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as did.

until the day after to-morrow, and made the special Secretary of War, in his last annual report, makes the subject, in either end of the Capitol, who took order for that day. the following allusion to the subject; he says,

any other view than that this mounted regiment Mr. BADGER. I have no objection to the speaking of the force already sent out to Oregon:

was designed for the protection of emigrants to motion of my friend from Alabama to postpone « This force is deemed entirely inadequate for the pro

Oregon. The President, or the Secretary of War this subject till the day after to-morrow, but I ob- tection of the inhabitants, particularly of Oregon. The

under his advice and counsel, has ordered the ject most decidedly to commencing my speech to

Governor of that Territory has represented this fact, and mounted riflemen from the Pacific border, and left

bas urged an increase of the force stationed within it. The day when it is almost three o'clock.

but few, if any, troops on that long ard exposed means now at the disposal of the Department do not enable Mr. CLEMENS. The Senator need not pro. it to comply with this demand.”

Indian frontier, and these troops are not mounted. ceed until to-morrow.

The Governor here alluded to, is the honorable

This force are troops that are stationed at certain Mr. GWIN. I hope the motion will be agreed gentleman now representing that Territory. The

points along other routes, and this route proposed to, as I want to ask the Senate to go into Execu- Secretary of War proceeds:

to be protected by this mounted rifle regiment is tive session on a matter of some importance.

now defenceless.

“ In my last annual report I recommended the creation The motion was agreed to. of a new regiment of mounted men. The withdrawal of

Mr. EVANS, (interrupting.) I wish to ask EXECUTIVE SESSION.

the regiment of mounted riflemen from the Pacific has, to the gentleman if I am to understand him to say

some exteni, diminished the necessity of creating an addi- that President Taylor, or President Fillmore, with On the motion of Mr. GWIN, the Senate pro- tional regiment of that description of force, as that country drew that mounted regiment? ceeded to the consideration of Executive business,

is not peculiarly adapted to cavalry, and its place inay well Mr. GORMAN. Yes, sir, I do say so.

be supplied by infantry.” and, after some time spent therein, the doors were

Now, it is in reference to that recommendation,

Mr. EVANS. My impression is—and I was reopened and the Senate adjourned. and to the subject-matter of the resolution, to which

here at the time—that they were withdrawn by I would ask the attention of the House. The Sec

President Polk. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

Mr. GORMAN. Well, the mounted regiment retary of War will excuse me if I differ from him TUESDAY, February 10; 1852. in relation to that recommendation, for no gentle

was withdrawn

Mr. LANE, (interrupting.) If the gentleman The House met at twelve o'clock, m. man upon this floor has a higher regard for

will allow me I will put this matter straight. I Prayer by the Rev. C. M. Butler, Chaplain idea of a recommendation to this Congress to subas a gentleman and a man, than I have. But the

pledge my word, that the gentleman from Maryof the Senate.

land has got this thing wrong in his head. The The Journal of yesterday was read and approved. stitute infantry for mounted troops upon the frontier service, is so anomalous in its character, and

regiment was ordered to Oregon in 1849, and arTROOPS ON THE OREGON ROUTES. so much in conflict with all military experience,

rived there in the fall of that year; they remained

there until the spring of 1851, when they were The SPEAKER stated as the first business in that it struck me at first blush as the most reorder, the motion of the gentleman from New markable recommendation I ever heard. The idea

ordered out of Oregon by the then Administration. York, (Mr. Haven,] to reconsider the vote by of using infantry in preference to mounted troops

That is the true history of this regiment. The which the House adopted, yesterday, a resolution on the exposed frontier, against Indians maraud

gentlemen from Texas (Mr. Howard) fell into a offered by the gentleman from Oregon, (Mr. LANE,] ing to and fro, committing depredations at one

great mistake yesterday, when he said that the in reference to routes to Oregon; and that upon point to-day, and at another point forty miles dis

regiment had been ordered from California and not that motion the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. tant to-morrow, does seem to me to be a most re

Oregon. That regiment never was in California. GORMAN) was entitled to the floor. markable recommendation.

Mr. EVANS. I did not say that it was. On motion by Mr. HAVEN, leave was granted But, sir, what was the object of raising this rifle

Mr. LANE. No; but the gentleman from Texto withdraw from the files of the House the pa- | regiment? I say to the House, that the gentle

Mr. GORMAN. I had supposed that it was pers in the case of Peter Covil, for the purpose of man from Oregon (Mr. LANE] has stated it cor reference to the Pension Department. rectly. This rifle regiment had its origin in the

done under the administration of President Tay. Mr. KING, of New York. I desire, with the recommendation of the President of the United

lor, but I care not under whose administration it permission of the gentleman from Indiana, to ask States to the Twenty-ninth Congress. That rec

was done whether under that of President Polk, leave to report back from the Judiciary Commit. ommendation will be found in the Congressional

Taylor, or of Mr. Fillmore. I do not, upon this tee, Senate bill amendatory of the act entitled “An Globe for the first Session of the Twenty-ninth | occasion, intend, by any means, to attack the ad

ministration either of President Taylor or of Mr. act to provide for holding the courts of the Uni- | Congress. . The President said: ted States in case of the sickness or other disa

Fillmore. My object is to get at the point, whether

“For the protection of emigrants, while on their way to bility of the judges of the district courts, ap- Oregon, against the attacks of the Indian tribes occupying

the law originally passed did not intend the service proved July 29th, 1850. the country through which they pass, I recommend that a of the mounted riflemen,

for this Oregon route. If suitable number of stockades and block-house forts be The bill is a very short one, and may be dis

so, I ask, has not the Government, in ordering erected along the usual route betweer our frontier settle

that force from the Territory, gone in direct oppoposed of in a few moments. There is a very ur- ments on the Missouri and the Rocky Mountains; and that gent necessity for its passage. an adequate force of mounted riflemen be raised to guard and

sition to the intention of the law? That is the Mr. GORMAN. What disposition does the protect them on their journey."

point. It is the privilege, under the law, of the gentleman propose to make of the bill?

That recommendation of the President of the

President of the United States to order troops to Mr. KING. I desire to put it upon its passage. United States, made at the commencement of the

whatever positions he pleases; but the idea of It will not take two minutes. Twenty-ninth Congress, brought the subject up

taking mounted men from the frontier of OregonMr. JONES, of Tennessee. I object to it. for consideration before the Committee on Mili.

a mountainous country, and that portion which is The resolution, the vote on the adoption of tary Affairs. It will be found, by reference to not mountainous being a large part of it prairiewhich, it is proposed to reconsider, is as follows: page 726 of the same Congressional Globe, that the

the idea of following Indians who almosi invariaResolved, That the President of the United States be resubject was debated, and that the very point made

bly travel on horseback, with infantry, carrying quested to cominunicate to the House what steps, if any, by every individual who participated in that de

their muskets, rifles, cartouche-boxes, and prohave been taken to insure the protection of emigrants en bate was, that these troops were to be a guard for

visions, is certainly the most novel recommendaroute to Oregon, against the depredations of the Indians of emigrants going to Oregon. No member upon this

tion I ever heard in my life. I know of no man that Territory; and in case no such steps have been taken for that purpose, that he be requested to cause the regifloor, who looks into the history of the law by

in this country—there is none in this broad land, ment of Mounted Rifles to be placed upon duty within the which this mounted regiment was created, can

save, perhaps, one man, and that is the gallant Territory of Oregon-the service for which said troops come to any other conclusion-first, from the rec

Commander-in-Chief of the Army-to whose were created and that he cause a portion of said regiment ommendation of the President; and secondly, from

opinion in relation to the protection of the country to be posted upon the main emigrant road froin St. Joseph, on the Missouri, between Fort Hall and the Dalles of the the debate upon the subject-than that the regi

and its frontier, I would pay more deference than Columbia river, and the remainder thereof to be posted in ment was raised for that service, and for that alone.

to that of the gallant Representative of Oregon, the Rogue River Valley, on the road from Oregon to Cali- Mr. Benton, in the Senate, made a speech on

He has given you a history of that country, and fornia, said troops being necessary for the protection of the subject, which will be found in the Congres

many details of the Indian depredations. emigrants and others traveling said road. Mr. GORMAN. The subject now under the and Mr. Gordon made a speech in this House, in sional Globe-in which he took this same view;

Sir, a few commanders such as he is, would

soon rid this country from Indian depredations consideration of the House is the resolution offered which he also took the same view.

upon that frontier. And when his opinions and by the gentleman from Oregon, (Mr. Lane,)

Mr. Gordon, in his speech, said:

recommendations come in conflict with those of in regard to the disposition of certain troops, for

“ Now, in the opinion of the President, it is necessary

the Secretary of War-I care not how well the the protection of emigrants en route for that Terthat, in this particular service, there should be a particular

Secretary may be posted up in the military affairs ritory. I have but a few observations which I force--a force of mounted riflemen; and that the ordinary

of the United States-his recommendation would desire to submit to the House, and I shall not ac- infantry force of the country would not answer the purpose. not weigh much with me in comparison with that cupy the time allowed under the rule. Those re

What is the object of establishing these block-house forts,
and stockades, and organizing this force of mounted rifle-

of the man whom I know marks out his designs marks I intend to address, as nearly as I can, to the men? It is not only to protect emigrants on their way to

with judgment and skill, and executes them with subject-matter under consideration, without any Oregon, but to encourage their emigration thither. And a dexterity and promptness not surpassed, if further digression than may seem indispensable to unless we are prepared to abandon, not only the assertion equaled, by any other man who ever drew a my purpose.

of our claims, but our claims themselves, to Oregon, and to This resolution is introduced for the purpose of present ourselves in opposition to the President, we are

sword or stood before an enemy. I say, when I bound to carry out his recommendation, and, as I think, to

come to see the recommendation of that man, obtaining certain information from the President. establish this force in that region of the country.”

feel that I am safe to follow it-a man, of whom, It also suggests to the President, as I understand And again:

I can say to the country and the world, that in it, the propriety of placing upon the Oregon route

“Now, for the purpose of protecting emigrants on their

the hour of peril and danger, he sees at a glance the mounted rifles. The point to which I wish to way to Oregon, and ofencouraging their going there, I am the weak points of the enemy and his own forcedirect the attention of the House is this: that un- in favor of having one regiment of riflemen mounted, in and avails himself of the advantage instantly. He der the law creating that regiment, the mounted" whole or in part, at the discretion of the President, for this

then goes into the contest with an eye that never rifles were raised for the Oregon service; they

peculiar service, between the Missouri and the Rocky
Mountains, as well as for the purpose of keeping the In-

blinks and a heart that never falters, combined were to be put upon that service, and for the iden

dians in check, and preventing hostilities on their part against with a love of country and a patriotism that has tical purpose proposed to be accomplished by the our frontier settlers."

no superior in this broad la nd; when I come to gentleman from Oregon, in his resolution. The There was not an individual who spoke upon | hear him recommend that a regiment of mounted

I

PUBLISHED AT WASHINGTON, BY JOHN C. RIVESTERMS $3 FOR THIS SESSION.

320 CONGRESS, 1st Session,

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 12, 1852.

New Series.....No. 33.

rifleman shall be stationed upon that frontier, be right in my assertion that this regiment was raised the good will of the whites, it was thought that the services cause they are needed there; when I hear him in for the purpose of serving in Oregon, and it has

of the regiment of mounted riflemen might be dispensed

with on the Pacific. It was therefore ordered to Texas. behalf of the woman and children upon that fron- || been ordered to be removed to another part of the

Brevet Major General Smith, its commander, was put in tier; when I hear him recount the dangers to the country, I say that the resolution ought to pass. command of the eighth military department, and Brevet emigrant and the difficulties in getting to that If we had assurance, however, which could be re- Major General Mitchcock was ordered to succeed him in country; all these, in connection with his char-| lied on, that another regiment could be raised, I

the command of the Pacific division." acter, not only as a military man and as a prompt perhaps should not insist on that regiment being

Again, he says: executioner of his designs, but as a man who directed to take its position upon the routes to “ It would not be safe, however, to rely on any pacific speaks with judgment and reason upon this ques. Oregon. Another regiment, in my opinion, ought policy. Chiwever wise, and just, for the protection of our tion, I am well satisfied that the opinions and to be raised. This bugbear which has been per

drawal of the regiment of mounted riflemen, the military judgment of such a man ought to be deferred to, i petually, crying out against an increase of the force on the Pacific is extremely small. By the returns of especially after he has traveled over that country, Army, has hitherto prevented our raising another the Adjutaut General, appended to the report of the Genand therefore can speak from personal observa- regiment. But we know that the frontier of Cali

eral in Chief, it appears that the entire force stationed on

the Pacific ainuunted, at the last return, to only seven huntion.

fornia has been exposed to frequent attacks and dred and thirty-six men. This force is deemed entirely inThe question is, whether the vote on the adop- depredations by the Indians. Our frontiers have, adequate for the protection of the inhabitants, particularly tion of this resolution shall be reconsidered. This during the last year, been left so much exposed, of Oregon. The Governor of that Territory has represented resolution, as I understand it, is to request the that I may say hundreds of men women and chil

this fact, and has urged an increease of the force stationed

within it. The means now at the disposal of the DepartPresident to order a portion of the rifle regiment to dren-emigrants not only to Oregon, but to New ment do not enable it to comply with this demand.” be posted upon the emigrant route, from St. Joseph, Mexico and California-mail carriers and officers Missouri, between Fort Hall and the Dalles of the of your Government, have been robbed and sending this regiment from Oregon, he takes pre

Now, whatever may have been his reasons for Columbia river; and the remaining portion to be murdered; and yet, in the face of all these facts, cisely the same views of the matter as the gentleposted in the Rouge River Valley.

there is a disposition here to withdraw all the man from Indiana and the gentleman from Oregon. Now, I am not going to question the right of this troops from the whole Pacific frontier. How is But he says that there is no very eminent dangers House to direct the President in this matter. Ithis whole frontier to be protected against the dep- to be apprehended from the Indians in Oregon. am not going to contend that the President has not redations of the Indians since the withdrawal of From the habits and condition of those Indians, the disposition of the troops. I take it that this all the troops from that frontier, exposed as it is they are not warlike in their character, and it is resolution will not interfere with the powers or the for three thousand miles? Why, the idea that, in rights of the President, whatever they may be. I a Government like ours, the Secretary of War pursue these small parties, to ride them down, as

not necessary to have these mounted riflemen to think it very clear, that if the resolution is adopted, should recommend to Congress to dispense with the gentleman says. Or it is not as necessary to the President will not consider it in the light of an the cavalry of the country and to substitute infan- have them there as it is upon the frontier of Texas. instruction or as an order. At least, he ought not try, with a large and almost boundless extent of I do not desire to detain the House, I only make 80 to regard it; and if he does, it will not be in ac- frontier such as we have, is so anomalous in its this suggestion, that there is a harmony of views cordance with the understanding of this House; character, that it needs only to be stated to be in reference to this subject, between the gentleman not in accordance with the intentions of the mover seen. of the resolution.

Mr. HAVEN. I desire to make but a sug- the Secretary of War.

from Indiana and the gentleman from Oregon and While I am upon the floor, I will say that I be- gestion, and it is for the purpose of calling the Mr. GORMAN. The clause to which the genlieve we ought to raise another regiment. In the attention of the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. Gor- tleman has referred, is to be found in the report of last Congress 1 voted against raising that regiment, | MAN) to the fact, that he seems to be doing some the Secretary of War. After repeating what he but I have since seen the necessity of it. The injustice to the recommendation of the Secretary had said to the last Congress, he goes on to say: present regiment was ordered to the frontier of of War. Now, as I read the report of the Sec

“In my last annual report I recommended the creation Texas, and we must have a force in Texas. We retary of War, and as I understand his views ex

of a new regiment of mounted men. The withdrawal of must have a force in California and New Mexico, I pressed in his report made to the President at the the regiment of mounted riflemen from the Pacific has, to and that force must be a mounted one. I must, commencement of the present session, he entertains some extent, diminisired the necessity of creating an addi

tional regiment of that description of force, as that country is however, be allowed to differ, perhaps, with the the same views precisely as have been expressed

not peculiarly adapted to cavalry, and its place may well be gentleman from Oregon (Mr. LANE) in one thing. by the honorable gentleman (Mr. Lane) who in- supplied by infantry. Nevertheless, by the report of the That force, in my opinion, should be a regular | troduced the resolution, in reference to the service General-in-Chief, it will be seen that he considers not only one. Volunteer forces invariably cost double the of this mounted regiment, and also the same views this additional regiment of cavalry, but also an increase in amount, and are not any more efficient than regu- | which the honorable gentleman from

Indiana (Mr. | bly necessary. While I feel soine hesitation in urging upon lar troops. They may do very well in a charge, GORMAN) entertains. In fact, he says the regi- | Congress any addition to the foree on the frontier, where the or in an attack, but I believe that economy will ment of mounted rifles is necessay for the purpose support of troops is attended with such enormous expense, dictate that we should have regular troops, and of protecting our frontier, and keeping our treaty

I cannot but acknowledge the force of his remarks and the mounted too, upon the frontiers of California and stipulations with Mexico. He insists that this

weight that is due to his recommendation. I hope, there

fore, that the matter will be submitted to Congress.” Oregon. They have been ordered, as it is said, kind of troops are the only efficient force for preand as I know, to Texas; and there is no doubt that venting these Indian incursions. But in looking come to the conclusion to which he alludes? If

Does he understand the Secretary of War to is no doubt that their protection is needed at Eagle tier of Texas as in more immediate danger than so, he is mistaken. The Secretary of War is rePass, and in the vicinity of Santa Fé. Corre- either Oregon or California. If my friend from capitulating what he has said before.

Follow the Secretary of War. He says: spondence, which I have lately received from one Indiana will allow me, I will read a brief extract

“In my last annual report I recommended the creation of the judges of that Territory, states that murders from the commencement of that report.

of a new regiment of mounted men. The withdrawal of are daily; that the Indians are committing fre- Mr. GORMAN. If the gentleman will allow the regiment of mounted riflemen from the Pacific has, to quent depredations upon the property and persons | me to read first, he may then read as much as he some extent, diminished the necessity of creating an addi

tional regiment of that description of force, as that country of the emigrants and travelers, and upon passen- || pleases, gers from village to village. Various communica- Mr. HAVEN. I only desire to read in regard

is not peculiarly adapted to cavalry, and its place may well

be supplied by infantry.” lions, which I have received from the vicinity of to this single point Eagle Pass, state that there have been frequent Mr. GORMAN. The gentleman will find that

And he goes on to say, and you will see that he

differs from the Commander-in-Chief: and violent depredations committed in the district the Commander-in-Chief, General Scott, and the

“Nevertheless, by the report of the General-in-Chief, represented by my honorable friend from Texas, Secretary of War, differ upon this subject. (Gen. Scott,) it will be seen that he considers not only this (Mr. HOWARD.] They need protection. The Mr. HAVEN.' I am speaking now with refer- additional regiment of cavalry, but also an increase in the Government, however, have seen fit to withhold ence to the harmony of views entertained by the rank and file of the infantry and artillery, as indispensably from the Oregon route the troops which were Secretary of War, by the gallant and honorable necessary.” raised for the Oregon service. That this regiment gentleman from Oregon, and by the gentleman The Secretary of War further says: was raised for that purpose, and for that alone, who now occupies the floor from Indiana, (Mr.

" While I feel some hesitation in urging upon Congress the petitions presented previous to the passage of Gorman.)

any addition to the force on the frontier, where the support

of the troops is attended with such enormous expense, the law raising the regiment, show. The title of

The Secretary says:

cannot but acknowledge the force of his remarks and the the bill shows the fact, that it was raised for that

“As infantry is of but little use in a service which con

weight that is due to his recommendation. I hope, therepurpose; and whether this order for their removalsists principally in pursuing stall parties, who are always fore, that the matter will be submitted to Congress. comes from the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, mounted, I recommended in my last report the raising of an Thus it will be seen that General Scott wishes from the Secretary of War, or from whatever additional mounted regiment, equipped with special refer

another cavalry regiment, and the Secretary of source it comes, I say that it was in opposition to lommendation, all that remained for the Department to do

War hopes the matter will be submitted to Conthe spirit of the law which created this regiment. was to make such a disposition of the force at his disposal as gress. He differs from General Scott, and says

But the objection urged by gentlemen to this would most effectually protect our own territory, and fulfill that infantry can be used there, and that cavalry resolution is, that it is directory to the President.

our treaty obligations with Mexico. Accordingly, prompt is not fitted for that service. And why? He has

measures were taken to concentrate on the confines of Now, if it is read as I think it ought to be read, Texas and New Mexico as many of the troops adapted to

shown that such are his opinions by withdrawing it is not directory in its character. *As I under- this service as could be spared from other quarters." the mounted rifles; and in doing so, he has perpeStand it, it simply requests the President to cause Then, again, he says:

trated an act which I regard to be in violation of this thing to be done. And if I am right in this

The Indians in California and Oregon having always the spirit of the law, as clearly indicated in the position, the resolution ought to pass. If I am been of an unwarlike character, and disposed to cultivate Il title of the law. It is the point to which I am

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directing the attention of the House, that the with- tion to the resolution. I stated on yesterday that tion of the extended frontiers of the United States, drawal of those troops from Oregon is wrong. I was anxious to have it so modified.

when they have gone beyond the Rocky Moun. The remark has force as made by the gentleman Mr. BROOKS. I hope that at the proper time || ains, embraced tribes of savages, whose names even from Oregon, in reference to the settlements in the gentleman will have an opportunity to amend are yet scarcely known to us, and occupied the exTexas, that Texas is better capable of taking care the resolution. Lest it may not be modified, tensive coasts of Oregon and California. We of themselves than those upon the frontiers of however, to satisfy me hereafter, 1 must take the have doubled our country, quadrupled the difficult Oregon and California. The frontiers of Texas resolution as it stands now, comment upon it as and dangerous duties of the Army, but yet the have never been incapable of defending themselves. I find it once passed by the House, express my Army remains as it was, and by some it is ex. They need this force, however, to avoid the ne- objections to it, and, after that, I intend to ani- pected to be omnipresent, because hitherto it has cessity of defending themselves. It is the duty of madvert upon some of the observations and princi- been omnipotent aimost everywhere. the Government to defend them. The people of ples laid down by the honorable gentleman from A still greater difficulty, however, arises from Texas are quite as warlike—if I may be allowed Indiana, (Mr. GORMAN.)

the action of the House of Representatives of the the expression-as the Indians themselves; and The resolution, as it stands, Mr. Chairman, United States during the last session of Congress. they make better Indian fighters than are the In- would take from the President of the United The Executive, through the Secretary of War, dians themselves. One Texan regiment can whip States, who is, by the Constitution, the Com- submitted his estimates to the House of Repretwo or three Indian regiments.. I heard a distin- mander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, and in- || sentatives, and the action of the House (vag such guished gentleman from Texas, a few days since, vest the House of Representatives alone with that as to curtail those estimates one half. Those estisay they could outrun them, whip them, and fighi high authority. We should have, not one con- mates were cut down over $2,000,000 by the them two to one at any time and under any cir- stitutional Commander-in-Chief, but two hundred House, and whatever disorder and trouble there cumstances. If the President of the United States and thirty-odd Commanders-in-Chief, all honor- has been in California, in Oregon, or in Texas, or had taken into consideration the population of able members of the House, by no action of Con- elsewhere, the Executive is not responsible for it, Texas, their character, their ability, and willing gress, be it remembered, but by the sole action of for it is the Congress of the United States that has disposition to defend themselves, he would have this House, assuming powers against the Constitu- deprived the President of the power to properly found an additional reason for keeping that regi- tion, and without even the coöperation of the Sen- || garrison the different sections of this vast and ment where the Congress of the United States The singular spectacle would be presented widely.extended frontier. It was impossible for intended it to be kept. I insist that the act of the of the House alone undertaking the direction of the Executive of the United States to do the justice Secretary of War in withdrawing those troops the Army, in defiance of two of the coördinate to Oregon or to California that the gentleman from is in violation of the spirit of the law, and in dero- branches of the Government, whose legislative Oregon now demands, because the House of Repgation of the intention of Congress; and it is a | authority, separately and distinctly, is quite equal resentatives deprived him of the means, and even violation, too, of the principles of humanity. The to any which the House has or can exercise under intimated to him, that it was unnecessary to garrison cause of humanity demands that these troops the Constitution of the United States. Nay, the Oregon and California at all. If the honorable should be kept upon the route of the emigrants to resolution of the honorable gentleman from Oregon genilemen will refer to the discussion upon the Oregon. You have thousands and thousands of is not only thus utterly objectionable in principle, Army estimates, in the House of Representatives people going over the plains this year. Thou- but, if possible, yet more objectionable in its de- last year, it will be found that the great argument sands passed over them last year; and the papers tails,-for he asks the House not only to take for the curtailment of the estimates from $4,000,000 of the whole country are full of accounts of' In- l from the President the neral direction of the to $2,000,000, was, that Oregon and California dian depredations, murders, and robberies of every | army, but to go into details, and to station a por- needed no soldiers; that the people there were fully character and kind. But, sir, in the face of all tion of that army at three several and distinct capable of protecting themselves, and that the Inthat, in the face of the preamble of the law, and points, between the old western frontier and the dians of Oregon and California were not of a warin the face of the intention of this House, the Sec- frontier of Oregon, all of which he specifically like character. The further argument was, that the retary of War has seen proper to withdraw those names in his resolution. I am quite convinced, expense of maintaining troops there was so enortroops from the point where it was intended that then, that when the honorable gentleman from mous, and so much beyond that of supporting them they should be stationed.

Oregon further reflects upon the tendencies of his upon the Atlantic States, and on the old western Mr. HAVEN. There is no preamble to the resolution, upon its high assumption of authority, frontier, that it was the duty of the Executive to law.

upon its utter impropriety, upon its subversion of withdraw the troops which had been stationed in Mr. GORMAN. When I used the word pre- the great principle which guided our constitutional | Oregon and California, and restore them to the fronamble, I intended the word title. I did not intend fathers in their careful division of powers among tier of Texas, or transport them to the Atlantic borto elaborate this matter by any means. I wished the three branches of the Government, and upon ders. Upon these arguments the House of Repreonly to speak upon a point which struck me as its utter powerlessness, too, if he should persist in sentatives justified itself in curtailing the estimates being important, and having investigated that, I calling upon the House to pass it, and could ob- of the Executive from $4,000,000 to $2,000,000; only intended to say to the House, that the prop- tain sufficient votes, he will not press the resolu- and this was the only good reason gentlemen had osition of the Secretary of War in recommending tion to a vote, but will withdraw it, or suffer it to for doing what they did altogether in the dark. infantry upon the frontier instead of cavalry, is be laid upon the table. True, it may be in the | This was the argument made upon different sides anomalous—with all due respect to that "highly power of ihis House to resolve, that it will have of the House. `In one quarter it was made by honorable gentleman, for whom I have great re- the sole control of the sword of the country, but | gentlemen opposed to all armies whatever-by gard—that I could not refrain from making the it is a resolve against and in despite of, the Consti- peace men. In other quarters, without reference remarks which I have made.

tution, altogether beyond its legitimate authority, io parties, it was justified upon the ground that it Mr. BROOKS. I did not intend to make any and a resolve which it can never maintain, and cost so much for the Quartermaster's department remarks upon this resolution, because I did not which, therefore, no member should ever try to in Oregon and California, that the Army should suppose, that after the discussion on yesterday, I pass. The House of Representatives has no sole not, and must not be kept there. The expenses that it would be pressed to a vote, but would be authority whatsoever over the Army. Congress of provision, and of supporring and maintaining materially modified or utterly withdrawn by its may, in concert with the Executive branch of the

troops there was so great, we were told, that they I see, however, by the argument of the Government, create an army, and the hold the considered it the duty of the Executive to remove honorable gentleman from Indiana, (Mr. Gor- House has over it, is over the supplies, over the the great body of the military from that distant YAN,who has just taken his seat, that it is prob- public purse. The disposition of the Army, when and expensive frontier to the old frontier of the ably his intention, and as I apprehend, the inten- legislation has done with it, is altogether in the country, or, at least, to take them to the Atlantic tion of others also, to force us to a vote upon this Executive, under the limitation of the Constitu

The House acted upon these plausible resolution just as it is; and therefore it becomes tion. Congress holds the purse, the Executive arguments, and the Congressional Globe will show necessary to reply to his remarks, and to urge the has the sword. The powers of the two are com: that the spirit of that argument prevailed through reasons why such a resolution should not pass at plete and distinct in their respective constitutional all the discussion. The House having done all this, all, but be reconsidered at once, and then voted spheres, and this is the only case, I will ven. and taken the responsibility, now let not honordown.

ture to say, in which the House has ever before able members shirk off that responsibility upon In the first place, this resolution contemplates attempted, by a resolution confined to its own the Executive, but share it; for he not only foltaking from the Executive power of the country || body, not only to dispose of the Army, but to fix lowed their advice, but they compelled him io folthe control of the Army of the United States. its stations or encampments in particuliar spots. I low it by crippling him of all power or means to

Mr. GORMAN. If the gentleman will allow will not, however, press that point further, be- disobey'it. me, I will say I have no such intention. I have cause the gentleman from Oregon (Mr. Lane) has The gentleman from Indiana in the course of no objection to vote to so amend the resolution as manifested a proper disposition at least to mod- his remarks, bestowed a brilliant eulogium upon to preclude the idea the gentleman seems disposed | ify the resolution, in which the gentleman from the military services of the honorable Delegate to defend. Indiana (Mr. GORMAN) concurs.

from Oregon, (Mr. Lane,) leaving an inference, Mr. BROOKS. I am happy to hear it, but I The point I now propose to discuss briefly, is as it seemed io me, that when he spoke on millmust take the resolution as it stands until it is the necessity of the changes which have taken tary matters, all others should obey. I would modified by the mover. It does not propose to take place in the Army of the United States, by the not, if I could, rob him of one of his well-deserved it in legitimate form, but

authority of the Executive of the United States. military laurels. Indeed I heartly concur in most Mr. LANE, (interposing.) I should like to The great and original difficulty lies in the Army of the remarks of the honorable gentleman. But have the unanimous consent of th: House, to being too small for the protection of this now vastly- || !he gentleman from Oregon, I apprehend, galamend the resolution at this stage-though I do extended country, with, if I may be allowed so to lant as he is, would find himself entirely unable to not know as it is competent to do so, upon the speak, its inner and its outer frontiers-ils frontier do more than the Executive or the Secretary of motion to reconsider the vote by which it was on the Atlantic and Pacific, on Canada, the Prov. War has done, if Congress did not vest him with passed—by inserting the term request in its proper inces, in Mexico; and its inner frontier, embracing the necessary means to provide

for garrisoning his place, in connection with the oiher terms in the numerous and powerful tribes of savages. An own Territory and the State of California. Sure resolution, so that the whole resolution shall be Army which was once, perhaps, sufficiently large || I am, if the honorable Delegate from Oregen, inmerely a request, and not a command. If that

for guarding the coasts of the United States and stead of being only a Delegate, had been actual could be done, certainly there could be no objeco | Canada, is now utterly inadequate for the protec- || Commander-in-Chief, he could do nothing more

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than bas been done, if Congress had blindly cut from New York (Mr. Brooks] to-day. It was knows, in the item of expenditure. But again: down his quartermaster's estimates $2,000,000 but a few days since that this House had under he says it is the fault of Congress in attempting at a swoop.

If there be any doubt of this, consideration the Mexican indemnity bill. If I to retrench it. We did not attempt to retrench it; lei the honorable gentleman from Indiana give recollect right, the honorable gentleman from Vir- but one sentiment entered into the reduction of the vitality to his eulogies, and bring to bear the ginia then rose in his place and solemnly protested | Quartermaster's department, to which the gentlepower of his party to place the Delegate from Ore. | against the interference of this body in the dispo- man alludes, in the last Congress. The reason gon in the position of the Executive of the United sition of the money that it should appropriate for why $2,000,000 was taken out of the QuarterStates; and if he is placed in that condition, I the liquidation of the debt under thato treaty, and master's appropriation for the Army, as the genventure to say, without the power of the purse, assumed then, that the expenditure was the sub- tleman from New York will well recollect, was, without supplies on the part of this House, heject solely of Executive discretion. The same that for some mysterious, unprecedented reason, it could do no more than the present Executive has gentlemani, upon this bill, pursuing the same line was ascertained that that Department had swelled done for the protection of Oregon and California. of argument, assumes, and gravely urges, that the up its appropriation from $1,500,000 to $5,000,000.

There is another argument of the gentleman disposition of the Army is the subject solely of That was the reason. It was ascertained furtherfrom Indiana on which I wish to have a word or Executive direction and discretion. Now, I con- more, in following the detail of that Department, two, and that is, this ride regiment was created ceive, if this Executive tendency of thought, Ex- that the moneys appropriated by the Federal Govfor the especial benefit of Oregon. I have no ecutive tendency of action, in this body, shall be ernment were passed through one contractor to doubt in the early intention of the creation of that continued to be pursued until we are subsidized to another, to another and another and another, and regiment it was designed for Oregon, or the fron- | the thought and action, there will be nothing left each one levying upon this appropriation the imtier of Oregon, but I have yet to learn that any | but an Executive. The proposition, in connection post of a highwayman. regiment of this country, any portion of the Army | with the money, puts the purse into his hands. [Here a message was received from the Senate of the United States, however it may have been The proposition in connection with the sword by the hands of Asbury Dickins, Esq., their Secdedicated in its original creation, belongs to Ore- here, puts the sword into his hands; and with the retary.) gon, or California, or Texas, or to Maine, Loui- || Treasury and the Sword united in the Executive, Mr. BROOKS. Will the gentleman from Ohio siana, or Pennsylvania, or to any people but the you have an end of the independence of this body. | [Mr. CARTTER) permit me to interrupt him? I am people of the United States. It is a new doctrine, | This is what I understood to be a chapter in Fed- | quite sure whenever he makes a change, he will now for the first time introduced here, that a regi- eralism when I was learning the A B C of politics, bring it to a point and make it specific. He has ment created at the start for a particular purpose, without claiming to have got out of them yet. made an allegation against the Quartermaster's especially when, as in this case, the House de- These are two of the cheif attributes of monarchy. l department which involves a high officer of the prived the Executive of the power to carry out And you carry out the doctrine that the President Government of his own party. I am very desirthe original purpose, that such regiment is dedi- hus the sole power of disposing of the defensive ous he should make his charge specific, so that cated forever to a particular Territory or State, force of this Union, and that he has the power of we may know who are these contractors and what and cannot be taken wheresoever and whither- | appropriating, under his discretion, the money as are their names. soever it may be the duty of the Executive to accorded by this body, and there is an end of your Mr. CARTTER. I will make it specific; I do take it. The Army belongs to the whole United legislative power. I'deny that the Executive has not care who it involves, whether my own party States, and wherever its services are most wanted, any right to transfer a regiment created for the or the gentleman's party. God knows the genit must be stationed, and of all that the Executive defence of any given frontier of this Republic to tleman's party has sins enough in this line to anpower is the proper judge.

another frontier. I deny that he has any right swer for, when they had to bring forward their Now, in the great body of the remarks of the under the Constitution to withdraw it from ine leader here, with $50,000,000 of appropriations, to gentleman from Oregon, which go to show the service indicated in its creation. It is true, he accuse Congress of having crippled the service by necessity of protecting Oregon and California, || is Commander-in-Chief of the Army. The Con- not giving more; when it is necessary, after an apand the emigrants on their way there, I heartily stitution says so. What does it mean? It || propriation of $50,000,000 in the last Congress, concur. I have a great respect for his military means that he is the drill officer of your forces. || that you should load down the commencement of experience, and am willing to be guided by it, It means upon the field of battle as the war-ma- this Congress with deficiency bills amounting to whenever he will provide the men, money, and king power—as the defensive power of the Union. 1 $5,000,000 or $6,000,000, and then get up in the

Oregon must be defended. The route It means that when you have created a military sixth and seventh week of the session and comfrom Missouri or lowa must be made free, easy, force, it is at his disposition; that he has the right plain that this modest Administration--this ecoand safe. Nobody will go further with him than to mount the cockade and command it; and that nomic Administration-this honest AdministraI will on all these points. But he has not taken is all it means. But the moment you give to him tion—this sound Administration-this cheap govthe wise and proper steps to carry out the purpose the power of stripping one frontier of its defens- ernment Administration this retrenchment Adof his remarks. He should go before the Military ive force and transterring it to another, you as ministration—this reform Administration, (laughCommittee of this House; he should lay his com- sign to the Executive the legislative protecting ter,) cannot go on successfully with the operations plaints before the Committee of Ways and Means; power of this body. You effectually subject the of this Government without you stop the ordinary he should then address the House, and enforce legislative sovereignty of the country to the Exec- business of legislation for the purpose of shovelupon them the necessity of increasing the Army utive sovereignty. Why, if he may, under his , ing into their insatiate maw millions more. (Laughand increasing its expenditures, to maintain the sole discretion, withdraw forces specifically di- || ter.) I say I care not who it strikes; I care not Army at the costly points where he desires to sta- rected by law to be employed upon an un- whether it strikes political friend or foe. It is retion it. He should enforce upon Congress the li guarded frontier of the Republic, you throw the corded upon the pages of that Department, that it necessity of providing better for the transportation whole safety of the empire into a single man's has become the mere tool in the hands of speculaof the subsistence for the troops. After he has hands; you repose the entire safety of the Repub- tors, for the purpose of wasting the public reveconvinced the coinmittees of the House, he should lic in a single man's judgment; and when you The enormity of the appropriation was so then come before the House with his arguments superadd the other doctrine, that he has a right to great, made apparently so great at the last Conthat he submitted yesterday upon the passage of manage the funds of the country as he sees fit

, gress, that in a time of profound peace, with no this resolution, and if the House respected them independent of the action of this body, you put armies for aggressive war, and nó necessity for as I do, he could then at that more appropriate into his hands the means of executing that pur- armies for an aggressive war--when the whole time carry all before him. Hercules in the White pose. Now, sir, I deny both propositions. I world were extending their hands to shake the House cannot help him. The only useful Hercu- | deny that we have not the power to determine that hand of peace with us, and when our neighbors les is in these members here.

we will make a defence subject to law. When upon this continent were holding their hands to I forbear, Mr. Speaker, now from any further we make that defence, when we raise the force for God to protect themselves against us;—at this time remarks upon the original resolution—not be it, I deny any higher or further power to the Ex- of profound security and unbroken peace, the recause I do not object to it in any and every form, ecutive than the power of commanding the force sources of the Quartermaster's department should except as it is to go to a committee, or is limited at the place where, and the time when, you order run up to $5,000,000, is a thing unheard-of in the to an inquiry. l object to it for the reasons I have him in the law. With the detailed disposition of history of expenditure. Now, if there is a Demstated, but whenever the gentleman will give it the Army he does hold the sovereign command, ocrat in that crowd, I am not a cousin of his. I the proper form and proper direction the legiti- but that disposition must be subordinate to and want that distinctly understood; and the gentleman male and usual direction-he shall have my revolved within the legislative purpose declared in may take him inio a party that will sympathize hearty concurrence in bringing about all he de creating the force, and disposing the point of de with him just as quick as he pleases, sires.

fence. I have never before heard such an alarm- I rose simply to protest against the repudiated Mr. CARTTER. I do not propose to trouble ing doctrine proclaimed here as the doctrine that doctrine, that the Executive Department has a the House for the few minutes I shall occupy has just been promulged. The gentleman from control of your money, and that he is entitled to their time, with a discussion of the propriety of New York (Mr. Brooks) says in bis argument a discretionary control of the sword. I have antransferring a regiment of mounted riflemen from that Congress is to blame for transferring the regi-swered that purpose briefly, and have nothing one frontier of the Republic to another. I take it ment from Oregon to Texas. Did Congress do more to say: for granted, that so far as that branch of the ser- it? No! It appears the Executive has done it. Mr. MARSHALL, of Kentucky. was not vice is concerned, no gentleman upon this floor They did not give the order to march. They did my intention to mingle in the debate upon this can be better enlightened upon the subject than the not divert this portion of the Army from that resolution. I had no desire to say a word in the honorable mover of this resolution. His position point. But the President rests the necessity for discussion; but such frequent allusion has been to the western territories, his military experience doing it in the defenceless condition of Texas. made to the vote of the last Congress, which cut in connection with the service, constitute, for all Now, the honorable Delegate from Oregon, (Mr. down the appropriations for the Quartermaster's purposes, in my judgment, the law of my conclu- Lane,) to whose opinion I yield my own judg- department of the Army below the estimates subsion upon that subject. I propose to trouble the

ment in reference to that matter, with whatevermitted by that bureau, and such direct reference House with a protest simply against the extraor- rights I have upon the subject, assumes that your

to those who voted that reduction, as the persons dinary doctrine promulged by the honorable standing Army is large enough. It is large on whose heads should rest all the responsibility gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Barly,) on yes- enough for action under the explanation of the for whatever difficulties have occurred upon the terday, and reëchoed by the honorable member Delegate from Oregon. It is large enough, God frontiers, that I cannot refrain from the declarat

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tion that I am one who so voted—who struck from of whatever country the soldier might be called to defended, how they are to be situated, and with those estimates, at a single sweep of the pen, two serve in. We thought that our soldiers in New what force they are to be garrisoned, where the inmillions of dollars-and i stand here now ready to Mexico and California might subsist on beef or fantry is to be used, and where the dragoons and vindicate the propriety of my course on that occa- mutton, smoked, dried, salted, or fresh, as well as rifles are to be sent. These great points being detersion.

upon pork, and that it was not indispensable to mined by him, the orders pass to the military de Sir, I can readily understand how the difficulties the maintenance of our military, establishment, || partments, and from these to the divisions, thence and expenses of army transportation increased that the contracts for army supplies should be made in in brigades, thence to the regiments, and so down with the extension of the frontiers of the Republic; the cities of the Atlantic. Sir, we are in the habit of to the

companies. Every man hears the command but I cannot understand, I never have understood making contracts in New York and Boston, which from Washington. Here is the responsibility for why the estimates of the Quartermaster General should be made in the West. Some of us thought the plan, that for the execution may rest elsewhere

. should go on increasing from year to year in an that, instead of sanctioning the transportation of The distribution of the troops being fixed, the arithmetical progression, since the frontiers have pork at $50 per barrel from New York or Boston, | Commissary General has the simple duty of probeen so extended. Our number of troops remain through the west, and thence over the plains to curing the rations-certain supplies fixed by law the same from year to year; the Commissary Gen- New Mexico, we would leave the President to as to quantity and kind, and only liable to be eral has the same rations to furnish; the Adjutant the judicious exercise of that power, with which changed by an order of the President. These are General the same personnel to wield; the geograph- | he was already invested, and whereby, by a mere to be transported by the order and under the suical area over which the Army operates is the change of the soldiers' meat ration, he could sub- || pervision of the Quartermaster General, who, be same. Yet, year by year, the estimates for trans- sist the force upon the productions of the country sides, has the furnishing and transportation of portation swell, until this item alone has risen to in which the army should be stationed, and so other things required by service, as arms, horses, between $5,000,000 and $6,000,000. Sir, this dispense with such extravagant transportation, &c., &c. These details prove that the Quarteritem of "transportation" in the Quartermaster Gen- Mr. Speaker, I do not make an assault upon

master General is not censurable if the supplies are eral's estimates, attracted, very naturally, the atten- the administration of the War Department, but costly in any particular locality, and I should not tion of such members of this House as desired to when my votes are made the subject of comment think less of the Quartermaster General if it cost keep the Army expenditures within due bounds. | here, or elsewhere, I shall and will vindicate their $100 per barrel to carry the pork ration to a miliI know that, though we struck down those propriety. They are cast always according to my tary post. I know he has nothing to do with the estimates last session $2,000,000, we are yet judgment of the interests of the people, and with matter further than to make an honest contract to to have a contest over the items. They are to out reference to the demands of party. They may have the article transported. The responsibility be brought forward again in a “deficiency bill,” | be wrong, but I can always communicate the rea- || is all upon the officer who determines the locality and the estimates of the Executive bureaus are to sons which operated upon me to give them. It of the post-the line to be occupied and to be supbe enforced through that instrumentality, if Con- was unnecessary to cast any reflection upon those plied, and the character of the force to be emgress will submit to it. Sir, the Executive depart- || who voted with me upon the occasion referred to, || ployed. ment-the Estimating department of this Goven- und for one, I do not mean to permit any text to When Congress refused the transportation acment-is not an unresisting subject under the knife | be taken in this way, without accompanying it count of the Quartermaster General, at the last of the economist. It will require all the nerve of with a proper commentary. Let me say, that the session, and reduced the estimates $2,000,000, the the boldest legislator to teach gentlemen at the other idea is preposterous, that the difficulties upon the essence of that vote was to disapprove of the lines end of the avenue, that when Congress reduces the frontiers, or in the administration of the War De occupied and to suggest, in a legitimate manner, a estimates they are to learn to keep the expendi- | partment, have arisen from the vote referred to. new disposition and arrangement of the military tures within the sum allowed to them. It has so The estimates upon which that vote was given establishment on the frontiers. It suggested to frequently been the case that the Executive bureaus were made for the year ending 30th June, 1852. || the President of the United States the propriety of have successfully disregarded the expressed will of Six months of that fiscal year have not yet expired. || exercising his power to change the rations of the Congress, that I am prepared to see a deficiency. The allowance for the whole year has surely been soldier, so as to subsist him from the productions bill enter this Hall, restoring the estimates refused | sufficient for the first six months. It cannot be, of the country occupied, as far as possible. It last March by Congress, and accompanied by the then, that frontier difficulties which transpired six suggested to the commander to take his force into declaration that the appropriation allowed for the months ago, were caused by a supposed deficit the country instead of keeping them in the settlewhole year has been expended in the first six months. which will appear six months hence! Look to ments—to take them to the wood, and not to bring If I remember aright, such a result was predicted the Quartermaster's estimates for the present year, the wood to them. I have cause to believe that a when Congress refused the estimates to the Quar- and to his expenditures for the first six months. change, and a beneficial change, has occurred in termaster General. It was replied to that predic- || Let us see the details, and place your finger upon the disposition of the troops, whether in corisetion, that the representatives of the people would the retrenchment that has occurred, out of which | quence of that vote or not, I shall not pretend to teach the lesson of obedience to their will by ma- the difficulties on the frontier have originated, or say. The idea of occupying the line of the Rio king an example of the officer who should dare to to which, in any degree, they can be traced. I Grande under the pretence of enforcing the treaty disobey the will of Congress, when clearly and dare to say, no man here can specify such item. of Hidalgo, is a farce. I once before remarked, unequivocally expressed. The report of the de- || I dare to say, that the examination will prove that that you had not enough men on it to post a relief ficiency bill,"covering the same estimes so refused, || the expenditures have been made according to the of sentinels of one to every three miles. But more will bring Congress to the test proposed. We shall estimates, and that the calculation has been in- of this hereafter. I arose for the sole purpose of see in a few days whether this body has sunk to dulged to cover the deficit of the next six months avowing my readiness to vindicate the correctness the level of a mere office in which to register Exec- | by a new appropriation. If this shall appear, of my vote at the last session, and to defend myself utive edicts—whether the subalterns of the Army in with what propriety can the fault or the responsi- | against implied censure. I desire gentlemen to possession of bureaus are superior to the Congress.bility be attributed to Congress ? No, sir; we have understand that I, as one of the majority who reIf I can obtain the floor on the hearing of this “de- enough sins to answer for, without charging those duced the estimates of General Jesup, acted from ficiency bill,” by which this deficit of two millions upon us of which we are innocent. I do not enter a sense of my duty to the country—that I shall is proposed to be restored to the Quartermaster | upon the averment that any fault has been com- | always be ready to vindicate the correctness of the General's bureau of the War Department, I shall mitted—that the difficulties upon the frontiers position then assumed, and that if.the remarks avail myself of that occasion to review the vote to could have been avoided; but if there is any fault | made here are avant couriers of a deficiency bill de which reference has been made, as well to vindicate it originates from the manner in which the troops i signed to bring Congress back to the path of bureau its correctness, when cast, as to show conclusively have been posted, not from the manner in which dictation, I shall be quite ready, as a member, to the high obligation which rests upon Congress to they have been supplied, when posted.

express my views of the new duties we shall owe adhere to it, wat every hazard and to the last ex- The troops of the Army are posted by the Com- to ourselves, our dignity, and our country, upon tremity.”

manding General of the Army. The duties of the the happening of that event. I have not looked at the history of that debate Quartermaster General, Adjutant General, Com- With regard to the particular resolution under as it is reported, but I remember that the estimates missary General, are merely ministerial, and are all consideration, I will make a few remarks before I furnishing rations to the troops were made upon under the supervision of the Commanding General. resume my seat. I cannot support the resolution the basis, that the transportation of a barrel of pork | The republic is divided into so many military de- --not that I deny the power of Congress to indito some of our posts in New Mexico was to cost partments, and these are subdivided into so many cate by legislation where military posts shall be some $50! We saw in those estimates, that the military divisions, which are made up of brigades, established, and, if the Congress chooses, how the article of wood, for fuel, in New Mexico was to cost regiments, and companies. Each has its peculiar military operations shall be conducted. I distinctly some $12 or $14 per cord. To justify this, it was chief, but the arrangement and order of the whole concede, as I maintain, the existence of this power. said the wood had to be packed some thirty or thir- | belong to the Commanding General. At the end of The Executive is the Commander-in-Chief, and so ty-five miles. Why was this? Because the

troops the quarter the Adjutant General exhibits to his long as the Army is maintained he has the right were stationed in the towns and

not in the Indian Chiefthe returns ofthe Army. He shows, in a con- to command it; but the Congress has the right to country. We thought it would be better to move solidated return, the whole personnel of the Army, say where it shall be employed when Congress the soldiers to the wood, than to bring the wood the strength of each department, and you may run thinks proper to exert such power. But, the questo the soldiers, at the price estimated for. Think back in these returns and find the strength of each tion here is not one of power: it is one of expediof it, sir: a barrel of pickled pork sent from the city of New York to Santa Fe, at a cost of $50

division, brigade, regiment or company, and final- ency. The honorable Delegate from Oregon (Mr.

ly, the exact whereabouts of each man.' You can | LANE) will find by reference to the debates of for the mere transportation !! We know enough see whether an individual has been absent or pres- the Thirty-first Congress, that his predecessor inof the character of New Mexico and California to ent, sick or weil, on duty or off duty--in fine, | dicated upon this floor, that the mounted ritie corps be apprised of the fact, that in those countries, how he has been, where he has been, and what was not wanted in Oregon, and that the people of beef cattle

and sheep were pastured, and that the he has been doing. The system descends to the that country were entirely competent to their own inhabitants subsisted upon this kind of meat. We utmost minutiæ, and yet exhibits the condition of defence. I think he made the same assertions to know that, by existing law, the President of the the Army in the most comprehensive form. With many in our private conversations with him. Now, United States could substitute one ingredient for his maps of the country before him, the Command-conceding the claim of the honorable Delegate to another in the ration of the soldier, in order, by ing general arranges the manner in which the lines the service of the mounted rifles in Oregon, surely such change, to adapt the ration to the capacities are to be occupied, determines what posts are to be | the same practice which the Polk administration

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