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will be distributed to all the principal libraries of the country, and with the liberal policy which has been adopted in regard to the books of the Smithsonian collection, will serve to render the library more generally useful. By exchanges there have been received 719 octavos, 167 quartos, and 24 folios; of parts of volumes and pamphlets, in octavo, 2, 119 ; in quarto, 779; in folio, 581; maps and charts 200 ; total, 4,589. In addition to these about 400 volumes were purchased. Among the valuable works received during the year, are the following : 55 volumes from the Royal Library of Stockholm. Comptes-Rendus, 1859, 1860, 1861, with atlas, from the Commission Imperiale Archaelogique, St. Petersburg. 12 volumes and 18 parts of volumes from the Koninlijk Institut des Ingenieurs, d' Gravenhage. 52 volumes and 94 pamphlets from the Nederlandsch Maatschappig ter Bevordering van Nijverheid, Haarlem. 10 volumes of its own publications from the Société pour la recherche et la conservation des Monuments Historiques du Grand Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg. 24 volumes and 12 parts from the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna. 9 volumes and 29 charts from the Etablissement Géographique de Bruxelles. 21 volumes of Proceedings from the Société d’Agriculture, Commerce, Science et Arts du Dept. de la Marne. 24 volumes of Proceedings and Transactions from the Institution of Civil Engineers, London. 36 volumes and 114 charts from the Board of Admiralty, London. Large donations from the Royal University of Norway. Braddam's Memoirs of the Royal Society of London, vol. I—X, 1745, from Mrs. Mary A. Malthie, Syracuse, New York. 26 volumes from the Regents of the University in behalf of the State of New York.

Lectures.—The usual course of lectures has been commenced for the present season, and will embrace the following:

Five lectures, by Rev. John Lord, of New York, on the “Fall of the Roman Empire.” Subjects.-I. The grandeur and glory of the Ancient Civilization—The external splendor of the Roman Empire in its latter days. II. The internal hollowness and defects of the old Roman civilization—The shame and miseries of societyThe vices of self-interest, and preparation for violence and inev. itable ruin. III. The fall of the empire, and the desolations produced by the barbarians—The destruction of the old fabric of so. ciety. IV. The reasons why the old conservative influences of paganism did not arrest the ruin-The failure of art, literature, and science, and the mechanism of governments. V. The reasons why Christianity did not save the Empire, and the ideas which the church incorporated with subsequent civilizations—The foundation of the new Teutonic structure.

Three lectures, by Professor Louis Agassiz, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the “Glacial period.”

One lecture, by Professor J. L. Campbell, of Wabash College, on " Galileo."' Seven lectures, by Dr. Reinhold Solger, on “The Races of Men."

Six lectures, by Professor W. D. Whitney, of Yale College, on " Philology." I. History and objects of linguistic science-Plan of these lectures—Why and how do we speak English-How language is preserved and perpetuated—Its constant change-The study of language an historical science. II. Illustration of the processes of growth and change in language-Formation of words by combination of old materials - Mutilation and corruption of existing forms—Change and development of meaning-Rate of progress of these changes. III. Statement and illustration of the influences causing the growth of dialects, and those checking and counteracting this growth-Our language a Germanic dialect, with partly French vocabulary-Other languages with which it is related-Branches of the Indo-European family of languages, and proof that they are of common descentPlace, period, and grade of civilization of the original tribe. IV. His. torical and linguistic importance of the Indo-European race and lan. guage-History of the language-Its development from monosyllabic roots. V. Survey of the other great families of language, Semitic, Scythian, Chinese, Polynesian, Egyptian, African, and AmericanIsolated languages not included in these families. VI. Comparative value of linguistic and physical evidence of race, and their relative bearing on the science of ethnology-Relation of the study of language to the question of the unity of the human race-origin of languageIts character and value to the human race. *

The number of applications for the use of the lecture-room has * A synopsis of this course of lectures has been furnished by the author for insertion in the appendix to this report.

been much less since the adoption of the rule restricting its use to the purposes of the Institution exclusively has become more generally known. This rule, which has been widely approved of by the enlightened public, has precluded a large amount of unprofitable correspondence and enabled the Institution to avoid an embarrassing and inauspicious connexion with sensational expositions of the exciting subjects of the day.

From the preceding account of the present condition of the Institution, and of its operations during the past year, as well as from the examination of the collections and publications, it is hoped that, notwithstanding the unfavorable condition of the country for scientific research, and the diminished means at our command, it will appear that the line of policy and of action originally adopted has been pursued with unabated ardor and with corresponding success.

Respectfully submitted. JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary. WASHINGTON, 1864.




Washington, December 31, 1863. Sir: I have the honor to present herewith a report, for 1863, of the operations intrusted to my charge, consisting especially of those relating to the printing, the exchanges, and the collections of natural history. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Institution. Prof. Joseph Henry, LL.D.,

Secretary Smithsonian Institution.


An accompanying table will show the works printed during the year, and also those now in press. The total number of pages belonging to works finished within the year is : Of quarto papers .......

350 pages, 3 plates. Octavo Miscellaneous Collections ......... ....... 1,313 pages.

Of works still in press there have been printed : Of quarto works, about.........

108 pages. Octavo ............................. ..... 443 pages.'

Making a total of 458 quarto pages, and 1,756 octavo, exclusive of the annual report to Congress, nearly finished, and to fill 450 pages.

EXCHANGES AND TRANSPORTATION. The system of exchanges has been in a highly successful condition during 1863, both the receipts and transmissions being fully equal to the average of any previous year. The attendant expenses of this branch of operations arc, however, great and increasing, and would long since have become almost prohibitory but for the liberality exhibited by various transportation companies in carrying the boxes and parcels of the Institution free of any charges for freight. It is not too much to say that thousands of dollars are thus presented by the companies as a recognition on their part of the great importance, domestic as well as international, of these operations of the Institution. Among the parties de. serving of especial mention in this connexion are the proprietors of the Cunard steamers between New York and Liverpool, and New York and Havana; the North German Lloyd, between New York and Bremen ; the Hamburg American Packet Company, between New York and Hamburg; the Panama Railroad Company; the Pacific Mail Steamship Company; the Hudson's Bay Company; the Adams Express Company, &c.


The Institution is under especial obligations, for important services rendered in this connexion, to the Hon. Hiram Barney, collector of the port of New York, and to his assistant, Mr. George Hillier; to Mr. A. B. Forbes and Mr. Hubbard, of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, in San Francisco, as well as to the regular agents of the Institution.

During the year, 1863, a new literary agency of the Institution was established for Holland and Belgium. Mr. Frederick Müller, bookseller, of Amsterdam, was placed in charge, and he has already rendered much service. The other foreign agents of the Institution—Dr. Felix Flügel, of Leipsic; Gustave Bossange & Company, of Paris; and Mr. William Wesley, of London—continue to discharge their duties with efficiency, and to the full satisfaction of the Institution.

The number of institutions and individuals, at home and abroad, making use of the facilities of scientific exchanges offered by the Smithsonian Institution is continually on the increase, and it is believed that any interruption or suspension of this part of the programme of operations would be considered as a serious calamity.

In 1862 the Institution distributed four volumes of Miscellaneous Collections, one volume of Annual Reports, and one thick quarto volume of Meteorological Records and Reductions. In 1863, owing to various circumstances, the Annual Report for 1861 was the only volume distributed, although many copies of separate papers were sent abroad. For this reason the bulk of sending, in 1863, was less than that of previous years, but it is expected that the difference will be fully made up in 1864.

The following tables exhibit the details of the operations in the line of exchange during 1863:

A. Receipt of books, &c., by exchange in 1863. Wolumes : Octavo. ----------------------------------------- 719 Quarto------------------------------------------ 167 Folio ------------------------------------------- 24 910 Parts of volumes and pamphlets: Octavo. ----------------------------------------- 2, 119 Quarto------------------------------------------ 779 Folio ------------------------------------------- 581 3, 479 Maps and charts............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 200 Total ------------------------------------------- 4, 589 Receipts in 1861--------------------------------------------. 2, 886

Receipts in 1862..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,035

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