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it is attempted to carry out a business un- freedom. The people in a democracy are dertaking directly on the public account." the rulers, and they must rule. The func

There will be battles to fight for good tions of sovereignty are theirs, and they government after we have secured mu- must exercise them. It may be arduous nicipal ownership of these public service work, but they are committed to it, and industries; that is not going to bring the they must not draw back. With a great millennium ; what I am claiming now is sum we have obtained this freedom; only what I thoroughly believe, that the line of by great services and sacrifices can it be least resistance runs through municipal preserved. When we are ready to pay a ownership. This is the argument of ex- fair price for good government, we shall pediency. But even if the path were more find a clear solution of our tough municithorny than it is, it is the only path to pal problems.

Vanderbilt University


By Edwin Mims, Ph.D.

Professor of English Literature, Trinity College, N. C.
HE celebration of the twenty-fifth from Texas that he had built two colleges

anniversary of the opening of and had the logs out for another. Gar

Vanderbilt University (October field's remark about Mark Hopkins and 21-23) is an event of more than ordinary the log has been taken far too seriously by significance in the Southern States. Van- people in the South and West. Shams derbilt is one of those institutions founded have been perpetrated in the name of eduin recent years that have at once taken a cation that would not be countenanced in prominent place among the institutions of the business world. When Central Unitheir respective sections. Its history has versity was first projected by the Southern been one of heroic struggle against many Methodist Church, it was decided that it obstacles, of steadfast adherence to right would not be started unless $500,000 was ideals of education, and of a growing de in hand. In the mind of Bishop McTyiere termination to introduce modern methods especially there was a vision of a real and systems. It does not fall within the university—a vision that would never province of this article, however, to go have been realized had it not been for the into the details of this record; I shall magnificent gifts of Commodore Vanderattempt rather to give some of the most bilt, amounting to one million dollars. significant features of the work accom- These two great men and the first Chan plished, and consider some of the valu- cellor, Dr. Garland, planned the institution able contributions the university has made on a large scale. From gifts of W. H. to the development of education in the Vanderbilt, Cornelius and W. K. VanderSouth.

bilt, and more recently from people in the From the first, Vanderbilt has been, for South, the resources of the institution are this section, a well-endowed and well- now large; the campus is valued at $375,equipped institution ; although it may 000, the buildings at $550,000, the scienseem poor enough when compared with tific apparatus at $175,000; the endov the richer colleges of the country, it seems ment, including gifts and appreciations of rich when compared with the institutions investments, amounts to $1.500,000; there of the South, most of which have been is a total income of $130,000. Last year projected and maintained upon a small there were ninety instructors on the faculty, scale. Partly as the result of the poverty and seven hundred and seventy-one stucaused by the Civil War, and partly by dents from twenty-eight States and five reason of the lack of an enlightened pub- foreign countries. lic sentiment, a great number of so-called It is not sufficient in these days that a colleges have flourished. It is recorded college have a large endowment and that a college was started in Alabama on splendid buildings, or a scholarly faculty the basis of a subscription of $2,500, and and a large student roll. The question that an ambitious educator wrote back must be asked as to whether it is in line

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with recent tendencies in educational elevation of standards. As the high auwork-Has it high admission require thority already quoted says,

" the reform ments, and a curriculum in accordance and development of secondary education with modern standards ? what is its atti. depend upon the right organization and tude to secondary education ? Or, to conduct of universities.” And Vanderchange the form of the question, Is it bilt's encouragement of secondary schools following in the paths marked out by has had very far-reaching results. When that “prime minister of the educational the preparatory department was cut off world,” President Eliot, in his “ Educational and the requirements raised, the number Reform"? For the past twenty-five years of academic students fell from 152 to 112, the effort has been made to bring about and the enemies of such reforms were in a reasonable uniformity in school and high glee. Soon, however, the attendance college work—to co-ordinate the various reached the old mark, and in recent years branches of our educational system. If it has varied from 200 to 250, and the President Eliot could speak of the “defect- effect in the improvement of the work has ive, disjointed, and heterogeneous" state been marked. The result on the schools of secondary education, what words could has been even more far-reaching. When adequately express the conditions in the Vanderbilt was started there was only South? Certainly that institution is best one first-class preparatory school (in the serving this section that tries, however modern sense) in Tennessee, the Webb imperfectly, to bring order out of chaos, School, which immediately became a strong to correlate the work of school, college, ally in bringing about a better state of and university.

affairs in educational matters. Graduates Judged by the test just indicated, Van- of Webb and of Vanderbilt, imbued with derbilt has made an enviable record. In right ideas of scholarship and training, 1887 several important steps were taken began to establish preparatory schools. As by the faculty and trustees—the prepara- a direct result of this policy, there are now tory department was abolished; the ad- in Tennessee some twelve or fifteen good mission requirements, already compara- training-schools, several of which send tively high, were raised till now they are boys to Princeton, Yale, and other leading practically the same as those prevailing institutions, although the great majority in the best colleges of the country; and go to Vanderbilt. The movement has instead of the school system that now pre- spread over all the Southwest, and many vails at the University of Virginia, the colleges in the Southeast have been in

was established, elective spired to undertake the same kind of courses were instituted, and the degrees work. In 1895, as the result of Vandermodernized. These reforms are all sig- bilt's efforts, the Southern Association of nificant. There are Southern institutions Schools and Colleges was established, in that have abolished preparatory depart- harmony with similar associations in other ments, but have not raised their minimum parts of the country. Although the memrequirements for admission sufficiently to bership of this association is as yet small, make this change count for much in it bids fair to be a great force in the advancing secondary education, and some regeneration of Southern institutions. do not hold entrance examinations at all. The work, barely touched upon here, Others have raised their requirements, is largely due to the efforts of three or but have found it necessary to maintain four men in the Vanderbilt faculty. There preparatory departments; and still others has always been a certain atmosphere of of the most prominent have not given due the best scholarship about the University, attention to the arrangement of courses but this scholarship became dynamic and of study and the question of degrees. effective in Dr. Charles Forster Smith, These three reforms taken together consti- now of the University of Wisconsin, Dr. tute the year 1887 as an epoch-making W. M. Baskervill, whose untimely death year not only in the history of Vanderbilt last year removed the South's best-known but of the entire South.

teacher of English, and Dr. J. H. KirkLet us look a little more closely at the land, now the able and efficient Chancelinfluence of the University on the improve- lor of the University. They were there ment of secondary education and the together from 1886 to 1894, the most criti

class system

cal and formative years in the history of A word must be said of the professional the institution. All three native South- departments; a great deal might be said erners, they understood the conditions of by way of adverse criticism, and much by the section ; all three educated in the way of commendation; for here, as in the best institutions of this country and at graduate work, much has been accomLeipsic in Germany, they knew what was plished in spite of limited means. It is being done in the way of educational this part of the University that is receiving progress. And thus they were well fitted most attention just at present. The to undertake educational reforms.

requirements for admission to the EngiWhat has been said so far is rather of neering and Theological departments are Vanderbilt as a college than as a univer- high, and the requirements for graduation sity; and it seems to me that its greatest compare very favorably with those of the contribution has been that it has furnished Academic department; indeed, it is genan example of a well-equipped, modern erally recognized that a degree in the college, and that in doing this it has given engineering department is harder to get the greatest impetus to secondary educa. than in the academic department. A stution. And yet, considering its limited dent in theology cannot get the B.D. means and altogether inadequate library, degree unless he has a bachelor's degree and the limited number of instructors, the from some reputable college. The admisgraduate department has been eminently sion requirements for the Pharmacy, Law, successful. The members of the faculty, Medical, and Dental departments are not already overburdened with college work, what they should be, although they are have taken great interest in the small equal to those of similar departments in number of graduate students who wished the best of Southern institutions, and are to take one or two years, or even more, of being constantly raised, and the departwork efore going on to better-equipped ments otherwise improved. The Medical universities. They have been able to department especially is being overhauled keep their own men by means of the and brought into line with the best mediteaching fellowships, and have secured cal schools of the country. Four years some of the choicest spirits from all the (six months each) are now required of all leading colleges of the South, and even of who graduate in this department, three the North, by offering inducements in the (seven months each) in the Dental, and way of scholastic fellowships. Last year two (nine months each) each in Law and there were thirty graduates from fifteen Pharmacy. The Law department, although institutions, and there have been as many small, has offered superior advantages in as forty-four.

the way of libraries and instructors. The list of those who have taken gradu- As regards Vanderbilt's influence on the ate work and have secured good positions life and thought of the South, the ultimate is a surprisingly long one, and includes test must be in the kind of men it makes such men as the following, some of whom and the spirit that it generates. It is got all their work at Vanderbilt, while easy to see that an institution that has others went to other universities: Barnard, stood for high standards of scholarship of the University of Chicago; Deering and the best methods of work has inand Hulme, of Western Reserve; Thorn- culcated high ideals of life. Just such burg, of Lehigh ; Hume and Ferrell, of thoroughness of work, such attention to the University of Mississippi; Smith, of details, such thoroughgoing honesty, such Leland Stanford; Carter, of Tulane ; high standards of excellence, such seekWalker, of University of Kansas; Thomas, ing for the best way of doing things and of Woman's College, Baltimore; Snyder, then doing them, were qualities needed of Wofford; Craighead and Webb, of in the South-things that are frequently Central; Oertel, of Yale; Baskervill, of the not found even when there are loud protUniversity of North Carolina. This listestations of piety. If an alumnus has is only a partial one, and does not include caught the spirit of Vanderbilt, he is not many assistants and instructors in large a sectional man, for he remembers that universities, to say nothing of the promi- one of the objects that the founder had nent school men that have gone into all in making his gifts was to “strengthen parts of the South.

the ties that should exist between all seco

tions of our common country;" he is not people to realize the charm of Southern a partisan, for he has learned the lesson romance and the fine sentiment of Southof independence and freedom of thought, ern poetry. With all this new thought and he cannot unlearn it; he is least of and activity the faculty and students of all a bigot, for he has been taught to Vanderbilt have been in thorough symthink in the nineteenth century and not pathy. It was a fitting thing that the first in any preceding century; he is, like his notable recognition of Southern authors Alma Mater, unhampered by the tradi- should come from this institution. From tions of the past, reverencing the past 1886 to 1890 Maurice Thompson, Thomas but looking hopefully to the future. Nelson Page, Richard Malcolm Johnston,

All of this is but to say that Vanderbilt George W. Cable, and James Lane Allen has shared in the life of the New South, lectured to the students of the University and has made contributions thereto. Call and the citizens of Nashville, at the inviit what we may, there has been a strange tation of the faculty. In one of the most stirring of new life in the South in recent progressive of Southern cities, and under years, and this activity coincides almost the auspices of the leader in recent educaexactly with the life of Vanderbilt Uni- tional movements, these inen talked of versity. There has been a business revival their art or read their stories. One sees that tends to remove us from the primi- in such incidents the signs of hope. tiveness and isolation of ante-bellum days, Vanderbilt goes into the new century and to furnish the material basis for the with a very noble history ; if the next things that are more excellent; there has quarter of a century can bring to her enbeen an educational renaissance that has larged endowment and increased facilities extended from common school to univer- of work, there can be no doubt of a still sity; a literary awakening that has caused more brilliant future.

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The Boy that was Scaret o' Dyin'

o” By Annie Trumbull Slosson



Author of "Fishin' Jimmy”
NCE there was d boy that was voice, and it says, “What you cryin' for,

dreadful scaret o’ dyin'. Some Reuben ?" And he says, “'Cause I'm

folks is that way, you know; they scaret o’ dyin',” says he ; “ I'm dreadful ain't never done it to know how it feels, scaret o’ dyin'.” Well, what do you think? and they're scaret. And this boy was That posy jest laughed—the most cur’us that way. He wa’n't very rugged, his little pinky-white laugh 'twas-and it health was sort o' slim, and mebbe that says, the Benjamin says: “ Dyin'! Scaret made him think about sech things more. o' dyin'? Why, I die myself every single 'T any rate, he was terr’ble scaret o'dyin' year o' my life.” “ Die yourself !” says 'Twas a long time ago, this was—the Reuben. “ You’re foolin'; you're alive times when posies and creaturs could talk this minute.” “ 'Course I be,” says the so's folks could know what they was sayin'. Benjamin ; “but that's neither here nor

And one day, as this boy, his name was there—I've died every year sence I can Reuben-I forgot his other name—as remember." Don't it hurt?” says the Reuben was settin' under a tree, an ellum boy. “No, it don't,” says the posy ; “it's tree, cryin', he heerd a little, little bit of a real nice. You see, you get kind o' tired voice-not squeaky, you know, but small a-holdin' up your head straight and lookin' and thin and soft like—and he see 'twas peart and wide awake, and tired o' the a posy talkin'. 'Twas one o'them posies sun shinin' so hot, and the winds blowin' they call Benjamins, with three-cornered you to pieces, and the bees a-takin' your whitey blowths with a mite o' pink on honey. So it's nice to feel sleepy and 'em, and it talked in a kind o' pinky-white kind o' hang your head down, and get

* The republication of this tale is kindly permitted by sleepier and sleepier, and then find you're Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, 155-157 Fifth Avenue, droppin' off. Then you wake up jest 't New York City, the publishers of “Story-Tell Lib," the volume from which it is taken.

the nicest time o' year, and come up and


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look 'round, and—why, I like to die, I and livin' and dyin'. Reuben thought it do." But someways that didn't help didn't help him any, but I guess it did a Reuben much as you'd think. “ I ain't little mite, for he couldn't help thinkin' o' a posy,” he think to himself, “and mebbe what they every one on 'em said. But he I wouldn't come up.”

was scaret all the same. Well, another time he was settin' on a And one summer he begun to fail up stone in the lower pastur', cryin' again, faster and faster, and he got so tired he and he heerd another cur’us little voice. couldn't hardly hold his head up, but he 'Twa’n’t like the posy's voice, but 'twas was scaret all the same. And one day a little, woolly, soft, fuzzy voice, and he he was layin' on the bed, and lookin' out see 'twas a caterpillar a-talkin' to him. o' the east winder, and the sun kep’ And the caterpillar says, in his fuzzy little a-shinin' in his eyes till he shet 'em up, and voice, he says, “ What you cryin' for, he fell fast asleep. He had a real good Reuben?” And the boy, he says, “ I'm nap, and when he woke up he went out to powerful scaret o’ dyin', that's why,” take a walk. he says. And that fuzzy caterpillar he And he begun to think o' what the laughed. “ Dyin'!” he says. “ I'm ʼlottin' posies and trees and creaturs had said on dyin' myself. All my fam'ly," he says, about dyin', and how they laughed at his “ die every once in a while, and when bein' scaret at it, and he says to himself, they wake up they 're jest splendid-got Why, someways I don't feel so scaret wings, and fly about, and live on honey to-day, but I s'pose I be.” And jest then and things. Why, I wouldn't miss it for what do you think he done? Why, he anything !” he says. “I'm 'lottin' on it.” met a Angel. He'd never seed one But somehow that didn't chirk up Reuben afore, but he knowed it right off. And much. "I ain't a caterpillar," he says, the Angel says, " Ain't you happy, little “and mebbe I wouldn't wake up at all.” boy?" And Reuben says, “ Well, I would

Well, there was lots o' other things be, only I'm so dreadful scaret o' dyin'. talked to that boy, and tried to help him— It must be terrible cur'us," he says, “ to trees and posies and grass and crawlin' be dead.” And the Angel says, “ Why, things, that was allers a-dyin' and livin', you be dead.” And he was.


Books of the Week This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. The absence of comment in this department in many cases indicates that extended review will be made at a later date. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published prue. Along French Byways. By Clifton Johnson. to describe. His book has the charm of sim

Illustrated by the Author. The Macmillan Co., New plicity and of sympathy with humble but picYork. 519x714 in. 2011 pages. $2.25.

turesque life in a very picturesque country. A charming volume of out-of-door studies of scenery and rural life in France, and in the American Anthology, 1787-1900 (An). Edited vein of the earlier volumes dealing with kin

by Edmund Clarence Stedman, Houghton, Mittlin

& Co., Boston. 512X872 in. 878 pages. $3. dred life in England and in New England. Mr. Johnson is equally at home with the pen

American Jewish Year-Book 5661 (Septemand the camera. The Outlook has many

ber 24, 1900, to September 13, 1901). Edited to

Cyrus "Adler. The Jewish Publication Society of times had occasion to familiarize its readers America, Philadelphia. 5x712 in. 754 pages. with his skill in selecting and reproducing The present volume is more than double the significant bits of landscape and interesting size of the first edition of the American Jewish and typical human figures. In this volume he Year-Book. It is of signal value to all He describes at close hand the life in a small brews, and also to many who are not Hebrews. rural village in France; the aspects of the

By Professor place, the habits of the people, their methods Appeal of the Child (The).

Henry Churchill King, A.M., D.D.' Luther Day of work, their social intercourse, their religious Harkness, Oberlin, 0.418x7 in. 72 pages. 25. practices, with glimpses of landscape, of

Attaché at Peking (The). By A. B. Freeman. forest, the life on the highways, and of humble Mitford, C.B. The Macmillan Co., New Yurk. interiors. Mr. Johnson has both the gift of 5. 8 in. 375 pages. $2. sympathy and the gift of observation; he Nothing could be more welcome to the reader's knows how to reach the people whom he wants tired hand and weak eyes than this wonder.

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