak impressions, disgust impressions, and pain impressions. Only the two first strengthen the mind. The three kinds of detrimental impressions are often produced by the impatience and injustice of teachers, and thus fatal injury is done to the intellectual life of the pupil, as well as to his moral. Every teacher should have engraven on his heart the noble lines of Coleridge with which we conclude this article:
LOVE, HOPE, AND PATIENCE IN EDUCATION.
Yet haply there will come a weary day,
When overtasked at length Both Love and Hope beneath the load give way. Then with a statue's smile, a statue's strength, Stands the mute sister, Patience, nothing loth, And both supporting does the work of both.
ON LATIN ORTHOGRAPHY.*
Many attempts were made in various directions to change this state of things: the best and most systematic was that of Ph. Wagner in his orthographia Vergili ina, published in 1841. With admirable industry he amassed all the evidence afforded by the medicean and, so far as it was accessible to him, of the other ancient MSS. of Virgil. As these, like other old MSS. are as a rule very tenacious of the true spelling in those cases where there is only one right method, he performed this part of his work with eminent success, and still remains one of the best autho
INCE many special questions of ortho- | for caelum cena maereo silva cetera in order to degraphy are noticed as they occur in the rive them preposterously from Greek words. notes, I should have thought it unnecessary to say more in this place than that in essential points I follow Lachmann, if it were not for the apparent unwillingness of scholars in this country to accept even the smallest change in what they look upon as the usual or conventional rules of spelling. The notion of any uniform conventional spelling is quite a chimera: I never find two English editors following any uniform system; nay, the same editor will often differ in different parts of the same book. But whence comes this "conventional" system, so far as it does exist? From the meritorious and consi-rities on the subject. In those other cases however dering their position most successful endeavours of the Italian scholars in the fifteenth century to get rid of the frightful mass of barbarisms which the four or five preceding centuries had accumulated. They sought indeed to introduce rigorous uniformity in cases where variety was the rule of the ancients; and though these cases embraced only a few general heads, they yet comprised a great multiplicity of particular instances, because involving the terminations of cases, the assimilation of prepositions in compound verbs and the like. But where there was only one right course, they generally chose it; yet from the utter confusion into which the use of the aspirate had fallen, their own language having entirely lost it in sound, but at this time retained it in spelling; from the almost complete identity both in sound and writing of c and t, and the like, they never could tell whether humor or umor, humerus or umerus, spatium or spacium, species or speties was correct; and consequently as a rule chose the wrong. Their general principles, however, were not accepted by the most thoughtful scholars in any age, so far at least as concerned the text of ancient authors, unless it be during a part of the present century; neither by an Avancius in the 15th nor by a Lambinus or Scaliger in the 16th, nor by a Gronovius in the 17th, nor by a Bentley in the 18th. Yet this system gradually established itself, because it came to be used by scholars in their own writings, some of the barbarisms being gradu-same age, he did not dogmatically determine what ally eliminated; new ones, however, being introduced, such as coelum coena moereo sylva caetera * Extracted from the admirable edition of Lucretius, by Mr Munro. "Titi Lucreti Cari de Rerum Natura Libri Sex. With a
Translation and Notes by H. A. J. Munro, M.A., Fellow of
on the teaching of Latin in English schools.
alluded to above, in which variety is the rule of
his author wrote, and thus close the door to all future change; but knowing that certainty was not here attainable, he carefully sifted the evidence offered by his MSS. and made the best approximation he could to what his author might have written, always taking the most ancient form for which his authorities supplied any testimony
direct or indirect. Thus the question was not In following Lachmann then I am sure that I foreclosed; nor were we left to vague generalities, have authority on my side; I believe that I have but a firm historical groundwork was gained upon reason as well. In those cases indeed to which I which future improvements might be built, If have already alluded, where the universal testibetterevidence hereafter offered itself. Lachmann mony of inscriptions and of MSS. beyond a certain then in this, as in so many other departments of age prove that there is only one right way and philology, seems at once to have produced con- about which the best scholars are all now agreed, viction in the minds of the majority of the most there cannot be any doubt what course should be thoughtful scholars, in Germany I mean; for in taken: we must write querella loquella luella solour own country most seem to scout the question, lers sollemnis sollicito Iuppiter littera quattuor as unworthy of serious attention: a great mistake; stuppa lammina bracchium; on the other hand, for Latin orthography is a most interesting and milia conecto conexus coniti conixus coniveo conuvaluable study to those who care to examine it, bium belua baca sucus litus and the like; condicio and touches in a thousand points the history solacium, setius artus (adj.) autumnus suboles: in grammar and pronunciation of the language. Let many of them an important principle is involved : me give two examples of the effect at once pro- obeying the almost unanimous testimony of our duced by Lachmann. Otto Jahn, in 1843, pub- own and other good MSS., we cannot but give lished his elaborate edition of Persius, in which umerus umor and the like; also hiemps. I have he adopted throughout the spelling then in com- heard it asked, What then is the genitive of hiemps: mon use, though he had so many excellent MSS. to which the best reply perhaps would be what is to guide him to a better course in 1851, the year the perfect of sumo or supine of emo. The Latins after Lachmann's work came out, he published wrote hiemps, as they wrote emptum sumpsi sumpthe text of his Juvenal and followed in it most tum and a hundred such forms, because they disminutely the principles of Lachmann; and fortu- liked m and s or t to come together without the nately he had a most excellent authority in the intervention of ap sound; and our MSS. all attest codex Pithoeanus; so that the spelling is probably this: tempto likewise is the only true form, which not very far removed from the author's own. In the Italians in the 15th century replaced by tento. the years just preceding Lachmann, Halm pub- Then MSS. and inscriptions prove that d took an lished several orations of Cicero with elaboraten before it, tandem quendam eundem and the like, eritical Latin notes; and yet, though his spelling was somewhat better than that of Jahn's Persius, it is still essentially "conventional" and arbitrary: in the years following Lachmann he published a series of school editions of Cicero's orations, with brief German notes, and yet in these the spelling was wholly modelled on the system pursued by Lachmann. The same system too he has carried out in those volumes of the elaborate edition of Cicero edited by him and Baiter, which came out after Lachmann's Lucretius. Stimulated by the examples of Madvig Ritschl and Lachmann, the rising generation of German scholars has pursued the critical study of Latin with eminent success; and nearly all of them follow in orthography the guidance of Lachmann. This system then may fairly, I think, be now regarded as the true "conventional" system; for surely the school of Lachmann and Ritschl in the nineteenth century has a better right to dictate to us in the present day what shall be accepted as "conventional" than the Poggios and Vallas of the fifteenth. Ribbeck in his Virgil shews himself a most devoted pupil of Lachmann, and generally he takes the same direction; though some defect of taste and judgment makes him not unfrequently misuse his glorious opportunities and push the matter to the verge of caricature.
with the sole exception of circumdo, in which the MSS. both of Lucr. and Virgil always retain the m : and generally, though not invariably, m on the other hand remained before q: quemquam tamquam and so on. Then always quicque quicquam quicquid (indef.), but generally quidquid (relative); always peremo interemo &c., &c. Above all we must scout such barbarisms as coelum moestus sylva caetera nequicquam. In these points Wagner is as good a guide as Lachmann; but in regard to the cases in which ancient usage varied, shall we follow the former, who deserts the paths for preconceived general rules, or Lachmann, who here also is content to obey the best evidence he can get? I have unhesitatingly come over to the views of the latter: "hypotheses non fingo" should be the rule in this as in other matters. As said above, all these uncertain spellings fall under a very few general heads. One of these is the assimilation or non-assimilation of prepositions: inpero represents the etymology, impero the pronunciation of the word. From the most ancient period of which we have any record, centuries before Cicero or Lucretius, a compromise was made between these opposing interests: words in common use soon began to change the consonant, those in less common use retained it longer.
In the new "corpus inscriptionum Latinarum," the most recent of which are as old as the age of Lucretius, most of them much older, imperator occurs twenty-six times, and is always spelt with m, proving that in a word, which must daily have been in everybody's mouth, etymology in remote times yielded as was natural to sound: imperium again occurs three, inperium six times, being doubtless in somewhat less common use. Now in Lucretius imperium impero or imperito occurs six times, and the MSS. always spell it with m, and so Lucretius spelt it I have no doubt : indeed many of these common words the silver age I believe more frequently wrote with n, than did that of Cicero. Then Virgil uses imperium forty times; and Ribbeck's capital MSS. have m in every instance, except M which twice has inp., though one even of these two cases is doubtful: for Æn. viii. 381, Fogginius prints imperiis. Yet in defiance of all this evidence Wagner gives us inperium, surely without reason on any view of the case; for the foundation on which we must build is thus withdrawn from under our feet. To take another common instance, commuto occurs nine times in the corpus inscr. and always with m; twelve times in Lucretius, and always with m. Other words are more uncertain : we find in the MSS. impius and inpius, immortalis and inmortalis, conligere and colligere, compleo and conpleo; and so with other prepositions ab, ob, sub, ad; all tending to prove that usage was in most words uncertain Again we have exsto exto, exsolvo, exulto expiro expecto cet., s being generally omitted; and this agrees with Quintilian, i. 74, who implies that it was a learned affectation of some to write exspecto in order to distinguish ex and specto from ex and pecto; it agrees too with all other good evidence: the MSS. of Virgil furnish precisely the same testimony as those of Lucretius; yet Wagner in all such cases writes exs; surely we should keep ex where the MSS. keep it, exs where they have exs; and so with supter or subter, suptilis or subtilis. ab- or ap-, ob- or op-, sub- or sup-, succ- or susc and the like: we find haud and haut, and sometimes aliut aliquit quicquit, and the like, sound and etymology carrying on an undecided battle in the MSS. of Lucretius, as in inscriptions and elsewhere adque is sometimes but rarely found, sound having here as might be expected gained the victory: Wagner cannot be right in always forcing adque on Virgil. Lucretius seems to have recognised only sed; he once has elabsa, and once praescribta: see notes 2 to vi. 92. In such forms sound must have at an early period prevailed, and b dg gave way to p t c before s and t: lapsus for labsus is the same principle as rex (recs)
rexi (recs›) written sometimes recxi, rectum from rego: to judge from the best MSS., labsus and the like became again much more common in the silver age.
Another question involving a multitude of details is the use of is or -es in the accus. plur. of participles and adjectives and substantives whose gen. plur. ends in ium, as well as of some other classes, doloris or dolores, maioris or maiores: here too Wagner involves himself in inextricable perplexities by his eclectic system, when his MSS. were admirable guides, had he chosen to follow them. The MSS. of Lucretius are no less admirable and probably represent very fairly the author's own usage: they offer -is five times out of six; and -es is somewhat more common in substantives in very general use, as ignes vires aures. Inscriptions quite bear out our MSS.; and the sole relic of Latin yet disinterred from Herculaneum contains this v. Utraque sollemnis iterum revocaverat orbes. Pertz recently printed in the Berlin transactions the few remaining leaves of a MS. of Virgil, which he assigns to the age of Augustus, and which may really be of the second or third century: we there find the acc. plur. of adjectives and participles ending eighteen times in -is, three times in -es, pares felices amantes; of substantives we find sonoris, but four times vires, and artes messes crates classes aves, quite bearing out the testimony of our A and B. Varro de ling. Lat. VIII. 67, says quid potest similius esse quam gens mens dens? quom horum casus patricus et accusativus in multitudine sint disparilis; nam a primo fit gentium et gentis, utrobique ut sit i; ab secundo mentium et mentes, ut in priore solo sit i; ab tertio dentum et dentes, ut in neutro sit i; well our MSS. six times have the acc. gentis, never gentes; dentes four times, never dentis; mentes five times, once only, II. 620, mentis. As for the nomin. plur. of such words, Varro 1. 1. 66, says sine reprehensione vulgo alii dicunt in singulari hac ovi et avi, alii hac ove et ave, in multitudinis hae puppis restis et hae puppes restes: the fragment of Virgil just cited has the nomin. plur. putris and messis, though we saw it had messes in the accus.: in accordance then with these high authorities the MSS. of Lucr. not unfrequently retain this nomin. in -is, which it would be monstrous to extirpate: I have always therefore kept it. We see from the corpus inscr. that -eis -is -es were all in use: it is probable that Lucr. occasionally employed the termination -eis intermediate in sound between -es and is; but, if so, his manuscripts have left few or no traces, and it would be most perverse to follow Avancius Wakefield and others | in thrusting it into his verses in season and out of
season. His MSS. have however left not a few traces expressed or implied of the ending -ei: see n. to iii 97 oculei: these traces have of course been carefully preserved.
On another question, comprehending a multitude of particular instances, I have followed Lachmann and our MSS., which here too are on the whole excellent guides: I speak of the vowel or consonant u followed by another u. The old Latins appear to have been unable to pronounce uu; and therefore the ancient o long kept its place after u; or for qu c or q was used: quom qum or cum, never quum; linquont linqunt or lincunt, sequontur, sequntur or secuntur, equos (nom.) equs or ecus; volgus divos divom aevom, and so on. They appear to have begun soonest to tolerate un in terminations, when both were vowels, suus tuus and the like. Now the MSS. of Lucretius have retained in very many instances divom volnus volgo vivont cet.; equos (nom.) and ecus ecum, accum; relinquont relinqunt or relincunt oftener than relinquunt, so sequontur secuntur secutus locuntur locutus; but with Lachmann I retain the uu, when the MSS. offer it, in order not to get lost on a sea of conjectural uncertainty like Wagner and some others. The MSS. of Lucretius are also very pertinacious in retaining the genuine old forms reicit eicit or eiecit cet. and never offering reiicit eiicit and the like: Grai Grais, not Graii Graiis. But further details on the most interesting points of the ancient orthography will be found in various parts of our notes. Again, in those many cases where the sound was intermediate between u and i, and the spelling
therefore uncertain, such as the termination of participles and words like lubet or libet, dissipat or dissupat, quadrupes or quadripes and many others, I have of course submitted to the guidance of our MSS. as well as in the adoption of e or o in vertere or vortere and the like e is naturally the more common, yet vorti vorsum divorsi vortitur convortere vortex are all found. The MSS. too I have always followed in reading reddunda gignundis dicundum cernundi faciundum agundis cet. or the more usual agendum quaerendum cet. Do I then claim in all these doubtful cases to reproduce the spelling of Lucretius or his first editor? Certainly not; but in most of these cases Lucretius and his contemporaries undoubtedly allowed themselves much latitude; and I have not intentionally permitted anything to remain which might not have been found in one or other MS. before the death of Virgil. By adhering tenaciously to the MSS. where not demonstrably wrong, one gains a firm resting-place from which to make further advances, if better evidence offer itself. However that may be, I cannot bring myself to accept the arbitrary and eclectic system of a Wagner, much less the hideous barbarisms of a Wakefield; nor on the other hand, after feasting on the generous cereals of a Lachmann and a Ritschl can I stomach the "conventional" husks and acorns of the Italians of the 15th century. At the same time it will be seen that my spelling differs less from this system, than does that of Wagner in his standard text of 1841, or even his subsequent modification of that text for common use which Prof. Conington has adopted in his Virgil.
THE BODY IN EDUCATION.
E will unquestionably do good service in the cause of education who will set forth the body in its proper light, and shew the important part which it plays in the animal economy. Not a few of the pernicious errors that prevail in the present day on the subject of education are to be traced to mistaken ideas which are entertained regarding the nature of the body. The time is now probably gone by when the body and mind of man were viewed as two antagonistic principles, whose interests were diametrically opposed the one to the other, and when he was considered to be doing the greatest service to his mental nature who was most directly sinning against his physical constitution. Still, however, they are
but too often regarded as separate and distinct in their nature and interests, the one having ascribed to it whatever is low, and grovelling, and vicious, while the other is credited with all that is true, and pure, and holy. In education, the one is considered as demanding and worthy of our highest care and attention, the other, it is believed, may be left to nature or chance, or if any attention be bestowed upon it, it is to be directed mainly to checking and curbing its native energies. And yet with all our efforts at educating man's higher nature, we cease not to regard it as mysterious and incomprehensible in its character, subject to laws, and directed by influences, of which we can form no conception, and to which we are but too ready to ascribe the errors and defects that arise