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Anti-slavery men (Cf. Аво-
LITIONIST), distinguished from
abolitionists, 55; disheartened
by "Free Soil" nomination, 82;
outbreaks against in South, 169,

Anti-slavery movement grows, 35
ff, 37, 51, 52, 71, 91; women and
literary men in, 56; public
leaders keep aloof from, 57; pe-
titions, 71; documents excluded
from Southern mails, 72, 73;
made political issue, 74; strong
growth of in North, 113 ff;
assumed by Republican party,
127; tabooed at South, 129.
Anti-slavery society, American,
founded, 44; purposes of, 45;
dissolution of, 367.
Arkansas, admitted as slave state,
23; postpones action on seces-
sion, 227; secedes, 235; eman-
cipation in, 260; provisional
govt. estab. in, 269, 275; recon-
structed, 310; relative number
of negro voters in, 311; becomes
Democratic, 323; Grant recom-
mends state govt. be declared
illegal, 344; bill defeated, 345.
Armstrong, Samuel Chapman

(Gen.), birth and early life of,
356; in Union Army; begins
labors for freedmen in Virginia;
characterization of, 357; special
fitness for work, 359; religious
views, 360; forms ideals of
negro education, 360 ff; founds
Hampton Institute, 362 ff; per-
sonality, 364 ff; labors of for
school, 365 ff; death of; sum-
mary of life work; personal ap-
pearance, 366; sayings of, 367;
Booker Washington, pupil and
successor to, 378.
Arnold, Matthew, poem on his
father, 369.

Atchison, Senator, of Missouri,

Atlanta University, 358, 398.
Atlantic Monthly, begun, 144
Aycock, Governor, of N. C., 388.

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Banks, Nathaniel P., joins "Free
Soil" party, 81; speaker of
House, 115; in Republican
party, 127; refuses nomination
of "Know-nothing' seceders,
supports Fremont, 129; gover-
nor of Mass., 193; in House,

Baptists, champion cause of free-
dom, 22.
"Barnburners," the, 82.
Barnwell, Senator, advocates se-
cession, 89.
Bates, Edward, candidate for
Presidential nomination (1860),
191; attitude of on emancipation
proclamation, 257.
Beauregard, Gen., leads attack on
Fort Sumter,.235.
Beecher, Edward, 36.
Beecher, Henry Ward, character-
ization of, 141 ff; active in
political discussion, 142; criti-
cises Lincoln in Independent,
254; labors in behalf of Union,
277; outlines plan of reconstruc-
tion, 277 ff; views on suffrage,

Bell, John, nominated for Pres-
ident, 189; popular vote for
(1860), 194; 214.
Bennett, James Gordon, 141.
Berea College, beginnings of, 73;
discriminated against by Ken-
tucky educational law, 385.
Bernard, John, meets Washing-
ton, I ff.

"Biglow Papers," Lowell attacks
slavery and war in, 77; 144; 254.
Birney, James G., 36; incidents in
life of, 58 ff; political ideas of,
59; nominated for President,
74; views of on slavery ques-
tion, 74; again nominated, 75.
Black, Jeremiah S., Attorney-

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General, 222; Secretary of
State, 244; defends Johnson,
"Black Codes" of 1865-6, 281 ff,

Blaine, James G., in House, 284;

proposes amend. to Stevens's
reconstruction bill, 306; on de-
bate of bill, 307; on negro suf-
frage, 310; leader in House,

characterized, 331; speaks
against Davis, reputation dis-
credited, Presidential candidate,

Blair, Francis P. (Gen.), nom-
inated for Vice-Presidency; de-
feated, 314.

Blair, Senator, of N. H., bill of
for aid to local education on
basis of existing illiteracy, 372,

"Border Ruffians," the, 116, 118.
Border States, severity of war
greatest in, 242; Lincoln's
scheme for compensated eman-
cipation in, 252; slave owners
in alienated by emancipation
proclamation, 261.
Boston Courier, denounces Re-
publican party in 1860 campaign,


Bourne, George (Rev.), denounces
slavery, 37.

Boutwell, George S., governor of

Mass., 92; in House, 284;
House prosecutor of Johnson,

Bowles, Samuel, 124; "Life and
Times of," 124 note; gives
opinion of Johnson imbroglio,

Bradley, Joseph (Justice), on

Hayes-Tilden commission, 349.
Breckinridge, John C., nominated

for President, 188; scheme for
electing, 189; popular vote for
(1860), 194; declines to repudi-
ate secession, 194.
Bristow, Benjamin H., Presiden-
tial candidate, Sec'y of Treas-
ury, 346, 347.

Brooks, John Graham, observa-

tions of on Virginia politics, 401.
Brooks, Preston S., assaults Sum-

ner, 122; re-elected and hon-
ored, effect on North, 123.
Brown, B. Gratz, leads independ-
ent movement in Mo., 327;
aspirant for Presidential nomi-
nation, 328.

Brown, John, sketch of, 119 ff;
leads massacre in Kansas, 120;
schemes for extinction of
slavery, 159 ff; in Springfield,
Mass., 159, 162; aided by lead-

ing anti-slavery men, 160; pen
pictures of by Alcott and Emer-
son, 160; characterization of,
161 ff; makes raid on Harper's
Ferry, 162; captured, 163;
hanged, 164; honored as martyr,
164 ff; eulogized by Emerson,
165, 167; characterization of his
acts and schemes, 166 ff.
Bruce, B. K., U. S. Senator, 336.
Bruce, R. C., of Miss., awarded

class oratorship at Harvard,
Bryant, William Cullen, editor of
N. Y. Evening Post, 327.
Buchanan, James, 72; Democratic

Presidential candidate, charac-
terized, 128; with Mason and
Soulé issues Ostend manifesto,
128; administration of (1857-
61), 147; sends Gov. Walker to
Kansas, 150; supports Lecomp-
ton constitution, 151; announces
position on secession, 222; re-
fuses aid to Ft. Moultrie, 224;
cabinet, 224.

Burgess, J. W. (Prof.), shows ef-
fects of John Brown's raid, 170;
comments on laws governing
negroes after war, 291.
Burns, Anthony, fugitive slave,

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poses anti-slavery petitions,
claims State control of mails,
72; in Tyler's cabinet, leader in
Texas annexation, 75; returns
to Senate, 76; politically isolat-
ed, 79; opposes war with Eng.,
80; claims of for nationionaliza-
tion of slavery, 80; last speech
of, 86; his opinion of struggle
bet. North and South, 87.
California, taken from Mexico,
79; admission as free State ad-
vocated, 88, 90; swift settle-
ment of; applies for admission
with slavery excluded, South
opposes, 84; rejects Fifteenth
amendment, 315.
Cameron, Simon, candidate for
Presidential nomination; sup-
ports Lincoln, 190.
Carolinas, the (see also NORTH,
SOUTH), slavery foundation of
aristocracy in, 6; number of
Islaves in in 1790, 9.
Carpenter, Frank, Lincoln's con-
versation with, 256.

Carpet-baggers," the, 318, 336,

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Casey, F. F., in government of
Louisiana, 341.

Cass, Lewis, nominated for Pres-
ident, 81; resigns from cabinet,

Chamberlain, Daniel H., governor
of So. Carolina, 332, 348.
Chandler, Zachariah, 270; sketch
of, 283; as radical leader, 285;
party leader, 331; chairman
Republican national committee;
disputes Tilden's election, 348.
Channing, William Ellery, plan of
emancipation, 39; sketch of,
attitude toward anti-slavery
movement, 59 ff; treatise on
Slavery, 62.

Chase, Salmon P., in "Free Soil"
convention, 82; in Senate, 83;
against extension of slavery,
90; in Lincoln's cabinet, 249;
attitude of on emancipation
proclamation, 257; becomes
chief justice, 274; candidate for
Presidential nomination, Lin-
coln's opinion of, services of in
supreme court, 313.

Chestnutt, Charles W., 379;
shows discrimination against
negro suffrage, 384.
Child, Lydia Maria, 56; opinion
of Channing, 63.
Church, the, early, accepts slavery,
works toward abolition, 4;
casuistical defense of slavery
by, 5; in America, justifies
slavery, 50; split over slavery,
53; united in South in defense
of slavery in North divided,
141; labors of in North in be-
half of Union, 277.

Civil rights bill (1866) passed,
296; vetoed by Johnson, be-
comes law, 297; of 1875,

Civil war, the, causes of, 211 ff;
237 ff; views on in North and
South, 237; moral results of,
240, 244, 247; emancipation
measures discussed and adopted
during, 248 ff; disappointment
over protraction of, 254; negroes
in, 261, 263; courage of both
North and South in, 262; suffer-
ing in, 265; ended, 270.
"Civil War and the Constitution,
The," 170.

Clay, Cassius M., opposes slavery,
73; in founding of Berea Col-
lege, 73; 170.

Clay, Henry, votes for slavery in
Arkansas, 23; favors Missouri
compromise, aspires to Presi-
dency, dislikes but supports
slavery, 26; relations of with J.
Q. Adams, 29; advocates pro-
tective tariff, 31; proposed tariff
compromise, 33; Whigs nomi-
nate for President, 75; defeated,
76; opposed to annexation of
Mexico, 79; disappointed of
Presidential nomination, 81;
in Senate (1849-50), frames
compromise measures of 1850,
85; opposes extension of slavery,
denies right of secession, last
speech of, 86; denounces threats
of secession, 89.

Clayton, Powell, in Grant fac-
tion, 344.

Cobb, Howell, 138.

Coles, Edward (Gov.), 35.

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Colfax, Schuyler, in House, 284;
Vice-President, 314.
Colonization, Jefferson's schemes
for, 18; Pennsylvania society,
22; society attacked by New
Eng. anti-slavery society, 44.
Compromise of 1820, see MIS-
SOURI of 1850, 85; adopted, 90;
causes dissatisfaction in North
and South, 91.
Confederacy, the Southern (see
also SOUTH, the, etc.). Seces-
sionists propose to form, 215;
convention to organize, 225;
organized, constitution of, 226;
election of officers of, 226, 227;
disregards peace overtures from
Republicans, 229; courage dis-
played in, 262; Lee the chief
hero of, 263.
Conkling, Roscoe, in House, 284;
party leader, 331; favors "force
bill," 345; Presidential candi-
date, 346.

Connecticut, passes emancipation
law, 21.

Conscience Whigs," 82.
Constitution (See Convention of
1787), proposed convention to
revise, 229. Amendments to,
"Constitutional Union" party,

153, 189.

Convention of 1787, personnel,
work, and difficulties of, 10 ff;
results of, 14 ff.

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Curtis, Justice, dissents from
Dred Scott decision, 148.
Cushing, Caleb, joins seceding
Democratic convention, 188;
supports Breckinridge De-
mocracy; bitter words of on
Mass. election, 193.

DABNEY, Thomas, sketch of, 100 ff;
experiences of after war, 337,
339, 355.

Davis, David, on Hayes-Tilden
commission; in Senate, 349.
Davis, Henry Winter, favors

radical reconstruction, 270.
Davis, Jefferson, in Senate, 86, 89;
sketch of life and principles of,
132 ff; active in politics, in
Mexican war, in Senate, Sec'y
of War, leader in secession, 134;
hostility toward, 135; final
estimate of, 136; presents ulti-
matum of South in Senate
(1859), 184; residence of at
North, 193; defends secession,
215; opposes Immediate seces-
sion (1860), 221; with others
withdraws from Congress to or-
ganize Confederacy, 225; elected
President of Confederacy, 226;
North's hatred of, 301; im-
prisoned by Pres. Johnson, 329;
attacked by Blaine, 346.
Davis, Rebecca Harding (Mrs.),
describes terrors of Civil war in
border states, 242.

Dawes, Henry L., in House, 284,

Dayton, William L., Vice-Pres-
idential candidate (1856), 129.
Declaration of Independence,
clause in regarding wrongs of
slave trade suppressed, 9.
DeForest, J. W., 209.
Delaware, votes against exten-
sion of slave trade, 13; rejects
Thirteenth amendment, 262,
276; rejects Fifteenth amend-
ment, 315.
Democratic party (see Dem-
ocrats), power of South in, 185;
extreme South breaks up, 187;
Alex. H. Stephens explains
move, 189; geographical lines
of in campaign of 1860, 192.

Democratic sentiment, growth of, Dorsey, Stephen W., in Grant

faction, 344.

Douglas, Stephen A., sketch of,
112; introduces "Kansas-Ne-
braska" bill to aid his Pres.
candidature, 112 ff; doctrine of
'popular sovereignty," 150; sup-
ports Republicans on Lecompton
bill, 151; returns to Democrats
and becomes Senator, 153; fa-
mous debates of with Lincoln,
180; elected U. S. Senator, 181;
struggle of, with extreme South
on Democratic platform (1860),
185; great power of in con-
vention; principles of; follow-
ers defy Southern Democracy,
186; nominated for President,
188; denounces secession; pop.
vote for, 194; assails Lincoln's
position, proposes plans to con-
ciliate South, 233; supports
Lincoln, 235.
Douglass, Frederick, 96.
"Dred," anti-slavery novel, 123 ff.
Dred Scott decision, 147 ff.
DuBois, Prof., 5; 379; on need of
higher education for negroes,
398, 399.
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 379.
Duncan, James, 38.
Durell, E. H. (Judge), in Louisi-
ana election struggle, 341.
EDUCATION, of negroes, 37; urged
by Beecher, 279; nat'l, of negroes
neglected, 325, 326; higher, for
negroes, 358, 377 ff, 398 ff;
Blair bill for local aid to, on
basis of existing illiteracy, 372,
404; of negroes undertaken by
Southern whites, 373; standard
of in South being raised, 381;
efforts to restrict for negroes,
unjust Kentucky law, 385; esti-
mate of amt. paid out for negro
education to date, 388; improved
industrial for negroes, 388; of
negro presents great difficulty,
396-7; amount spent by South
for edu. of negro in past 30
years, 397; problems of in
South, 397 ff; need of higher for
negroes, 398-9; gov't aid to in
South advocated, 404.

21, 29.

Democrats, opposed to strong
central gov't, 21; favor annex-
ing Texas, 75; nominate Cass
for President, 81; combine with
Free Soilers, 92; nominate
Pierce for President, desert Free
Soilers, 93; vote for Kansas-
Nebraska bill, 114; in Republi-
can party, 127; platform (1856),
campaign, Buchanan candidate
of, 128; uphold Ostend man-
ifesto, 129; divided over Le-
compton constitution, 151; con-
vention of 1860, 185 ff; delegates
from S. C. and Gulf States
leave, 187; adjourns, 188; regu-
lar convention at re-meeting
nominates Douglas and Johnson,
seceders nominate Breckinridge
and Lane, 188; inharmonious in
North, 253; gain in 1862, 261;
nominate McClellan for Pres-
idency, defeated, 265; in Con-
gress of 1865-6, 284; hold con-
vention of 1868, repudiate
reconstruction acts, favor re-
pudiation, nominate Seymour,
313; regain control in many
Southern States, 323; join In-
dependent Republicans, 328; in-
dorse Greeley's nomination, In-
dependent Democrats nominate
O'Conor, 329; organize resist-
ance to Republicans in South
and begin intimidation, 339 ff;
in Congress of 1875-6, 346;
nominate Tilden for Presi-
dent, 347; claim election,
348 ff.

Denison, John, Dr., characterizes
Gen. Samuel Armstrong, 357.
Devens, Charles, Attorney-Gen-

eral under Hayes, 353.
Dickinson, Edward, helps organize
Republican party, 114.
Dickinson, John, opinion of slave

trade, 12.
"Disfranchisement," paper on, by

Charles W. Chestnutt, 384.
District of Columbia, slavery abol-
ished in, 251.

Dix, John A. (Gen.), in Buchan-
an's cabinet, 224.

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