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Theological Works of Thomas Paine. 8vo. pp. 400. New York. Rothelan; a Romance. By the Author of " Annals of the Parish,” &c.
The Latin Reader, from the fifth German Edition. By Frederic Jacobs, Editor of the Greek Anthology, the Greek Reader, f-c. &c. 12mo. pp. 150. Northampton.
Quarterly Review, No. LXI.
High Ways and By-Ways, or Tales by the Road Side; Picked up by a Walking Gentleman. Second Series. 2 Vols. Philadelphia. Carey & Lea.
Lessons for Children, in Four Parts. By Mrs. Barbauld. Second American Edition. 24mo. Boston. Wells & Lilly.
Memoirs of Goëthe. Written by himself. Collins & Hannay.
Elements of Greek Grammar. By R. Valpy, D. D. F. A. S. Fifth American Edition. Arranged on an improved Plan; with extensive Additions. By Charles Anthon, Adjunct Professor of Languages in Colombia College, New York.
A New View of Society, or Essays on the Formation of Human Cha. racter, preparatory to the Development of a Plan for graslually ameliorating the Condition of Mankind. By Robert Owen. First American, from the Third Lon. don Edition. 1 vol. 18mo. Price 75 cents.
LIST OF WORKS IN PRESS. A Grammar of the Spanish Language, with Practical Exercises. By M. Jossé. Second American, from the last Paris Edition. Revised, improved, and adapted to the English language. By F. Sales, Instructer in French and Spanish in Harvard University, Cambridge. Boston. Munroe & Francis
The Improvisatrice and other Poems. By L. E. L. Munroe & Francis.
Hymns for Children; selected and altered. By the Author of Conversations on Common Things. Munroe & Francis.
An Inquiry into the Scriptural Import of the words, Sheol, Hades, Tartarus, and Gehenna; all translated Hell in the common English version. Second Edition. By Walter Balfour. Charlestown, Mass. George Davidson.
The Boatswain's Mate; or, Interesting Dialogues between British Seamen. In Seven Parts. Charles Whipple. Newburyport.
Thomson's Conspectus of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmacopæiæ, with the addition of the United States Pharmacopeia, Magendie's Formulary, and the other Pharmaceutical preparations. New York. E. Bliss do E. White.
Butler's Reminiscences. Second Edition.
New York. E. Bliss & E. White. Decision; A Tale by Mrs Hoffland, Author of “Son of a Genius,” &c. &-c. New York. E. Bliss & E. White.
The Surgical and Physiological Works of John Abernethy. Complete, from a late London Edition. New York. J. & J. Harper.
We have several articles on hand, which were intended for this Number, but the length of our reviews bas obliged us to postpone them.
Erratum.--At the head of this Number, the date is, by mistake, printed 1824 instead of 1825.
Published on the first and fifteenth day of every month, by CUMMINGS, HILLIARD, & Co., No. 134 Washington-Street, Boston, for the Proprietors. Terms, $5 per
Cainbridge: Printed at the University Press, by Hilliard & Metcalf,
Greece in 1823 and 1824, being a Series of Letters and other
Documents on the Greek Revolution, written during a visit to that country, by the Hon. Colonel Leicester Stanhope. To which is added, the Life of Mustapha Ali. Philadelphia. 1825. 8vo. pp. 308.
[Concluded.] On the ground, then, either of immediate commercial benefit or remote general advancement of civilization,-a common object of all wise and great statesmen,--we think the cause of the Greeks entitled to, aid. We think this an object of far greater importance than the discovery of the Friendly Islands or the Marquesas; than the settlement of the problem, Whether the Niger flows into the sea, or joins the Nile, or evaporates in the desert; than effecting a perilous passage through the icebergs of the polar basin into the Pacific ocean. We do not object to the appropriation of vast sums of money to these objects; but we do sincerely believe, that half of them laid out under the patronage of the British councils, in establishing a free state in Greece, would, in one year, bring back to England a richer return, than would accrue from the discovery of the northwest passage, to the end of time. As to the consequences to the general cause of humanity, they are not to be named in the comparison.
But we must omit some further remarks, which we might have made on this subject, to speak of the cause of the Greeks in its connexion with the interests of Christianity and of the visible church. No such opportunity of doing goud, in that most vital of all forms of benevolence, the extension of the pure faith of the Gospel, as now presents itself in Greece, has, within our acquaintance with history, ever offered itself. The
Greeks are nominally Christians, and might therefore not seem, at first, within the limits of the efforts to be now made for evangelizing the world. But if the Greeks be Christians, it must not be forgotten that Greece is a Mahometan state ; governed by a Mahometan despotism; and that nearly all its disposable means-as far as they are applied to the support of any kind of religion-are applied to the support of the religion of the Koran. Here, then, is a vast Mahometan country to be brought back to the empire of the Cross; the country where Christianity arose and was propagated, where its first churches were established, and where its first martyrs bled. Does not this present a field for missionary exertion, more attractive and more hopeful than the distant regions of the East, or the barbarous isles of the Pacific ? Farther, in this country, which thus of itself awakens our Christian zeal, there is a germ of faith. There is a persecuted, an oppressed, a cruelly outraged minority,—the descendants of the ancient lords of the soil, --who nominally embrace the Christian doctrine. This furnishes a promising foothold to the teacher from the prosperous, benevolent, and civilized states of Christendom. The faithful missionary who should address the Greeks, groaning under the Turkish sway, would, in some respects, address precisely the same class of men whom Paul addressed, and who welcomed the Gospel of the poor. But he would address
. those already professing the name of Christianity, and not, therefore, like the Mahometan, the Hindoo, the Pagan tribes of the East, prejudiced beforehand against the very name of the doctrine offered to their belief. At the same time, we fear that the Greek Christians stand in little less need of light from abroad, than Hindoo or heathen. It seems to be admitted, that Christianity exists among them in an exceedingly imperfect form. The ignorance of the lower orders,—the necessary consequence of their wretched political condition,-is inconsistent with any other state of things. But when the people are ignorant and superstitious, the priesthood must, of necessity, be divided into two classes, the ignorant who are bigoted, and the wise who are insincere. It may be almost laid down as an axiom, that there cannot be an enlightened, pious, and sincere clergy, without an enlightened church. Nor does the evil stop here. The young men of talents, who, in considerable numbers, resort to the seminaries of learning in Western Europe, in consequence of the gross superstitions with which Christianity is associated at home, carry no religious impressions abroad, and, as a matter almost of course, return without any to their country. There is too much reason to fear, that religion has no earnest friends among that class of men, who ought to be looked to as its ablest champions; those who, in consequence of distinguished talents, have been sent abroad to enjoy the advantages of schools in the West of Europe.
It is, therefore, in every view which can be taken of the subject, in the highest degree necessary to regard the Greeks as a people in need of religious aid; at the same time that we certainly regard them as the people offering the fairest scope for the efforts of religious benevolence and zeal. Colonel Stanhope, in the work mentioned at the head of these remarks, mentions no subject more frequently, than the want of schools and teachers; and he alludes honourably to the American missionary press established at Malta. We think it a question highly deserving of the consideration of our societies for foreign missions, Whether Greece, at this moment, is not a country where all their disposable means might be employed with the greatest hope of a rich harvest of intellectual and spiritual good. We firmly believe, that the final expulsion of the Turks from Greece would prove the most signal extension of the empire of Christianity, which has taken place since the colonization of America.
We have not thought it necessary to offer our readers a formal analysis of Colonel Stanhope's Letters on Greece. This gentleman is the son of the Earl of Harrington, a very respectable English nobleman; and the Colonel himself, being on his half pay in the English army, repaired to Greece, under the directions of the London Greek Committee. The work consists principally of his Letters to the Committee, which. contain, of course, an account of his occupations in Greece. These were of almost every kind which zeal for the cause of liberty could prompt. The Colonel acquired a title to the confidence of the Greeks, by the disinterestedness with which he determined to appropriate two-thirds of his income to their cause; and this pecuniary effort was but one of his claims on their gratitude. He laboured to establish a corps of artillery and a laboratory at Missolonghi; a printing-press and newspaper there, and in two or three other places. He wrote letters, and made journies to reconcile the dissensions of the Greek chieftains, from which the most serious difficulties in the progress of their revolution have grown. Colonel Stanhope went to Greece, furnished with propositions from Mr Bentham,
whose confidence he appears to have possessed in a high degree, toward codifying the Greek law. The perseverance of this veteran philosopher is truly exemplary, and we do hope that the astonishing political revolutions of the age will, before long, place him in the sovereignty of some remote island, in the magistracy of some Australasian republic, where he may have it in his power to make a fair experiment of codification. As for the modern Greeks, having adopted the Code Justinian and the Code Napoleon, they are not in such a suffering state in this respect, but that they may dispense with the Code Bentham.
Colonel Stanhope was one of the Commissioners of the loan raised in London for the service of the Greeks. He informs us, in the summary of the state of the Greeks which is appended to his work, and which has been extensively copied in the public prints, " that the Greeks think they have but one want—that of money. ** The Captains (the Greek Chieftains so called) are in general averse to the loan, from a dread that it would fall into the hands of their antagonists (the popular party), and deprive them of power. The rest of the nation look forward to its arrival with feverish impatience. They think, and with truth, that, if well applied, it would not only secure their independence, but also their freedom.” Some delay took place in the reception and application of the loan, in consequence of the decease of Lord Byron, who was one of the trustees appointed for those purposes. There is no doubt, that it was owing to this timely supply, that the Greeks have been enabled to meet the Turkish fleets so successfully at sea during the year. Whether supplies go from the same quarter,-the Stock
. Exchange of London, to enable the exhausted treasury of the Grand Seignior to prosecute the contest, does not appear.
Meantime the late accounts from England mention that a second loan to the Greeks, of two millions of pounds sterling, has been effected in London, through the house of the Messrs Ricardo. We know not what foundation there may be for this report, but if the English capitalists are willing to keep the field with their pounds sterling, the Greeks most assuredly will keep it with their armies; and the Turks must yield. If fair scope be given to its operation, there is no doubt that English money, backed by Greek spirit, is an overmatch for the resources of the Divan; and nothing but the direct interference of the Holy Alliance would be competent to maintain, or rather restore, the sovereignty of the Grand Seignior.