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XLII. George Washington.
154 +. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 259, 264, 300, 407–9. Moore's From
570, 577. Fiske's War of Independence, 110-11. a. Early life and education. b. Connection with public affairs previous to the Revolution. C. Election as commander-in-chief. Character and fitness. Washington and His Country, 154. Bancroft's U. S. IV. 205-11. Hildreth's
U.S. III. 80. d. Assuming command.
Higginson's U. S. 257-60. Fiske's War of Independence, 88-90. e. Condition of the army.
Eggleston's Household U. S. 191-3. Hildreth's U. S. III. 85, 99, 107-8. f. Difficulties in his way.
Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 541, 570, 577. g. Flag adopted. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 420–1. Eggleston's Household U. S. 166, 169, 171,
178. Johnston's U. S. 198. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 541, 570, 577.
Amer. Ency. XLIII. Why had the colonists no manufactures of importance at
the beginning of the war? NOTE. A memorandum giving some of the methods by which supplies were obtained by the colonists will be found in the appendix. It will give some idea of how large a proportion of the supplies which the colonists secured during the early years of the war were obtained by capture from their enemies.
XLIV. First expeditions sent out.
Field-Book of Rev. 190—3, 196–8; map, 193. Washington and His Coun-
map, 92. a. Arnold's route. b. Montgomery's location. c. Capture of Montreal and the attack on Quebec.
XLV. The evacuation of Boston.
422-8; map, 427. Hildreth's U. S. III. 107, 113, 121. Bancroft's U. S. IV.
War of Independence, 94 +. Coffin's Boys of '76, chap. IV. a. Map as above. b. Locate Washington's position and fortifications. 6. Why were the British forced to evacuate? d. Where did the British army go after the evacuation? e. Where did the American army go? Why? XLVI. The Declaration of Independence. a. What were the colonists fighting for during the first year of
the war? b. What was the purpose of the Declaration ?
Why was it necessary? C. The adoption of the Declaration. Winsor's Hist. of Amer. VI. chap. III.and 255-74. Bryant's Popular Hist. IV.
470, 481, 486–8. Johnston's U. S. 205-7. Andrews' Manual of Const.
dence, 97-103. Hildreth's U. S. III. 130-1, 133, 136, 141.
How was it received in Europe? d. The Declaration.
1. Read the Declaration through. 2. Learn the first fifteen lines (Johnston's U. S. Hist.) exactly. 3. What was the charge against the king ? (To be answered from the Declaration itself.) Give at least ten points in support of this charge, and be able
to give, if you can, a definite instance in proof of each point.
4. What means of redress had the colonists taken? 5. Were the colonists justified in declaring their indepen
dence? On what grounds? 6. Learn the last thirteen lines exactly. 7. What are the objects of good government? (To be answered from the Declaration itself.) How may these objects be secured? What is the true basis of government ? The exercise of what powers is essential to a separate and
equal position among the powers of the earth?
XLVII. Draw a map of New York and the surrounding country,
locating the position of troops, forts, etc., in the summer of
1776. Washington and His Country, 226–7. Johnston's U. S. 208. Where had the army, on each side, been since the evacuation
of Boston ?
XLVIII. The battle of Long Island. (With map.)
519; map, 491. Johnston's U. S. 210. Morris's Half Hours. II. 19. Los-
XLIX. Washington's retreat from New York to the Delaware,
with a map showing all important points, and the movements
of both armies. Johnston's U. S. 211. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 521. Hildreth's U. S. III.
154-6. Fiske's War of Independence, 115-18. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 417. Washington and His Country, 246-54; map, 247. Coffin's Boys of '76, chap. IX.; map, 117.
L. The hired soldiers in the British army.
NOTE. — The merchants of England and Ireland, and also the greater part of the inhabitants of the great trading cities of the kingdom, were opposed to a war which was likely to interfere seriously with the profits of colonial commerce; consequently, the king's officers found recruiting for the war in America very slow business, and it became necessary for the king to increase his army in some other way or give up all hope of subduing his rebellious colonial subjects.
The king of England was also the Elector of Hanover, and the first thing which he did was to send the German regiments which he commanded as Elector to garrison Gibraltar and Port Mahon, on the Mediterranean.
This released an equivalent number of British soldiers for service in America.
The king next proposed to Empress Catharine II. of Russia that she should let out to him a part of her army. She had just concluded peace witht he Porte and no longer had use for her whole army, but several things about the proposition, as the king had made it, displeased her extremely, and she rejected it with scant courtesy.
The king next applied to Holland for the use of a certain brigade, officered chiefly by Scotchmen, on which he seems to have thought that he had some sort of claim. After long delay Holland refused to permit him to take the troops out of Europe, which was as bad as an absolute refusal.
Finally, he sent an agent to the smaller German states, among whose rulers he had many relatives. Here he was successful, and obtained, at different times, between 20,000 and 30,000 men.
The bargain which the king was obliged to make with the Duke of Brunswick will serve as an example of the terms on which he got his troops. First, he promised to pay all the soldiers just as he paid his own army; he was to take care of all sick and wounded; he was to pay for every man killed, or in any way lost, at an agreed-upon rate; he was to pay to the duke a large sum, yearly, as rent for the use of the army, and was to continue to pay this sum for two years after the return of the troops.
These bargains proved very expensive to England, for many of these German soldiers were so much pleased with America, especially with Pennsylvania, where there were already a great many Germans, that they deserted to the number of 5000. The colonists encouraged desertion as much as possible by offers of land, etc.
In all, England had to pay for 12,554 missing men. Her hired soldiers cost England, in all, £1,770,000, besides pay and maintenance.
Among the soldiers supplied by Hesse-Cassel was one regiment not yet fit for service, in discipline. Hesse-Cassel had not regiments enough to furnish as many men as she had promised without putting in this regiment. It was Rall's regiment, which afterwards failed the British at Trenton.
Lİ. The winter of 1776–77.
Popular Hist. III. 525-30. Hildreth's U. S. III. 166. Morris's Half Hours,
Popular Hist. III. 532–6. Hildreth's V. S. III. 106–8. Washington and
Coffin's Boys of ’76, chap. XII.; map, 146.
III. 170-2. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. I. 306–9. Fiske's War of Independence, 124-5.
LII. What foreigners joined the American army?
pendence, 123, 150, 164, 173, 177. Topic: The Marquis de La Fayette. Johnston's U. S. 215. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 553, 555. Washington and
his Country, 285–6. Lossing's Field-Book of Rev. II. 117-21. Fiske's War of Independence, 123, 127. Hildreth's U. S. III. 193, 248.
LIII. The British plan of campaign for the summer of 1777. .
Johnston's U. S. 216. Fiske's War of Independence, 125.
Howe's movements and route to Philadelphia.
141-2. Bryant's Popular Hist. III. 553, 557-9. Johnston's U. S. 217.
Amer. Hist. 110. Hildreth's U. S. III. 221–3. Morris's Half Hours, II. 39.