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sented by statue No. 22. But if we removed the shield from No. 28 there would be some difficulty in finding a rightful owner for it among the persons represented by the other statues in the group. Hence I would suggest that it was intended either for Elizabeth of Hungary (No. 20) or more probably for an effigy of her son, Ladislaus V., which was to be included in the group and was actually cast, but condemned and not set up in the group. The design of the coat armour of the figure was considered too poor, and, owing probably to the sluggishness of the metal, the statue came out of the mould full of holes. Of course I do not mean to infer that the arms as depicted on the shield attached to No. 28 were ever borne by either Elizabeth or her son.

Christ's. He became a minister at Kingston-onThames, but having got into trouble, from alleged complicity with the Martinists, he was silenced there, and being invited to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, lived and laboured in that town for something like a year. 'Diotrephes' and 'A Demonstration of Discipline' are attributed to his pen. Udal was summoned back to London to answer for his opinions, was committed to prison, and, at one time, condemned to execution; he was, however, spared to die the natural death of a broken heart in the Marshalsea, in 1592 or 1593. Thomas Cartwright, who has been called "the head and most learned" of the early Puritans, was for a while his fellow captive.

The full title of my libel, or libellus, is as follows: An Answere to a Certaine Libel Supplicatorie, or rather Diffamatory, and also to Certaine Calumnious Articles, and Interrogatories, both printed and scattered in secret corners to the slaunder of the Ecclesiasticall state, and her Maiestie: Wherein not onely the friuolous disput forth vnder the name and title of a Petition directed course of the Petitioner is refuted, but also the accusation against the Disciplinarians his clyents iustified, and the slaunderous cauils at the present gouernment disciphered by Mathew Sutcliffe.

One more example to show how the artists employed by Maximilian and his executors treated heraldry. One of the forty statues included in the original design was to be that of King Stephen I., the Saint, of Hungary, for which a sketch was pre-to pared by Christopher Amberger. The drawing is reproduced in the 'Jahrbuch, and shows the king with a shield: Quarterly, 1 and 4, barry of eight, 2 and 3, a triple mount surmounted by a patriarchal cross. Stephen reigned from 1000 to 1038, and, of course, so far as we know, had no coat of arms. There are important documents extant of the reign of one of his successors, Béla III. (1173-1196), on which the royal seal is still without the slightest trace of any heraldic device. The oldest representation of the arms of Hungary appears on a deed of King Imre (Emericus) of the year 1202; it shows barry of nine, gules and argent, the four upper strips of the field either being charged with nine lions passant (three, three, two, one), or probably only diapered and the diapering mistaken for lions. The oldest known use of the patriarchal cross as an heraldic device dates from the year 1243, but the arms barry of eight quartered with the patriarchal cross surmounting the triple mount, as shown by the artist, according to our present knowledge, were not borne by any king before Ladislaus V., who reigned from 1440 to 1457, that is more than four centuries after the death of Stephen I.

One interesting item of information in Dr. Schönherr's account is that Arthur's and Theodoric's statues, after being cast in 1513, were pawned, and remained in pawn for some years until the Imperial Exchequer could find money to redeem them.

L. L. K. "CANARY BIRD," AN OPPROBRIOUS TERM (8th S. i. 109, 198, 339; ii. 378, 433; iii. 395).—The John Udal referred to by Sutcliffe in 1592 is said to have been the worthy whom James I. complimented at the expense of all contemporary European scholars; nevertheless, Sutcliffe was pleased to characterize him as 66 a man utterly unlearned and very factious." He was a Cantab, who graduated from Trinity, though he began his collegiate career as a sizar at

I fear me I was wrong in writing aforetime as though this work had been specially evoked by the publications of Udal and Cartwright, for great is the mystery of the Marprelate business, and I am not its soothsayer. Some former owner of my copy, who I naturally concluded was better informed than myself, wrote "Sutcliffe's Ans to Udal and Cartwright" on the fly-leaf opposite the title-page, and I too rashly accepted his conclusion. Udal and Cartwright do, indeed, receive ugly rubs from Sutcliffe, but they are only two out of many whom he attempts to chastise; and unless they wrote the 'Certaine Libel,' the authorship of which is hidden from me, 'An Answere' cannot have been mainly addressed to them. Sutcliffe assumes no manner of doubt touching its origin. He says:

"The writer of this Libel is wel knowen; I would he so well knewe himselfe. His bedlem fits also, and helpers he had in his writing, are knowen."-P. 104.

"A very undecent thing it seemeth to me, that a man not conuersant in studie of diuinitie should teach diuines, that a disordered companion should controll gouernors, and lawes: that a man lately distracted of his wit should teach law and order, neither knowing order, nor lawe."-Preface, B 3.

I do not know to which member of the early Puritan party such innuendoes best applied. Coppinger was somewhat of an enthusiast, and believed that the Holy Spirit gave him many strange directions (Bancroft's 'Dangerous Positions,' p. 144, &c.); but I am not aware that the cause was indebted to him for any literary support. Henry Nicholas, of the "Family of Love," must have had a screw loose somewhere, and I have wondered if, in 1592, Sutcliffe thought he had him to deal with,

since towards the end of the preface he is suddenly referred to in this manner :

"H. Nicholas hath painted his book with quotations, as full as T. C. be vseth the same stile and seemeth to have the same erronious spirit."

Other senses in which the passage might be taken are not hidden from me.

There may be some plain statement as to the authorship of a 'Certaine Libel' in Sutcliffe's later 'Answer, that to Job Throkmorton, in 1595. This work I know only from the excerpts given in An Introductory Sketch to the Martin Marprelate Controversy' (Arber), and they do not satisfy my curiosity. John Penry, say I, John Udall, John Field; all Johns: and Job Throkmorton; all concurred in making Martin," wrote Sutcliffe; but many pens, not leagued with theirs, yet moved in sympathy.

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I feel sure that my snippets will provoke rather than satiate the Fijian appetite. I am sorry to offer a mess so innutritious.

Let me end with a note and a query. I note that the Rev. Mathew Sutcliffe exclaims, "A bloudie fault," when he meets the complaint, "The Curate must tolle a Bell: yet doeth not he, but the Sexten" (p. 118); and I must ask for an explanation of the words italicized below: "The stile is like John Bels song of Couentrie, the sentences hang together like lenten deames."


[A communication concerning Nicholas Udal, recently received from a valued contributor, but, on account of its crudity of language, suppressed, shows that he pleaded guilty to a shameful offence.]

LADY OF THE BEDCHAMBER (8th S. iii. 247, 355, 392).—I also have tried hard, in going through the Close Rolls and Wardrobe Rolls, to find any hint, even the slightest implication, of relationship between Geoffrey and Thomas Chaucer, and have entirely failed.

When one of the queen's ladies is mentioned on the Rolls, she is (if I rightly remember, invariably) styled either "domina de camera Regina" (which very rarely occurs), "domicella camera Reginæ," or "domicella Reginæ." Philippa Chaucer is always styled "domicella camera," but Philippa Pycard is always "domicella Reginæ." The ladies pensioned on Queen Philippa's death in 1369 (Patent Roll, 43 Edw. III., part ii.) were the "domicella Reginæ" only; and neither the name of Philippa Chaucer nor that of Alice Perrers appears on this list, while Philippa Pycard is there. I am very glad to find that my convictions respecting Philippa Chaucer are backed by so high an authority as PROF. SKEAT. That Chaucer was her maiden name I never could believe.


SAMPLERS (8th S. iii. 327).—As I have before mentioned (8th S. ii. 91), I possess a very old

sampler, worked by my grandmother's great-grandmother, in 1718, and I do not recollect ever having seen one of an earlier date, though doubtless there are such in existence. MR. TUER asks, "Where are some good typical examples to be seen?" and I can only say that, if he ever finds himself in this neighbourhood, I shall be very happy to show him mine. It is in excellent condition, and, as I wrote in the above reply, the colours are not at all faded and might almost have been worked in yesterday.

As regards "the earliest known child's sampler with a date," an answer is scarcely likely to be arrived at, though, as I say, I have never seen an earlier dated one than my own. But that they go back to the Middle Ages there can be little doubt, and certainly to the time of Elizabeth. In the 'Midsummer Night's Dream' (III. ii.), Helena exclaims to Hermia,—

We, Hermia, like two artificial gods,

Have with our neelds created both one flower,
Both on one sampler,-

which opens up a new question, viz., Was it the
custom-as Shakespeare, who observed everything,
hints-for more than one girl to work upon one
sampler? Has, in fact, any one ever seen a
sampler signed by two workers?

Barnes Common, S.W.

I have a dated sampler as old as any dated sampler previously described. It is worked in variously coloured silks on fine canvas, twenty and a half inches long by eight and three-quarter inches broad. The inscriptions are:

"Learning is a presiovs thing it doth both grace and worth of it cannot be told. Avoid all ill companny and vertve bring, it is more rare then chains of gold the sloth by which to ruing yovth is brovght, chvse still to walk in vertveovs ways dovbtles to honovr it will the raise. Vertve honovr and renovn doth the ingenioves lady crown. Hannah Clifton, 1704.

Riches have wings and flee away bvt learning......"

The sampler has not been finished. The alphabet numerals 1-8 to fill up a line; and numerals 1-30 occurs before the first sentence and also after it, with occur after the date. There are only letters and numbers worked upon it interlined, and not objects G. D. LUMB. of any kind.

If MR. TUER is “going in" for samplers, the following may be useful to him. It is a foot-note on p. 9 of Sir Arthur Mitchell's interesting work entitled 'The Past in the Present. What is Civilization?' (Edinburgh, David Douglas, 1880.)

"Dr. George W. Balfour has furnished me with an interesting illustration of the dying out of a practice by a process of degradation. It is supplied by the Sampler, which was worked by nearly every little girl in the more before that time, but which is now rarely, if country forty years ago and for a hundred years and ever, worked by any one. Dr. Balfour has given me five

of these samplers-the work of five generations of ladies in one family. They are all dated at the time of working them; but no one need consult the dates in order to arrange them according to age. The oldest shows by far the most careful work and the best taste. As they come down to the latest they get ruder and ruder, till we reach those wonderful tubs with inconceivable fruit-trees or flowers in them, or those still more wonderful and less conceivable peacocks, worked with coarse thread on coarse canvas, and not in any respect superior, either in taste or execution, to the paintings or sculpturing of the lowest savages we know. All the young ladies who worked these five samplers belonged to a chain of families living in affluence and refinement, and it was assuredly not a want of culture or taste which gave origin to those marvellous birds and decorative borders in the later of them, for the parents of some of the workers were among the appreciators and patrons of Raeburn. Sampler-work was a practice dying out, and death came to it in the usual way, by a process of degradation. This is the whole explanation.' W. E. WILSON.

WORKS OF KIng Alfred (8th S. iii. 347, 438). -In answer to the question asked by AD LIBRAM, the Jubilee edition of the whole works of King Alfred was published in two volumes. The first volume was published by J. F. Smith & Co., Oxford and Cambridge, 1852, the second by Bosworth & Harrison, 215, Regent Street, London, 1858. This edition is in modern English. It does not contain the whole of Alfred's works, notwithstanding what is said on the title-page. On the other hand, it contains much which is now thought not to be his. A. L. KNIGHT. Leeds.

TROUTS (8th S. iii. 366, 416).-The plural trowtis occurs in Barbour's 'Bruce,' ii. 577; the reference is duly given in Stratmann. The date of the 'Bruce' is 1375, i. e., 241 years earlier than Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Scornful Lady,' and nearly 400 years earlier than the birth of Sir Walter Scott. This shows how easy it is to one better” in questions as to English usage. WALTER W. SKEAT.

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"One trut', 6d. ; one trutes, 12d.; trues et barbell', per cena, 8d." (Wardrobe Account, 31/14, Q.R., 1322-3). "Treute" (Ibid., 24/2, 1324-5). 1 panel p'ls et crabb', 23 Rugects, et 3 Troghtes, 11s. 6d." (Ibid., 62/7, 1344-47). "6 trughtes, 2s. 6d. 4 trughtes, 20d." (Ibid., 95/5, 1383-4). This Roll has been calendared as that of "some distinguished person." The internal evidence leaves no doubt that this distinguished person was the Bishop of Ely, who in 1383-4 was Thomas de Arundel, afterwards Archbishop of York and Canterbury. "To Richard Selleston of Mansfield, presenting the King with Troughtrs, 6s. 8d." (Ibid., 68/4, 1405-7). HERMENTRUDE.

I am able to give an earlier instance of the plural form of trout than that which is quoted by Mr. WALTER B. KINGSFORD. Shakspeare has used the form in 'Measure for Measure,' which

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"Mrs. Overdone. But what's his offence? "Pompey. Groping for trouts in a peculiar river." I. ii. 90-1.


HERALDIC CASTLE (8th S. iii. 347).—In modern heraldry a castle is represented with not fewer than two towers, connected with a wall and gateway More than this number (Boutell and Aveling).

are called " a castle triple-towered," or a castle with four towers, which is always blazoned in perspective. Cussans's 'Heraldry' describes "a castle " as an embattled fortress," on which are commonly placed three towers." Clark and Wormull give the same description, and all give "a tower" as a single turret and as a different charge.

Guilliam (the edition of 1638) contradicts himself, for he says

field from one side of the Escocheon to the other, then

"when the architecture extendeth itself over all the

must it be named a castle, but if it be thus Turretted and environed by the Field, then must it be blazoned ‘a Tower triple-tow'red.'”

But in his examples he gives in the arms of Castillion a lion rampant, "a castle in the dexter point," and the woodcut gives a simple tower. In our own arms we bear (as a modern augmentation on the grant of a peerage) on the original canton "a castle triple towered" for the Castle of Norwich. B. FLORENCE SCARLETT.

A tower in heraldry correctly figures a castle. Three towers would be a castle triple towered. GEORGE CLUlow.

When there are three towers the more correct blazon would be "triple towered." Thus in Fife we find Gules, a castle triple towered argent, masoned sable, for the Abbey of Lindores. GEORGE ANGUS. St. Andrews, N.B.

According to The Glossary of Heraldry' (Parker, Oxford, 1847), the word "castle," used alone, generally signifies either a single tower or two towers with a gate between them; a castle triple towered being a tower with three turrets thereon, such as occurs in the arms of Castile. The same authority adds, amongst other varieties are triangular and square castles seen in perspective, and castles extending all across the field, the turrets J. BAGNALL. being often domed.

Water Orton.

"THE BABIES IN THE EYES "(8th S. iii. 181, 413). The following quotation from Wycherley's comedy of The Plain Dealer,' IV. i., gives great force to, if it does not completely prove, MR. BOLLAND'S argument regarding the true interpretation to be placed on the expression "babies

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When I was a child "babies" was a common nursery term for pictures in books. "Shall we look at the babbies?" was nurse's way of introducing a fresh book. The same name was given to the tiny figures of people seen in the eyes. This refers to CHEVRON. over half a century ago.

TABLE PROVERB (8th S. iii. 265).—The proverb to which there is reference is much earlier than 1664, though perhaps that is merely a quotation of it. It is to be met with in the form below in Villa Nova's commentary on 'Schola Salernitana' as Post cœnam stabis, aut passus mille meabis. 'Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum ' (Oxf., 1830, p. 156). . a


As men

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lope, which marched with them on parade, led by
a silver chain.
A. G. B.

The 4th Battalion Beds Regiment (Herts
Militia) had, up to a few years ago, a stag to pre-
cede them. It either injured or killed a man, and
had to be destroyed. Since then the custom has
been discontinued.

Belle Vue, Bengeo.

"THIRTY DAYS HATH SEPTEMBER" (8th S. iii. 245).—The following rhyme (first printed, I believe, in 1571) may be found in Grafton's' Abridgement of the Chronicles of Englande......1572,' sig. Ff. ii. verso:— Thirty dayes hath Nouember, Aprill, Iune & September. February bath xxviij. alone, And all the rest have xxxi.

Five years later (1577) it appears in Harrison's England,' with one or two trivial changes and the addition of the line

But in the leape you must ad one. That the version with September in the first line was current by 1601 is evidenced by a passage in 'The Return from Parnassus,' written in that year (III. i., p. 37 of Arber's ed.):

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"S. Rad. How many dayes hath September? "Im. Aprill, Iune and Nouember, February hath 28. alone and all the rest hath 30 and one.

"S. Rad. Very learnedly in good faith, he hath also a smacke in poetry."

Our continental neighbours have been no less

appreciative than ourselves of the utility of this

mnemonic canon. An old Italian version is included
in Giusti's 'Proverbi Toscani,' art. "Meteorologia,"

Trenta di ha novembre, april, giugno e settembre;
Di ventotto ce n'è uno tutto gli altri n'han trentuno.
I can give no date for this; but the following
French version is from a book published in 1664,
Proverbes en Rimes,' ii. 311:-

Trente ont les Mois de Nouembre,
Avril & Iuin & Septembre;
Et vingt-huit jours en a vn,
Tous les autres en ont trente-vn.
Comment on the stupid blunder denounced by
your correspondent would be a waste of your space.

RHYME ON CALVINISM (8th S. iii. 428).-MR.
FLEMING will find the rhyme relating to this in an
early sermon of C. H. Spurgeon, on 'Calvin and
Calvinism,' published early in the sixties.

67, Trinity Road, Wood Green.

SIR THOMAS PATE HANKIN, KNT. (8th S. iii. 369).-He joined the 2nd or Royal North British Regiment of Dragoons as cornet, July 21, 1795; was promoted a lieutenant, Aug. 13, 1796; captain, Oct. 18, 1798; major, April 4, 1808; lieutenant

colonel in the army, June 4, 1814; and lieutenantcolonel commanding the above-named regiment, Oct. 11, 1821. He served in that distinguished corps at the Battle of Waterloo, where he sustained a severe wound in the knee. Upon the visit of George IV. to Scotland in 1822, Lieut.-Col. Hankin, then in command of the regiment there, received, at Holyrood House, on Aug. 22, the honour of knighthood. He was twice married, first to the only daughter of Capt. John Reade, of the 25th Regiment, who died within a year after their union; and secondly, to Miss Margetts, of Huntingdonshire, who survived him. Sir Thomas died at the Cavalry Barracks in Norwich, Oct. 26, 1825, aged fifty-nine, and was buried in Norwich Cathedral. The name of Hankin is of frequent occurrence in the parish registers of Ashwell, Baldock, and Sandon, Hertfordshire.

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BARCLAY'S ENGLISH DICTIONARY' (8th S. iii. 428).—The Complete and Universal English Dictionary' was by the Rev. James Barclay. The first edition was published in quarto in 1774; see Mr. H. B. Wheatley's Chronological Notices of the Dictionaries of the English Language,' in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1865. G. L. APPERSON.


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KILBURN WELLS (8th S. iii. 167, 435).-C. A. O.

may be referred to 'Old and New London,' vol. v. pp. 245, 246, where Mr. Walford gives quotations from the Kilburn Almanac,' Mr. Harrison Ainsworth, Mr. Richard Owen Cambridge, and the Public Advertiser of 1773. MUS URBANUS.

GEORGE ELIOT (8th S. iii. 307, 352).—An old acquaintance kindly points out a mistake of mine with regard to the date of George Eliot's first publication of verse. "The Spanish Gypsy' appeared in 1868, and had, therefore, precedence of Jubal.' I am sure the distinction in the article I remember was between verse and prose, not, as MR. MARSHALL suggests, between verse and poetry. Certain passages from the novels were taken, and it was shown that they easily could be read in metre. An article came out a little time ago, treating passages from 'Lorna Doone' in a similar way, as demonstration of the fact that Mr. Blackmore's prose might be considered poetry in the technical




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flower referred to is the Caltha palustris. And I am curious to know why it is wrong to call this flower the marsh-marygold. It has been so called since Lyte's time at least, and the name has the stamp of Tennyson's approval in one of his finest descriptive lines:

The wild Marsh-marigold shines like fire in swamps and hollows gray.

For anything I know it has as good a right to the name as the garden marigold (Calendula officinalis). It does not, however, appear to be referred to by Shakspeare, and it is almost certainly not his "cuckoo-bud of yellow hue." In the first place, it blooms some weeks before the cuckoo comes (I gathered a quantity this year in the first week of April); and in the second it is hardly a meadow flower. We have heaps of it along our drains and ditches, where it makes a gallant show; but it is almost entirely confined to them. MRS. WHITE says that elsewhere Shakespeare speaks of the crowfoot. Does she mean the crow-flower-a very different thing? Shakespeare, unless I am mistaken, never mentions the crowfoot; but I have little doubt that he refers to it in the passage MRS. WHITE is inclined to apply to the marsh-marigold. His crow-flower is our ragged robin, of which Gerarde says that it "serves for garlands and crowns"-as it did for poor Ophelia. C. C. B.

Caltha palustris that it is wrongly named marsh-
Why does MRS. C. A. WHITE say of the bright
from cabathos, a cup.
marygold? The name caltha is said to be derived


THE POPE'S GOLDEN ROSE (8th S. iii. 343).— The following passages on this subject may interest some of your readers :

the Pope, dressed in white, consecrated on the altar of a "On the fourth Sunday in Lent, which falls in spring, chapel adorned with roses, in the presence of the College of Cardinals, a golden rose, which was afterwards presented as ensuring a blessing to princes and princesses, and even to churches and towns. The Pope dipped the and prayed to Christ as the Flower of the field and the rose in balsam, sprinkled it with holy water and incense, Lily of the valley. Shortly before the Reformation, Frederic the Wise, Elector of Saxony, received the Golden Rose, and in our time it has been bestowed on the ill-fated Empress Charlotte of Mexico, and the pious Isabella II. of Spain. Notes relating to this peculiar custom may be found as far back as the eleventh century, when Leo IX, was Pope; but its origin is evidently connected with the ancient Roman conception of the rose as the symbol both of life and of perishableness, which in the hand of a conqueror expressed not only his glory and his joy, but also his mortality and humility."-Victor Hehn, Wanderings of Plants and Animals,' ed. by J. S. Stallybrass, 1885, pp. 193-4.

rubies and other gems, is solemnly blessed by the Pope "The Rosa Aurea, which is of pure gold inraught with on Laetare, Mid-Lent Sunday, as an emblem of Christ, who is the flower of the field and the lily of the valley,' and as a sign of the joy of the church triumphant and militant in Him. The rose is sent to Catholic sovereigns,

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