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it was found necessary to add new men to it. months, till about April of last year. It is of this argument, however, I will not insist on his anThose men are now being enlisted, and when en- withdrawal that I complain, and I think justly; swering them now. But I desire to have them listed, it is proposed to send that regiment of i for while they were there we had peace, uninter- | answered. mounted rifles to Texas. And if you send them || rupted peace, and as soon as they left us, the cruel Mr. LANE. I prefer to go on with the branch to Oregon, you will have to raise another troop butchery of our people commenced.

of the subject I was elucidating a little further, for Texas.

Now, I take it for granted, that the promise and when I will answer the gentleman's questions, In conclusion, I beg leave to return my thanks made by the Secretary of War to-day will be car- I remarked that the interests of Oregon and Calito the House for the kindness with which they ried out in good faith, and that troops will be fornia were identical. Oregon, to some extent, is have heard me, and to apologize for having tres- placed upon the rout in time for the emigration a gold-producing country, but it is not so uniformpassed so long upon their time. My sole object io Oregon this season. But look at the economy; ly diffused over it as in California. But she has has been to vindicate the Secretary of War, who look at the principle; look at the system of political within her borders what is more valuable, a soil of has acted, I believe, in this whole matter, honestly economy of the Administration so lauded' by the inexhaustible fertility, finely adapted to the growth and fairly, without transcending his duty, and, gentleman from Maryland. I am a thousand times of everything that is needed for the subsistence of moreover, with ability and singleness of purpose. obliged to the gentleman for his kindness towards man; and is now in part supplying, and must

Mr. STUART. I would like to inquire of the Oregon in the last Congress, and I have no doubt eventually furnish, California with all agricultural Delegate from Oregon, whether he intends to press that I shall often have occasion to thank him for productions needed. Hence the great road leading this vote? Because if he does, I desire to say a his kindness towards Oregon in this Congress. from one country to the other demands imperifew words as to the motives which will govern my Oregon needs much. She has no vote here. She ously your protection. Now, we desire that there action; otherwise I do not intend to say anything. can only ask others to give her what she wants, shall be a garrison stationed somewhere in the

Mr. LANE. I have just had an interview with and I pledge my word that I will ask for nothing ! Rogue River Valley, through which this road the Secretary of War relative to this matter. I in her behalf that is not absolutely essential to her passes; for we musi pass through that valley on should like io have the attention of the House, welfare, and to which she is not justly entitled. the route from Oregon to California. We also while I give my views with reference to this rifle Now, this regiment of mounted rifles was or- ask that a garrison shall be placed upon the other regiinent and the movement of it, and then I am dered to Oregon; it was then ordered back again; road, in the Snake river country, somewhere bewilling that the vote shall be reconsidered and the i and now it is necessary to send out another force tween Fort Hall and the Grand Ronde. resolution laid on the table or withdrawn, for I there. That is a beautiful system of economy ! I will now answer the interrogatories of the genhave the assurance of the Secretary of War, that The gentleman from Maryland seems to think that tleman from Maryland, (Mr. Evans.] There are troops shall be posted upon the route this season the Administration are entitled to great credit for about sixty tribes of Indians in Oregon. There in suficient time to afford protection to the people this system of moving and counter-moving, and are about five times as many Indians as whites in bound to Oregon.

marching and counter-marching troops. But is it the Territory. The tribes near the settlements are Mr. STUART. I merely wish to say that my good economy or good policy to march troops to in general friendly disposed, and an easy people object in rising was to state my views very briefly Oregon and march them back again, while they to govern. We have no reason to fear any diffiin regard to the power of this House over this were subserving the very purpose intended by culiy from them. But the Indians on the road matter, and the power of the Executive of the Congress in authorizing the raising of the regi- from Oregon to California are, as I said before, as United States. But learning from the Delegatement, and then march out more troops? Yet that fierce and warlike as any on the face of the globe, from Oregon that he has received assurances from seems to be the policy of the Administration. and they are as capable of conducting war. Major the Secretary of War which induce him not to The former Delegate from Oregon (Mr. Thurs- Kearney—and every gentleman here knows that press the question, and being at all times unwilling ton) may have said that this rifle regiment was we have no officer in the Army who stands higher unnecessarily to consume the time of the House, not needed there. I have great respect for that for courage; he is the officer who gallantly carried I will yield the floor to him for the purpose of ex- gentleman's memory, and for his intelligence. He i the gates of the city of Mexico, with a shattered planation, and refrain from making any remarks has now passed away; but if he made such a state- and disabled arm dangling at his side—yet this myself.

ment as that, he certainly was not consulting the officer, with the intrepid Walker, and a small force Mr. LANE. I have not intended at any time interests of that Territory, and how he could have of as good troops as ever drew sabre, declined on to thrust my opinion on military matters upon the said such a thing, I cannot conceive. While it one occasion to give them battle till he was reinHouse, or to claim anything for the little military may be true that the troops were not needed in the forced. The Indians were well mounted, and well service I have seen, and the little experience I have settlements, they were certainly needed on the emi- || armed, and five hundred or six hundred strong. had in the service of my country. I never have grant route, from Independence to the waters of Now when such Indians as those infest the great said upon any occasion, nor do I mean to say in the Columbia, and on the route from Oregon to highway from Oregon to California, can it be exthis House, that my opinions are entitled to respect California.

pected that without a garrison and without troops because I have seen a little service in a war which The gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. MARSHALL) our people are safe in passing from one country to I did regard, and do yet regard, as a just war and said to-day, in the course of his remarks, that he another? Sir, within the last few years many one which every American citizen should have did not know why the troops should be posted at parties passing this road have been attacked, and supported with heart and hand. There should the points indicated in this resolution. I will now many of them murdered and their property dehave been but one feeling in this country when we explain to the gentleman, why it is necessary that i stroyed. were engaged in that war. Unfortunately, how- | they should be so arranged. The gentleman will They have thus been elated by success and have ever, there were two; but I do hope thai if this recollect that there are two great roads, one leading grown bold, and are growing bolder still, and nothcountry shall ever again be involved in war, there from St. Joseph, in Missouri, via Fort Hall, to ing will keep them in subjection but troops garwill be but one opinion, and thal, that it is the duty the Dalles of the Columbia river; the other from risoned there. Now the same may be said as to of every American citizen to take the part of his | Oregon City to Calfornia.

the other, the emigrant road between Fort Hall country, and never to sympathize with her ene- This latter road passes through the Rogue River and the Dalles of the Columbia river. Depredamies. It would have been well for the opponents Valley, which is near the dividing line between | rions have been committed on that road of such a of the Mexican war if they had uttered fewer Oregon and California, and runs through a country savage and cruel and barbarous nature, that I will words in opposition to it than some of them did. where there are no white settlements at all, but not ask this House to listen to their recital; they

Now, sir, out of that war has grown an exten- which is inhabited by as warlike and ferocious are too revolting to the feelings of our nature. sion of this country; it has given us an extended Indians, as any of our North American tribes, and Suffice it to say, young ladies have fallen into their frontier which is entitled to protection. Oregon | they have succeeded in ambuscading the rond and hands, and whole families have been destroyed. is a large piece of territory aside from the addi- curiing off numerous parties of our citizens passing Under the inducements which have been held out tional extension of our country. It embraces from to and from Oregon and California.

by Congress, many of our people have attempted the summit of the Rocky mountains to the Pacific The interests of California and Oregon are iden- to emigrate, and fallen upon the way. That fron. ocean a thousand miles in extent in one directical; they never can be separated; lying upon the tier cannot be protected unless the Government tion, and from the forty-second to the forty-ninth western slope of the Rocky Mountains, they form takes the matter into its own hands. It is not in parallel in the other. In that Territory there are an important portion of this country, and every- the power of the few thousands of people in that no troops. There are the remnants of two com- thing should be done, that can be consistently Territory to protect a frontier of some seven hun. panies of artillery, but an infantry soldier has never done by Congress and the Administration, to afford dred miles. It is impossible for them to furnish been ordered to that Territory.

to them everything that they need, or at least to sufficient force to subdue those Indians. I do not The rifle regiment was clearly and distinctly protect those who are moving there. This rifle exaggerate when I say, that many thousands of raised for that service. President Polk recoin- regiment, I repeat, ought never to have been or- dollars worth of property have there fallen into mended the raising of the regiment to be stationed dered to Texas, for their service belongs to Ore- the hands of the Shoshonc or Snake Indians. I on the route to Oregon for the protection of emi- gon. We ought to have troops sufficient for the do not exaggerate when I say, that many lives have grants bound for that Territory, and in pursuance il protection of the people who go to Oregon, and I been taken, that many men, women, and children of that recommendation, Congress authorized the have no doubt that it will be so, as I rely upon have been murdered in the most shocking and raising of the regiment. It was raised, but this the assurances of the Secretary.

horrible manner. Now, was it just to the emiwas unfortunately during the Mexican war, and [Here a message was received from the Presi- grants to that country-was it right, under these under the emergency of the occasion had to be dent of the United States.]

circumstances, to have ordered thai regiment from sent to Mexico, and there served till the conclusion Mr. EVANS. I want to ask the gentleman a of that war. When it returned, Mr. Polk very question as to the character of the Indians in Ore-depredators? I must confess that I did not expect

that country, and thus leave it open to these savage justly thought they were, in common with other gon, as to whether they are warlike or not, and

to see my friend from Texas (Mr. HOWARD) iake new regiments, entitled to a discharge, and so whether they have lately been making war upon the position which he assumed yesterday. "I did many of them as desired it were discharged. The the citizens of that Territory? I want to know not expect that a gentleman representing any porskeleton remaining was filled up by recruits, as 1 how many troops will be necessary for the protection of a State so chivalrous as Texas—à State so stated yesterday, on the express "condition that ition of that Territory, and whether the inhabitants prompt in doing her duty in defending herself and they were to be employed in this Oregon service. are not able to take care of themselves, and what the country-should ask the services of this regi: - It was sent to Oregon after being thus filled up, the probable cost of those troops would be? If ment, and that Oregon should be deprived of all but only suffered to remain there some eighteen the gentleman desires to pursue another train of ll protection.


Mr. HOWARD. If the gentleman will allow || many. California is as much exposed as any | garrison in the country would have a moral inme, I have made no such request. I am perfectly country possibly can be, from the locality of the fluence upon the Indians, that would do much willing that Oregon shall be defended, and that the country, from iis formation, and from its many towards keeping peace with them. Government shall send troops there for her de- scattered valleys. Its immense amount of gold in- I have many apologies to make to this House fence. What I said was, ihat the Secretary of duces the people to wander all over the country, for trespassing so long upon their time. It is the War had stated that these troops were not the best and for that reason they are exposed more than first occasion that I have found it necessary to say for Oregon. He says now that the reports will they otherwise would be.

a word or occupy the time of this House, but it show that the mounted men in Oregon have not Now, I am going to state simply, that the troops was an occasion upon which I thought I ought to rendered service at all commensurate with the ex- in Oregon consist of not more than forty to ninety avail myself of the privilege which you have expense which the country has been put to in rela- men. They are artillery troops occupying gar

tended to me. I must look to this House for the tion to this character of iroops, and that foot forces risons, or something like garrisons, upon the sea- adoption of such measures as are necessary for the are still the best for that Territory. But this regi- coast. A few of them are at Fort Siilacoon, on protection of Oregon. ment, as the gentleman from Maryland states, Puget Sound, and a few of them at Columbia bar- I should like to have the vote upon the passage after being in a great degree disbanded in Ore- racks. None of them can be used in the defence of the resolution reconsidered, and that the resolugon, the troops having deserted so that there was of the frontiers of that country. Now, I repeat, tion lie upon the table. but a mere skeleton left, who, with the officers, the Secretary of War has told me to-day, that for Mr. SEYMOUR, of New York. I demand the brought home the horses that were not sold, at a the protection of the emigrants bound to Oregon, | previous question. large expense, and were posted in Texas. Now, he will cause troops to march out, to be there in The previous question received a second; and I want to know where is the reason for sending time for this year's emigration. That will satisfy the main question was ordered to be put. them back: If mounted forces are necessary there, me so far as that is concerned, snd it will satisfy The main question, which was upon reconsidthen give them an independent mounted force- the emigrants, and insure their protection, if the ering the vote by which the resolution was adoptgive them another regiment. But, sir, I will come troops are kept upon the road. There is one other

ed, was then put, and it was agreed to. to a compromise with the honorable gentleman route which the Secretary should place troops Mr. LANE. I now move that the resolution from Oregon. If he will give us in Texas, for upon, and that is the great road leading from Ore

lie three years, those mounted rangers, he may then

upon the table. gon to California, and then we should have the

The question was taken, and the motion was take back the troops; he may have them re-trans- protection which the people absolutely require. agreed to. ported to Oregon.

I have said nothing about the right of this House

So the resolutiort was laid upon the table. But I think the Department have taken the to request the President, for this resolution was ground which they have taken in relation to this nothing more than a request, or if you please, a

On motion by Mr. CABELL, of Florida, it matter wisely, and for this reason: The population | petition. Whenever the day arrives when this of Oregon and of California is composed principally House cannot, or dare not, or will not, for some

Ordered, That leave be granted to withdraw the petition of young men without families, and, of course, a

and papers of Richard Fitz Patrick, for the purpose of reterimaginary reason, say that they have no right to

ence in the Senate. population of this description is much more com- respectfully ask and request the President of the petent to defend itself, than one composed of per- United States to afford protection to our frontiers,

On motion by Mr. ABERCROMBIE, it was sons who have settled with their families with then I will be prepared to say we do not enjoy the

Ordered, That the papers and petition of Wade Allen be

withdrawn from the files of the House, and referred to the women and children, as is the case in Texas. If | liberties which I heretofore have supposed, and Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads. the present army cannot defend the frontier of that still believe we enjoy. When has the time arrived

On motion by Mr. HENN, it was country, by, calling for volunteers, a population in which it is improper to do so!

Ordered, That the papers and petition of Solomon Rushcomposed chiefly of young men is certainly much I hope I need not add, that I am as fully aware ton be withdrawn froin the files of the House, and referred better adapted to defend themselves, than such a as any gentleman on this floor, that this House to the Committee of Claims. population as exists in Texas. We all know that has no power to command the President to do any- On motion by Mr. HASCALL, the House then the frontiers of Texas have ever since annexation, | thing in the premises; my object was not to com- adjourned. been depredated upon, more or less, by hostile In- | mand him; and it is passing strange to me that dians. We know that for the last three years the gentlemen will insist that it is designed to be so.

PETITIONS, &c. frontiers of Mexico have been depredated upon by My object was to obtain an expression of the sense

The following petitions, memorials, &c., were presented the Indians, now resident in the United States; ) of this body upon the propriety of extending the under the rule, and referred to the appropriate committees : and that no efficient or fair means have been taken | protection to the people I represent, which I think

By Mr. WEIGHTMAN: The memorial of a citizen of to carry out that treaty; and that this regiment is their due, not doubting that the President would New Mexico, praying the enaetment of a bill, there with has been brought there, not only to protect the peo: | give such respectful consideration to such expres- transmitted, having for its object the arming of the militia ple of Texas and New Mexico, but to protect and sion as is due to such a high source. I also desired

and volunteers, &c., of the Territory of New Mexico.

Also, a memorial of a citizen of New Mexico, praying the carry out the treaty stipulations which you have to bring this subject to the attention of the country enactinent of a bill, therewith transmitted, having for its obligated yourselves to carry out with the Repub- at large, and my constituents in particular. Why, object to place oficers and enlisted men serving in New lic of Mexico. And more than that; it seems to sir, this is certainly a novel idea, that this House Mexico, on the same footing as regards pay, with officers me to be a most extraordinary position, that men has no right, by abstract resolution, if you please,

and enlisted men serving in Oregon, California, and for other

purposes. going to a country must be protected, but that men to indicate its sense of any Executive proceeding,

By Mr.

: Memorials of certain merchants engaged who are settled in a country with their families, or what ought to be Executive action. Sir, your in commerce, and ship masters, and of certain captains of and liable to like depredations, shall not be pro- | Journals, through the whole history of the Gov- steam and sailing vessels, navigating Long Island Sound, tected. ernment, are full of such precedents, and espe

asking for a suitable light-house on the end of Long Wharf,

in New Haven harbor. Mr. LANE. The gentleman from Texas is as cially has this been the habit of the party now in By Mr. DUNCAN: The petition of Mary Pearson, for a much at fault in his assertions, as was the gentle- | power. While upon this subject, permit me to pension on account of the revolutionary services of Silas man from New York, [Mr. Brooks.] This re- remark, that, although no lawyer, yet I think I

Pearson, her late husband. giment was not ordered from California, but from rightly, understand the constitutional obligations

By Mr. HAVEN: The petition of S. Vandenburgh and

3) others, praying an inquiry into the subject of the tariff Oregon.

resting upon the President and upon the Congress. upon cigars costing less than ten dollars per thousand, and Mr. HOWARD, I had my authority from the || It is for Congress to make the laws, and for the such a modification in reference thereto as will afford proSecretary of War. They are part in Oregon, and President to execute them. While it is true that he

tection to the makers thereof in this country.

By Mr. McLANAHAN: The remonstrance of citizens of part in California; indeed, the headquarters of is the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, it is also Franklin county, Pennsylvania, against the renewal of the General Smith was at San Francisco.

true that it is his duty to see that the laws are patent right of Zebulon Parker, for his reaction water wheel. Mr. LANE. But none of the rifles were there. faithfully executed; hence I infer that if Congress, Also, a petition of citizens of Perry county, Pennsylvania, Mr. HOWARD. That is not the statement of in raising troops for a particular service, should

praying for the establishment of a mail route from Newport

io Elliottsburg, in said county, by way of Millford, Bosserthe Secretary of War.

direct their field of operations, it would be the man's mill, and Roseburg. Mr. LANE. Now in reply to the gentleman's duty of the Chief Magistrate to execute the will By Mr. FLORENCE: The petition of John S. Moore, argument as to their being relatively more young and directions of the law-making power.

John N. Henderson, Lacey & Phillips, and other citizens and unmarried men in Oregon than in Texas, It is now about time to withdraw this resolution,

of Philadelphia, praying for an appropriation to the Execu

tive Committee of the London Industrial Exhibition, to relet me assure him that he is egregiously at fault. or rather to let it take its regular course.

lieve those who have borne the expenses of the transportaCongress, you know, sir, has enacted a law do- Mr. EVANS. I would ask the gentleman, tion and display of goods at the “World's Fair." nating to all emigrants who would take a claim what would be the probable cost of supporting the

By Mr. AIKEN: The memorial of the New York in that country, and cultivate it for four years, as

Chainber of Commerce, praying for a light-boat, with a fogtroops he proposes to have sent to Oregon?

bell, on Cape Roman Shoals, coast of South Carolina. follows: to a married man 320 acres, one-half in Mr. LANE. I am by nature and practice, and By Mr. ASHE: The memorials of Neill Kelly and J.C. his own right, and one half in her own right; to in every other way, an economist, and in asking Blocker, deputy marshals, praying additional compensation an unmarried man 160 acres, and to his wife protection for Oregon, I studied economy. I was for taking the census.

By Mr. BISSELL: The memorial of the President and 160 more in her own name, if he marries in twelve unwilling to ask for what she really needs, be- Directors of the Mississippi and Atlantic Railroad Compamonths after locating his claim; the consequence cause it will cost much, and more than Congress ny, praying for the right of way and a grant of land, to aid is, sir, we have few unmarried men or women in might think proper. For that reason I put it low. in the construction of a railroad from the State line of Illiour country; the ladies, always quick to dis- | I stated, in a letier to the President, that two or nois, at a point opposite Terra Haute, to Illinoistown, op

posite St. Louis. cover their interests, and prompt to avail them three companies of cavalry would be sufficient to

By Mr. BARRERE: The petition of William Perry and selves of any opportunity to promote it, have not afford the

needed protection on the emigrant road 15 others, surviving soldiers of the war of 1812, and citionly all wedded who were there, but many more between Fort Hall and the Dalles, and two or zens of Brown county, Ohio, praying for the passage of a have gone there and married, and have husbands three companies of the same description of troops

law granting pensions for lite to the surviving officers and

soldiers of the war of 1812. and lands both, so that thegentleman must discover in the Rogue River Valley between Oregon and By Mr. ALLEN, of Illinois : The petition of citizens of that if fighting men cannot be obtained except | California.

Hamilton, Franklin, and Saline counties, Ilinois, praying they are unmarried, no country is more destitute 1 also stated, that if mounted troops could not Congress to establish a inail route from the town of Me of them than Dregon. be had, that infantry forces ought to be sent out;

Lanesboro', in the county of Hamilton, to the town of

Marion, in the county of Williamson, and State of Ilinois. There are some troops in California, but not not that I believed for a moment that we could

By Mr. GOODENOW: The memorial of Benjamin more than are needed there, and indeed not as wage war successfully with infantry, but that a Sampson and 7 others, assistant marshals of the county of

the Seventh Census.


Franklin, in Maine, for additional compensation for taking right to use his patent force-pump and fire-engine; || half suffering convicts banished by other coun

which was referred to the Committee on Naval tries, they pray that the same sort of sympathy By Mr. JOHN W. HOWE: The petition of William

Affairs, Gallaher and 180 others, citizens of Mercer county, Penn

may be extended to the brother of one of these sylvania, praying Congress to prohibit the transportation of Mr. MILLER presented the memorial of Sarepta petitioners and the other four hundred in Siberia

. uic United States mails upon the Sabbath.

Cleveland, praying remuneration for a house be- They say further, that they believe the Russian

longing to her father, Jonathan Skinner, destroyed Government will lend a very favorable consideraIN SENATE.

by the enemy during the revolutionary war; which tion to any application from this Government, upon

was referred to the Committee on Revolutionary the assurance being given that they will all be WEDNESDAY, February 11, 1852. Claims.

brought to the United States. Prayer by the Chaplain, Rev. C. M. Burler. Mr. CHASE presented two petitions of mer- I had some difficulty in my mind, Mr. President,

chants and others of Philadelphia, praying the with regard to presenting this memorial, not know

construction of an additional canal around the ing but it might be intended to humbug me or The PRESIDENT pro tem. laid before the Sen

Falls of the Ohio river; which were referred to the Congress, from the fact which must be known to ate a communication from the Secretary of State, Committee on Roads and Canals.

the Senate, that in the early movements upon this transmiting, in compliance with a resolution of

Also, the memorial of inhabitants of Warren, subject of intervention, I was among the first to the Senate of the 7th instant, a report of the Board of Commissioners on Claims against Mexico; . mail on Sunday may be prohibited by law; which || fore, know but the petition might have been sent

Illinois, praying that the transportation of the denounce the whole proceeding. I did not, therewhich states, that the whole amount awarded on

was referred to the Committee on the Post Office to me for such a purpose as I have suggested; but all the claims allowed by the Board was $3,208,and Post Roads.

recollecting that an illustrious associate in the other 314 96, and that the sum stipulated by the United Also, two petitions from the assistant marshals branch of Congress was very eloquent on the subStates by the 15th article of the treaty of Guada- for taking the Seventh Census in Clark county ject of the right of petition and upon intervention, lupe Hidalgo, lo make satisfaction for the claims

and Hancock county, in the State of Ohio, pray; || 1 concluded to present the petition to the Senate, of their citizens against the Mexican Republic was ing additional compensation; which were referred and to make the declaration, that I have determined, three millions and a quarter, which exceeds, by to the Committee of Claims.

if any more petitions of a like character come to $41,635 04, the total amount of the awards of the

Mr. DAWSON presented the petition of Avery | my hands, I will hand them over to some more Board of Commissioners.

Downer, praying a pension for services during active sympathizer in the objects prayed for, and Mr. MASON. That information was called

the revolutionary war; which was referred to the especially those who act for ́s victims,” as they for by the Senator from Pennsylvania, (Mr. BrodCommittee on Revolutionary Claims.

are called. HEAD.) He is not in his seat.

Mr. SEWARD presented the petition of Wil- Mr. BADGER. I rise for the purpose of maMr. WADE. If the gentleman from Virginia liam Woodbridge, praying a section of land in king a motion as to the disposition of this mewill allow me, I will state, that the resolution was consideration of the services of his father, a sol- morial, and I would suggestintroduced at the instance of the Committee of dier in the revolutionary war; which was referred Mr. UNDERWOOD. I beg pardon; I would Claims, for information which they wanted in reto the Committee on Public Lands.

suggest that it go to the Committee on Foreign gard to a certaim claim. If, therefore, the Senator

Mr. FELCH presented the petition of William Relations. from Virginia will permit me, I will move that

H. Platt, President of the Alion and Sangamon Mr. BADGER. The petition states that the the communication be referred to the Committee of

Railroad Company, in the State of Illinois, pray: judgments under which these exiles are suffering Claims.

ing a grant of land to aid in the construction of Mr. MASON. I should be quite willing that

a hard captivity in that frozen and inhospitable that railroad; which was referred to the Comınittee | region were erroneous. I would therefore move a this communication should be referred to the

on Public Lands. Committee of Claims, so that we might have the

reference of this petition to the Committee on the

Mr. DODGE, of Iowa, presented the memorial Judiciary, with instructions to report a bill so to action of that committee on the subject, but there

of Benjamin S. Roberts, of the Army, praying to is a large number of these claimants whose memo

amend our laws as to provide that a writ of error be allowed the pay and emoluments of a lieutenant may be taken to our Supreme Court from the Surials have been referred by the Senate to the Com

of dragoons from the time he was discharged from millee on Foreign Relations, and we have had

preme Court of the Russian Empire. (Laughter.] the Army to the time of his appointment as a them under consideration. I will not interfere with | lieutenant of mounted riflemen; which was referred

Mr. UNDERWOOD. Perhaps that is rather the motion of the Senator from Ohio, but merely to the Committee on the Judiciary.

premature. According to the suggestion of the state the fact I have already mentioned. Mr. WADE. I will not persist in the motion. indemnity for property destroyed by the enemy

Also, the petition of Benjamin Arnold, praying memorialists, they recommend the sending out of

a commissioner to ascerta in the facts before a writ I supposed that the resolution emanated from that during the last war with Great Britain; which was

of error is provided for. committee, and for the purpose which I have men- referred to the Committee of Claims.

Mr. BADGER. But the difficulty is, that be. tioned.

Also, the petition of citizens of Guthrie county, these writs of error may expire. I think this thing

fore that can be done the five years' limitation of Mr. MASON. Then I will move that this lowa, praying a donation of land for the use of ought to be done immediately, if it is done at communication be referred to the Committee on

the county seat of that county; which was referred Foreign Relations, and that it be printed.

all. (Langhter.] to the Committee on Public Lands. Mr. WADE. I am quite agreeable to that

The PRESIDENT. Does the Senator from

Also, the petition of James C. Mitchell, and the reference. petition of William Simpson, praying a donation morial to the Committee on Foreign Relations:

Kentucky withdraw the motion to refer the meThe communication was so referred. of land for the benefit of the town of Kanesville,


lowa; which were referred to the Committee on motion; and, if the reference will better suit the The PRESIDENT pro tem. laid before the SenPublic Lands.

views of my friend from North Carolina, I will ate a report of the Secretary of the Interior, com

move that it be referred to the Committee on the municating, in compliance with a resolution of the

Judiciary. Senate, copies of all correspondence between that

Mr. BADGER. I have a petition from one

Mr. BUTLER. No! no! (Laughter.) You Department, including the office of Indian Affairs, more of the victims of the square root. It is from

are not in earnest, are you? and persons claiming to be creditors of the WestS: N. Smithhurst, one of the assistant marshals

Mr. UNDERWOOĎ. Certainly I am. (Laughern Cherokees since the last session of Congress. in North Carolina, employed in taking the Seventh

ter.) Mr. SEBASTIAN. That information was Census in Martin county, praying for additional

Mr. MASON. I did not hear distinctly what called for at the instance of the Committee on In- | compensation. While I otřer ihis petition, I beg

the Senator from Kentucky proposed, dian Affairs, and was intended to assist that com

leave also to present a paper containing a statement mittee in the investigation of claims now under with respect to the petition of H. B. Lewis, a dep- deed what he said in regard to this memorial; and

I would like to know whether he is acquainted their consideration. I move that the communica- luty marshal in Tyrrel county, explaining the great

with these memorialists, and if he knows who tion be referred to the Committee on Indian Af difficulties he labored under in taking the census. fairs, and that it be printed.

I move to refer both of these papers to the Com- they are, so that, if possible, the Senate may judge The motion was agreed to. mittee of Claims.

whether or not this petition is or is not what the They were so referred.

Senator from Kentucky expresses his doubts that
Mr. UNDERWOOD. I have a memorial to

it may be, namely, a humbug? Mr. ATCHISON presented the petition of the present, sir, in behalf of four hundred victims. It

Mr. UNDERWOOD. I have stated all that I guardiun of the heirs of the late Major Thomas is only signed by two, sir, and they do not rep- post-mark upon it; and that is all that I know.

know upon the subject. There is the New York Noel, of the United States Army, praying the set- resent themselves as victims, but they petition for tlement of his accounts; which was referred to

Mr. MASON. Then I think the best disposiothers. It comes to me under the post office mark the Committee on Military Affairs. of New York, and it purports to be sent by Carl

tion that can be made of it is, to lay it upon the Mr. BUTLER presented the memorial of the Prochaski and Christian Dembinski, adopted citi

table. I make that motion. Chamber of Commerce of New York, praying zens, they say, of the United States. They rep

The memorial was accordingly laid upon the that a light-ship, with a fog.bell on board, may resent that the brother of this Charles, as I sup

table. be moored in the slue between the shoals off Cape pose this name Carl means, has been banished io PAPER WITHDRAWN AND REFERRED. Roman, on the coast of South Carolina; which Siberia, under the pretence of having committed was referred to the Committee on Commerce.

On motion by Mr. NORRIS, it was some crime against the Russian Government. Mr. WADE presented three petitions of the as

Ordered, That the petition of John McAvoy, on the files They represent that the conviction was obtained

of the Senate, be referred to the Committee of Claims. sistant marshals of Ashtabula county, Miami upon testimony which was false in toto. They county, and Logan county, in the State of Ohio, also represent ihat there are four hundred others

REPORTS FROM STANDING COMMITTEES. praying additional compensation for taking the confined in Siberia under like erroneous proceed- Mr. NORRIS, from the Committee for the DisSeventh Census; which were referred to the Com- ings against them in the courts of Russia; and trict of Columbia, to which was referred the me mittee of Claims.

having, as they say, understood that the Congress morial of the citizens of Washington, praying for Mr. COOPER presented the petition of Simon of these glorious Únited States intend to manifest the incorporation of the Eagle Steamboat Company P. Kase, praying the Government to purchase the Il generous, active, and operative sympathy in be- i at Washington, District of Columbia, reported a


nor in

bill for that purpose; which was read, and passed The resolution was accordingly passed over. worth hearing, our speeches will keep. There is to the second reading.


no danger whatever of their spoiling. Mr. SEWARD, from the Committee on Commerce, to which was referred the petition of

Mr. DODGE, of lowa. I trust that my col

A message was received from the President of Thomas A. Napier, reported a bill to authorize a

the United States by Mr. M. P. FILLMORE, his league will withdraw his motion, and allow the new register for the American built ship Obed

special order to be proceeded witb.

Private Secretary, transmitting the annual report Mitchell; which was read a first and second time showing the operations of the Mint and its of the Director of the Mint at Philadelphia,

Mr. JONES. I will withdraw the motion with by unanimous consent, and, no amendment being branches for the year 1851;

a great deal of pleasure, if my friend from Ten

nessee desires it to be withdrawn. made, it was ordered to be engrossed and read a

Mr. BELL. I will assent with great pleasure third time.

Also, a report from the Secretary of the InteMr. JONES, of Iowa, from the Committee on rior, containing a report from Thomas U. Walter,

to any arrangement which may be agreed upon by

gentlemen. Pensions, to which was referred the petition of Architect for the extension of the Capitol; and David P. Weekes, submitted a report, accompa, Department of State to the Minister of the United

A copy of the instructions dispatched from the

Mr. JONES. I would withdraw the motion

immediately, but I do not wish to be discourteous nied by a bill for his relief; which was read and

to the Senator from Tennessee. passed to the second reading. The report was

States at London, respecting the attack on the
United States steamer “Prometheus,” in the

Mr. BELL. I shall not regard it as any disordered to be printed. harbor of San Juan de Nicaragua, by the British

courtesy at all. Mr. RUSK, from the Committee on the Post

The motion was then withdrawn. Office and Post Roads, to which was referred the || dispatches of Mr. Lawrence to that Department brig of war “ Express ;" and also, a copy of the

EXILED IRISH PATRIOTS. memorial of Guion and McLaughlin, submitted a a bill their relief; and of his correspondence with Her Britannic

The Senate resumed the consideration of the

resolution Mr. Foote, of Missiswas read and passed to the second reading. The || Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign sippi, on the 2d of December, expressive of the report was ordered to be printed. Mr. DOUGLAS, from the Committee on Ter

These several messages were referred,

sympathy of Congress for the exiled Irish patriritories, to which the subject was referred, reported second to the Committee on Public Buildings; and

The first to the Committee on Finance; the

ois, Smith O'Brien and Thomas F. Meagher, and

their associates. a bill to reduce and define the boundaries of the military reserve at the St. Peter's river, in the the third to the Committee on Foreign Relations;

The pending question was Mr. SEWARD's amend

ment to the amendment of Mr. SHIELDS. Territory of Minnesota, and to secure the rights and they were ordered to be printed.

Mr. SEWARD. Mr. President, this resoof the actual settlers thereon; which was read and


lution seems to me neither inconsiderate nor unpassed to the second reading.

Mr. BUTLER. At the last session of Con- important. It is a resolution which must have Mr. BORLAND, from the Committee on Pen- || gress there was a bill passed authorizing notaries the assent of both Houses of Congress, and the sions, to which the petition of Elizabeth V. || public of different States and Territories to take approbation of the President of the United States, Lomax was referred, submitted a report, accom. and certify oaths, affirmations, and acknowledg- and so will become a national act. It recompanied by a bill for her relief; which was read and

ments in certain cases; but under some misappre- | mends, I might perhaps say solicits, clemency topassed to the second reading. The report was hension, it did not include the District of Colum- wards the patriots of Ireland who are suffering ordered to be printed.

bia. I move to take up that bill now, for the imprisonment in a penal colony; and it is de Mr. SEBASTIAN, from the Committee on Inpurpose of amending it in that particular.

signed for the information of the British Governdian Affairs, to which was referred the documents Mr. SEWARD. I desire to ask the Senator ment, and therefore may and ought to be rerelating to the claim of Theodore E. Elliott, re- from South Carolina, whether it will involve de- garded as an appeal by the United States to Great ported a bill for his relief; which was read and bate?

Britain. passed to the second reading.

Mr. BUTLER. Not at all; it is only to supply Sir, I think the proceeding is defensible upon Mr. GEYER, from the Committee on Pensions, a single word.

the grounds of abstract justice and propriety, as to which was referred the petition of Barbara Ri- The motion to take up the bill was agreed to. well as upon a due consideration of the relations ley, submitted a report, accompanied by a bill for The amendment which extended to notaries of all the parties concerned. her relief; which was read and passed to the sec- public in the District of Columbia the same power I beg leave to say, in the first place, that it is ond reading. The report was ordered to be printed. io take and certify to oaths, affirmations, &c., not altogether novel in character and principle. On motion by Mr. GEYER, it was

which is conferred on the same class of officers, The patriots of Ireland, who are the subjects of Ordered, That the Committee on the Judiciary be dis- in the States and Territories, was adopted; and this debate, are suffering imprisonment in concharged from the further consideration of the message of the bill as amended was then ordered to be en- sequence of an effort, honestly made, to restore the President of the United States, of the 26th January, regrossed for a third reading.

their native land to liberty and independence. speeting claims of citizens of California; and that it be laid upon the table.

The sympathy expressed by this resolution for CENSUS COMPENDIUM.

them, springs from the same source from which DISTRICT COURTS IN ALABAMA.

Mr. SEWARD gave notice of his intention to the sympathy of the people of the United States Mr. CLEMENS asked and obtained leave to

ask leave to introduce a joint resolution concern- has sprung, which has been habitually exhibited introduce a bill to be entitled “An act to change || ing the publication of a compendium of the several towards nations striving to assert the same rights the times of holding the United States district

censuses of the United States. It proposes that the sympathy which was expressed by the peocourts in Alabama, and for other purposes;” which a joint committee of the two Houses be appointed, ple of the United States towards France in 1793, was read and ordered to a second reading.

whose duty it shall be to prepare, or cause to be in 1830, and in 1848; towards Greece, towards the Mr. CLEMENS. I hope it may be read a sec- prepared, and report for immediate use, a com- rising South American republics, towards Poland, ond uime now.

pendium of such prominent statistics of the late | towards Germany, and towards Hungary. Even The motion was agreed to.

and prior censuses, as to them may seem import- || in form, sir, the measure assimilates to the action The bill provides that the district courts of the

ant, for the present information of the people and of Congress in regard to Louis Kossuth, who has United States for the State of Alabama shall be

Congress, accompanied by a report containing. || been, through our interposition, released from imheld at Mobile, on the fourth Monday in April, || such other information relative to the progress of prisonment in Asia Minor, and brought to our and on the second Monday after the fourth Monagriculture, arts, manufacture, commerce, and the shores, received and welcomed as a guest of the day in November; at Huntsville, on the second general wealth of the United States, as they may

United States. Monday in May, and the second Monday in Nodeem useful.

The interest which is expressed in this resoluFemier; at Montgomery on the fourth Monday

tion for William Smith O'Brien, like that which in May, and the fourth Monday in November; and


is expressed toward Louis Kossuth, is not merely also, that the county of Butler shall be a part of, Mr. JONES, of lowa. I move to dispense personal, but it is the reverential compassion inand embraced in the middle district of said State." with the special order to-day, for the purpose || dulged by the people of the United States for a

The bill was then considered as in Committee of taking up Senate bill No. 1, which is a bill fallen nation “in a man compris'd.". It is not, of the Whole; and no amendment being offered, making a grant of land to the State of Iowa, in then, the cause of William Smith O'Brien alone it was reported to the Senate, and ordered to be | aid of ihe construction of a railroad in that State. it is the cause of Ireland. engrossed for a third reading.

My friend from Tennessee (Mr. Bell) has had The merits of a nation's cause, and of its deADDITIONAL POST ROUTE.

the floor on this subject, at least four or five days, || fenders, require a review, not merely of the parMr. HAMLIN submitted the following reso

and has been unable to proceed with his speech. ticular accidents or incidents which bring it belution for consideration ; which was agreed to :

He commenced his remarks on the day when the fore us, but of the whole life of the nation. So

bill was last under consideration and spoke some it was that our forefathers, in adopting the declaResolved, that the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads be directed to inquire into the expediency of

five minutes, when the Senate adjourned. He is ration of American independence, reviewed the establishing a post route from Rnekland, in the county of now prepared to go on with his remarks, and I entire colonial experience in vindication of the act Sinclair, w the Isle au Haut, in the county of Lincoln, in hope that the bill will be taken up, so that he may of abjuration of their allegiance to the British proceed with them.

Throne. UNITED STATES JUDGE FOR THE DISTRICT Mr. BADGER. I would suggest to my friend Ten centuries ago, sir, Ireland was an independOF MICHIGAN.

from Iowa the propriety of withdrawing that mo- ent nation, possessing the elements and the forces

tion for the present. Mr. CASS submitted the following resolution

The Senator from New of national stability. Ireland was guilty of one for consideration:

York (Mr. SEWARD) had the resolution in relation enduring crime-it was the crime of proximity to

to the Irish exiles postponed until one o'clock to- England. Ireland labored under one enduring Resolred, That the Committee on the Judiciary be instructed to inquire into the expediency of increasing the

day; and as that subject is the special order, and misfortune-it was the misfortune that, for many salary of the district judge of the United States for the as the time is now past, I think he ought to be centuries, she had remained unconquered and undistrict of Michigan.

heard. I can readily realize the hardship imposed conquerable. The crime provoked the cupidity Mr. SEWARD. I hope that resolution will | upon my friend from Tennessee, as it has been of England, the misfortune begat divisions into lie over until to-morrow, as I desire to submit an suggested by my friend from lowa; but as both septs and clans, and these civil distractions favored amendment to it in relation to another case of a || he and myself intend to speak to the Senate, and an invader. At the very moment, sir, when like character.

as we have something to say, which I trust will be Henry, a Norman King of England-the second

the State of Maine.


of that name, I think-was, as the chronicle re. year 1782, when the exigencies of the British Gov- has died away in the agony of the catastrophe lates, “casting in his mind to conquer the adjacent ernment had become more alarming, they succeed- | which has involved the people of both in a com. island, because it seemed to him to be commo- ed in wresting from the British King and Parlia- mon desolation; and wise and sagacious men dious, and because its inhabitants were savage and ment a renunciation of legislative and sovereign in England look on the decay of Ireland as an rude,'' he was applied to by a deposed Irish prince power over the Kingdom of Ireland; and it was alarming presage of the decline of the empire. to reinstate him on the throne. The invader enjoyed expressed in these solemn and memorable words: But, sir, on an occasion like this, Ireland is entitled one vast advantage: England had been successive

“ The rights claimed by the people of Ireland, to be bound

to, and from me she has received, her vindication. ly subjugated by the Romans, the Dancs, the only by laws enacted by His Majesty and the Parliament of The policy of England was the policy of the age, Saxons, and the Normans, and in that rough ex- that Kingdom, shall be and are established, and, at no time and of the times, and of systems; and this is her perience she had acquired the consolidation and hereafter, shall be questioned or questionable.”

sufficient apology. discipline which, combined with the energy aris- Sir, Ireland exulted for a delirious moment in The syinpathy of the American people, then, ing from a mingling of races, and an ambition national independence regained; but it was only in behalf of Ireland, is just. springing from an insular position, have enabled for a moment, and that moment was delirious. I proceed to remark, that this sympathy derives her almost “ to have the world in empire." Ireland required the repeal of the penal code, and intenseness from the conceded genius and prover

The invasion, of course, did not result in restor- demanded a constitution. The Parliament and the bial virtues of the Irish people. The plains of ing the Irish King, nor did it result in the con- " Pale,” constituted of a Protestant representation Waterloo, and the heights of Abraham, attest that quest of Ireland. It ended in only the establish- / alone, and being in the interest of England, re- they are brave as well as sagacious in war. Like ment of a small colony upon the coast, enclosed fused both. Discontent, wide and deep, pervaded the Greeks, in their decline, they have enchanted with palisades, and therefore called “The Pale." the Irish people. Emmett, Fitzgerald, and their the world with their wit and song and eloquence. Within the “ Pale” were Englishmen, English associates, in 1798, conspired to raise the standard They are confessedly confiding and generous to a Lords, English manners, English customs, and of insurrection; but they were betrayed, and the fauli, while their whole history, and tradition English rule; and without the “ Pale" were the rebellion was crushed in the germ.

reaching now a period of a thousand years, exhibit entire nation of Irishmen, with their hereditary The Government of Greaç Britain now assumed not one instance of unlawful aggression. Is not, princes, their native language, and customs, and that the people of Ireland had tried, fully and then, the tribute proposed by this resolution, due manners.

fairly tried, the experiment, and had proved them- to such a people? And if so, why shall it not be Acting upon the law of nations, as it was then selves incapable of exercising the franchise of offered? understood, these races regarded each other as self-government. The British Parliament there- I am answered, that this is a question for the natural enemies, and hence ensued wars fore sent down to the Parliament of the Pale British Government, and that it is they, and not sparing and unrelenting. The Reformation hurled what was called an act of Union, and in the year we, who are to extend clemency or pardon to the a new element into this internecine strife. The 1800 that mockery of a legislature adopted it, Irish exiles. I grant it, fully grant it. But men Catholic Church in England had given place to and surrendered its own perfidious and pernicious and nations are moved by persuasion. What is one which suited its Kings and people better. existence. By that act of Union, Ireland, in May, | asked here, is not an exercise of clemency, but Considerations of prudence coöperating with a 1800, was in name united, but was in fact ab- only a word of persuasion whispered to the Power spirit of proselytism, determined the Government sorbed, and became virtually a province of the that can grant it. of England to subvert the Catholic Church in British Empire, with only the shadow of a repre- I am told that we may lawfully sympathize, as inIreland. The sword was the missal sent, and a sentation of the Protestant minority of the King. dividuals, in the misfortunes of these unhappy men, ferocious soldiery were the apostles of the new dom in the British Parliament. Daniel O'Connell, and of their more unhappy country; but that to us faith. The Irish preferred their paternal religion a jurist and advocate of surpassing genius, elo- as a political body-a State or nation-or as the to that which was so rudely recommended to quence, and learning, inferring, from the failure representatives--the Government of a nation-such them by their enemies. The“ Pale," although of the men of 1798, that the time for a martial sympathy is forbidden. This seems to me equivbacked by England, was too feeble to subjugate revolution had passed away, at least for the pres- || aleni to saying that we may indulge sentiments Ireland, and Ireland, distracted by the jealousies of ent, conceived the bold purpose of obtaining a re- of generous compassion, but we shall never carry her clans, was too weak to crush the “ Pale;" || peal of the penal code and the restoration of his them into beneficent action. The sympathy of the and so for four hundred years continued wars, at country to a place among the nations, by a process several members of this Senate, or of this Congress, the end of which both parties retained their relative of civil agitation, always within the restraints of or of the individual citizens of the United States, positions and power. And thus all that import- | the law, and looking for the effect through the ac- will be unavailing. If that sympathy is truly felt ant portion of the nation's life was worse than tion of the King and Parliament of England. In | by the nation, it can only be effeclually expressed lost, in consequence of an imperfect conquest. At the year 1829 he obtained a signal triumph in the in the manner in which national sympathies, last five hundred and twenty years after the first passage of the act of Catholic emancipation. There and determinations of the national will, are always invasion by Henry, and at the close of the great remained but one step between this memorable act made effective-by the action of the Government. battle fought on the banks of the Boyne, Ireland and the freedom and independence of Ireland. And, sir, let me say, that there is only one code capitulated, and at that time the entire twelve mil- | That step was the repeal of the Act of Union. But of morals for mankind, and its obligations bind lions of acres of tillable land were divided and par- the ruin and desolation resulting from the penal them equally, whether they be individuals, subceled out among the invaders and the few apos- code, which Burke had predicted, pressed too hard jects, citizens, states, or nations. tatizing natives. Ireland capitulated, and by the upon the march of the Reformer. Ireland could I shall be told, that we may not intervene in this, treaty of Limerick, subjected herself to the gov- not wait the slow progress and doubtful success which is a domestic affair of a foreign Government. ernment of the “ Pale. But she reserved, in the of civic agitation. The nation divided between It is true that we may not intervene in the affairs most solemn manner, the liberty of conscience. the parties of Old Ireland," following the lead of any Government for unjust purposes, por can This right-the liberty of conscience-was not of Daniel O'Connell and his peaceful standard, we intervene by force for even just or benevolent only stipulated by the treaty of Limerick, but was and of “ Young Ireland," under the revolutionary purposes. But ihis is the only restraint imposed on solemnly guarantied by William and Mary, the banner set up by William Smith O'Brien. Now, us by the law of nations. That law, while it decommon sovereigns of the two countries.

in point of fact, it is possible that even if the Irish clares that every Government has the absolute England, nevertheless, persevered in her policy | people had remained united, neither of those poli- | right to deal with its own citizens, according to its of subverting the Catholic Church, changing only cies would have been successful; but it is also cer- own laws, independently of any other, affords a the means employed for that purpose. She perfid- tain, that when the nation divided and broke, both large verge and scope for the exercise of offices of iously broke the covenants of peace, though they efforts signally failed. Daniel O'Connell died of courtesy, kindness, benevolence, and charity: It had been written in blood, and established a Pe- a broken heart at Genoa, on a pilgrimage to Rome, is Montesquieu who says that "the law of nanal Code, disfranchising the Catholic Irish people and William Smith O'Brien, the leader of the Irish * tions is founded upon the principle, that every of all civil and political, social and domestic lib- rebellion, being found without attendants, arms, | nation is bound in time of peace to do to every erty, as well E8 of their ecclesiastical rights, and or troops, was arrested, convicted of high treason, other nation all the good it possibly can, and in thus substituted for invading armies the sterner and sentenced to an ignominious death. His sen- time of war, the least evil it possibly can consistdespotism of the law, and withdrew the sword to tence being commuted by the Crown, he is now an ently with its own real interests." It is upon replace it with the scaffold. exile in Van Dieman's Land.

this humane principle that diplomatic intercourse Sir, I shall not detail that atrocious code, but Simultaneously with the failure of these, the | is maintained among the civilized nations of the will content myself by giving a description of it, last efforts hitherto made for the redemption of earth, all of whom are by the law of nations redrawn by Edmund Burke, seventy years ago-a

Ireland, poverty and pestilence stalked abroad garded as constituting one great commonwealth. description which time has now proved prophetic: | through that ill-fated country, exciting the sym- But, Mr. President, it will be said, that if we " It is," says he," a system full of coherence and consist

pathy of nations, and moving even the distant peo- | adopt this resolution, it will, however harmless it ency, well digested and well disposed in all its parts fitted ple and Congress of the United States to send be in itself, furnish a precedent for mischievous for the imporеrishment,"'--(yes, sir, these are the words, ) relief. Depopulation of the Island assumed a intervention, either by ourselves in the affairs "filted for the imporеrishment and the degradation of a frightful momentum, and, from that time to this, i of other States, or by other States in our affairs people, and for debasing in them of human nature itself.

has continued to give the last confirmation, which hereafter. To admit this argument is to admit The after history of Ireland, Mr. President, is the most sceptical could have required, of the con- distrust of ourselves. We certainly do not disa record of frequent and generous, but unavailing. | clusion, that never on earth was a revolution more struggles, by or in behalf of the People, to cast o# just or more necessary, than that attempted by

trust our own sense of justice. We do not dis

trust our own wisdom. "So long as we remain that code, and, more recently, to redeem the coun- William Smith O'Brien and his companions in here, then, we shall be able to guard against any try from its desolating effects. In the year 1778, \ exile.

such abuse of this precedent. Let us also be Grattan, Burke, and Flood, profiting by the enthu- Sir, it is not my object in this review, to excite generous instead of egoistical, and let us believe siasm awakened thoughout the world by the Amer- | prejudices, here or elsewhere, against England, or inat neither wisdom nor justice will die with those ican Revolution, and by the embarrassment of the against the Protestant Church within that King- ! who occupy these places now, but that our sueBritish Government in consequence of it, succeed- dom. I have no such prejudices myself. I dis- cessors will be as just and as wise as we are. So ed in obtaining from the British Parliament a re- claim and disdain partisanship in regard to his far as the objection anticipates an abuse of this laxation of the rigors of this code in regard to toric events. O'Connell was a Catholic ; Smith precedent by foreign States, I have only to say, education and the rights of property; and, in the O'Brien in a Protestant. The rage of the sects that if a foreign State shall ask of us just what we

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