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be measured only by the number of years more than scholarship that made him the spent, grave mistakes may occur, discord great power with his boys. Mark Hopkins' will creep into what should be a happy scholarship might have been an inspiration family united in efforts to uplift humanity. to all of us, but it wasn't his scholarship In measuring experience the question alone that Garfield wanted at the other end should not be How much? but What kind ? of the well-known log. as a preparation for special work in the high With reasonable scholarship, a man of school. But with the right kind of char- strong personality-a manly inan-should acter, the right kind of experience, the right never be rejected for one of greater scholarkind of personality, scholarship becomes a ship and weaker personality-one with less power to inspire our pupils to pure think
It is a great misfortune ing, right living. All these considerations that our diplomas do not have a place in will be more carefully weighed by superin- which to record the pupil's supply of that tendent and principal than by those not far from common quality-common sense. specially fitted for this work.
If this could be done and the record could The retention of members of the high be relied on, fewer mistakes would be made school faculty should be in the same hands in the selection of teachers. as the selection, and for the same reasons. May we in all kindness and friendliness Frequently the perverse member of the suggest that those employing teachers faculty will be taken from us by greater would be greatly assisted if heads of insti. inducements elsewhere. When the right tutions of learning would exercise a little man is secured, it pays to encourage him more candor, a shade more discrimination, and keep him contented. A plan somewhat in recommending their young people to like that in use in Harrisburg would proba- places; would bear just a little more in bly result in holding many desirable teach- mind that placing their graduates is only ers. A fair salary is fixed for the first year one side of the obligation they owe, and with an advance each year until a fair that the employer is entitled to frankness maximum is reached. These rules are quite as much as is the pupil to friendusually worded to work both ways-increase liness. for good work, decrease for poor. The first As another qualification, would it be is an incentive to improvement, but it is possible to suggest without offense that questionable if a reduction in salary would most of the teachers in the high school prove an incentive. If the teacher does not should be men? We believe that every deserve his increase, a new teacher who will such school of any considerable size should should be secured.
employ at least one woman, but the majority With the varying conditions in different should be men. We believe, too, that high schools there can be no fixed or abso- where women are employed they should lute standard of qualifications. All the receive exactly the same pay as men for the requisites of a good teacher elsewhere are same work. The ladies may equal the men in required, but the scholarship must be scholarship, in tact, in skill, in fidelity. It greater, the view broader, and the person- is better, too, to choose a strong woman in ality stronger. The nearest we can come to preference to a weak man. Probably the a standard of scholarship is that of the col- strongest reason for this greater number of lege course, though this is also a variable men is caused by the growing tendency in quantity.
our cities particularly to employ women in This age of specialists finds its represent practically all the grades below the high atives in the H. S. Faculty. Our teachers school, so that it is quite probable that a are specialists in science or mathematics, or pupil will reach the high school without Latin or nusic, and we require of them having come under the control of a male through preparation for these fields. This teacher with his more vigorous discipline is sometimes carried too far when the strong, and his sterner influence. If he comes to all around man, who applies for a place is this grade without having been taught by rejected because he has not broadened (I a man, it is very important that this dealmost said narrowed) himself by taking up ficiency should be supplied as soon as posa specialty so that his sun rises and sets on sible on entrance. In addition to this science for example. It seems that this is reason there are some subjects that had betgoing too far, for after all the great requisiteter, in the great majority of cases, be taught for the high school is the Man. There is no by men-mathematics or science, for inintention to belittle the departmental sys- stance. tem, but I am far from sympathizing with A great need of the high school is the the narrowness that will not accept the man establishment of departments or schools for whose personality will strongly influence the special training of teachers for this the pupils for good at a time when character work. A young man fresh from college is rapidly crystallizing. I do not wish to with his little experience fitting him for be understood either as decrying scholar- high school work is all at sea. General ship. It can never be too broad, but I fear regulations for the management of the that the other elements that make for char- school are either a mystery or a lot of red acter building are belittled. Dr. Arnold tape adopted expressly to curb his individwas a ripe scholar, but it was something ' uality. The handling of his own classes so as to secure the maximum result with the The members of the high school faculty minimum loss of time is to be gained after are subject to the same relations as those of much experience. In other words, the com- the other grades—the School Board exercises munity pays at both ends-pays the teacher the same authority, they are just as much for learning in its schools and loses a large subject to the rules and regulations of a part of the training for its children. This general character as the other teachers, with difficulty is one that appeals more particu- the difference that the individual responsi. larly to the boroughs and the smaller cities, bility is not felt so keenly because there is for the larger cities can afford to pay to more dependence on the principal, or some take our product from us when we have other members of the faculty will look after made him useful. A suggestion in pass- the matter. ing-the training of a new teacher in your The menibers of the faculty are just as school is greatly lessened if he is himself much under the supervision of the superinthe graduate of a good high school. The tendent as are the teachers of the elementary only remedy seems to be to increase the schools, with the difference that their resupply of teachers properly trained for this quests and recommendations usually go to work. When we consider that one-sixth of the superintendent through the principal, all our teachers in graded schools are either and the superintendent's directions and high school teachers or supervisors; that suggestions go to the teacher through the breaks in the ranks of our supervisors are principal, except in matters noticed during usually filled by high school teachers; that the superintendent's visits to see the work in our cities particularly, the graduates of of the individual teacher. The tactful suthese high schools furnish a large propor- perintendent knows the importance of this tion of the elementary teachers of that city recognition of the principal as a means of -when we consider all these things, is it communication between himself and the any wonder we are impressed with the high school faculty. It relieves him of much necessity for the special training of the time, of much annoyance in dealing with teachers of these schools? We are getting individual difficulties, the details of which to depend less and less on the old adage are much better understood by the principal, that teachers are born, not made; and we and most important of all, it enables him to are working on the theory that the born place the responsibility for successful work teacher needs much training to be “made" where it belongs-on the high school prin. according to our ideals.
cipal. With your permission, I will quote from Dealing, as they do, with the same pupils, the report of the Committee of Fifteen : it is sometimes difficult for the members of “High school teaching and discipline can the faculty to keep their relations with one be that neither of the grammar school nor another on the ever plane, of everythiog for of the college, but is sui generis. To recog- the common good, so necessary in a large nize this truth and the special differences is high school. Among the dangers incident vital to success. This recognition comes to these close relations with other teachers only from much experience at great loss, a few may be named : and partial failure, or by happy intuition One of the most general is a spirit of not usually to be expected or by definite in rivalry-a desire in the first place to have struction and direct practice. Success in pupils feel that you know so much more teaching depends upon conformity to prin- about the other teacher's work than he does ciples and these are not a part of the mental and how much better you could teach his equipment of every educated person.
subjects than he does, or how much better These considerations and others are the the pupils get along in your classes than in occasion of a growing conviction, wide- his. This sort of rivalry, if mutual, results spread in this land, that secondary teachers in injury to the tone of the school and soon should be trained for their work even more causes the pupils to lose respect for the carefully than elementary teachers are teachers engaging in it. This jealous spirit trained. This conviction is manifested in takes another form sometimes in endeavors the efforts to secure normal schools adapted to win popularity in the school, but the to training teachers for secondary schools, keen-sighted pupils soon see through this notably in Massachusetts and New York, and the teacher's influence is weakened. and in the numerous professorships of peda- The narrow, critical, jealous, self-seeking gogy established in rapidly-increasing num- teacher has as little place in a high school bers under colleges and universities. faculty as elsewhere, but a slight tendency
“The training of teachers for secondary in that direction is much more likely to be schools is in several essential aspects the developed in the close relations of a faculty same as that for teachers of elementary than it is between grade teachers, where schools. Both demand scholarship, theory each is monarch of all he surveys. Nowhere and practice. The degree of scholarship is there a better place for applying the required for secondary teachers is by com- golden rule than in the relations that should mon consent fixed at a collegiate education. exist between the members of a high school No one, with rare exceptions, should be faculty. employed to teach in a high school who has We are accustomed usually to identify not this fundamental preparation."
child-study with the elementary school. Nowhere is it so important as in the high The only remedy is the good judgment of school, where both physically and morally the teacher, coupled with the above-menthe children are passing through a most tioned qualities. For we may all recognize dangerous period of their lives. He is a that there is a point at which the benefit to poor teacher indeed whose energies are not the individual must give place to the genbent to use every effort to help them safely
eral good. through these trying years.
This leads us to the question of the attiIn the relation of the Faculty to the pupils tude of the faculty on the question of prothere are dangers just as great for the moting. There are the two extreme views school as are jealousy and self seeking on of sifting to the extreme and of slipping the part of the teachers. The tendency through to the extreme. I scarcely know sometimes is to assign a lesson, call up the which is worse, but I do know which is class, expect every one to be up to the mark easier for the teacher's next year's work, in every point, and dismiss the class with when he knows these same pupils will be wonder that some pupils fail to get out the his another year. Good judgment must work, and lament the fact that the pupils strive to arrive at some happy mean between are so dull, when in many cases the fault is sacrificing the individual for the glory of entirely with the teacher in assigning a the school and lowering the grade of the lesson without the pupil's being thoroughly school for the sake of the individual. Here prepared for it, or in making the explana- is where the opinion of the teacher must be tion a means of exploiting his own knowl- guided by that of the principal, whose duty edge of the subject rather than leading the it is to grasp the whole work of each pupil, pupil to see for himself. The same teacher who can see light on one side though all in a test is surprised that his pupils have may be dark on the other. Frequent confernot measured up to his expectations and is ences of all the teachers with the principal, ready with harsh censure for each poor de- to go over this list of apparently hopeless linquent. The fault is usually due to the ones, will be productive of much good. It above method of presenting the subject, or is often a revelation to learn that the pupil to a lamentable lack of judgment as to what that is such a trial to you is above the averthe child should be expected to know as a age in something else. You have more reresult of the teacher's instruction. What I spect for the pupil. He soon finds it out, mean to lead up to is the very common fault with the result that his self-respect is of lack of self-examination on the part of aroused-then victory is yours; for let a the teacher. In cases of discipline and dis- pupil feel that he can do something as well couraging results of any kind, the teacher is as some one else, or better, and he is on the missing a splendid chance for self-improve highway to better work in other things, if ment when he searches for the causes of wisely directed. Perhaps this superiority failure outside of himself. Do not under- may come from Drawing or English or even stand me as taking the ground that the foot-ball. I have in mind several poor pupil is always unfortunate and the teacher pupils now doing fair work whose inspiraalways wrong in every case in which the tion came from Drawing, and a boy in mind pupil fails to reach the teacher's standard. this year the excellence of whose record in I am citing an extreme case, and yet one foot-ball made him ashamed of his scholastic that you have all met with in your experi. record, and the latter is fast approaching
It is the same teacher that thinks from near the bottom to the average of his that his success with his class is measured class. by the work done by his best pupils, with- When did the turning point come to you? out recognizing the fact that there are pupils Was it a great revolution in your nature or in every class that will do excellent work was it a kind word, an encouraging smile, with very little assistance. It was the sin- that awakened within you a consciousness ters that the Great Teacher called to re- of power that is still your inspiration? What pentance; and, judged by his standard-it a blessed reward it is to learn in after years is the helpfulness we can show to those that yours was the awakening word or the most needing it-it is what we can do for inspiring smile or the helping hand! If I them that measures our success.
make any plea to-night or leave any thought But there are in nearly every class pupils with you, let it be the determination that whose mental equipment com pels them to everything our pupils have a right to expect take two years to do the work of one, whose from us will be given by us freely, heaped parents (and often their own wishes) keep
and running over. them in school. They do not belong in the It is the relation existing between the grade below because probably two years Principal and his faculty that is at once the there have enabled them to “absorb" suffi- most simple and yet the most complex. The cent to entitle them to pass on. For such difficulty seems to be solved again by copupils kindness, sympathy, and patience operation. With it, everything is possible; are the only hopeful remedies. Frequently, without it, nothing. The attitude of the however, the amount of time required to Principal should be that of kindly helpfuldevelop a art of the lesson with one of ness, while that of the faculty should be unthese pupils eats up so much time that the yielding loyalty, ready helpfulness and the class suffers.
desire to subordinate individual work and
preferences to the general good. The meas- the principal's lot in his relations with his ure of the individuality of the teacher and teachers. “It might be interesting, too, to the management of the Principal furnishes enumerate the qualities of an ideal seconda much more complex problem than that ary teacher, but time does not permit. I between the Superintendent and the grade shall say only that I began the relation of teacher. The Principal like the Superin. principal to faculty with helpfulness, and I tendent has the teacher, subject to sugges- wish to conclude the relation of the teachers tion and helpful criticism, use his own in- to the principal in the two words-helpfuldividuality as to methods of instruction and ness and cooperation. discipline in his own room. On the other We have in a somewhat rambling paper hand the Principal makes the general regu- endeavored to cover some phases of a sublations that are demanded by the general ject that is sufficiently wide for a dozen good. With these general regulations, papers. We trust, if we do nothing else, we usually considered beforehand with the fac- have made clear our opinion on a few points: ulty, he expects prompt, cheerful, loyal ist. We think the faculty, assisted by the compliance--not for the pleasure of the grammar school teachers, can do much to Principal, but for the general good. Too bridge the gap between the grammar and frequently a teacher believes he is showing high school. his individuality in lack of acquiescence in 2d. The high school should not be rethese regulations, when he is displaying garded as a separate institution distinct narrowness of thought, lack of punctuality, from the other parts of the school system or carelessness.
and outside the jurisdiction of superio. For example, in signals for class changes, tendent. a teacher is finishing a little important work 3d. That superintendent and principal that will take only a minute or two. He should decide on the selection and retention exercises his independence by holding his of members of high school faculty. class for his one or two minutes, with the 4th. That high school teachers should be probability that he has taken that many specially educated and trained for their minutes from several other teachers and work. from a large part of the school. That is not 5th. That the majority of the high school coöperation of the helpful sort.
teachers should be men. These general regulations systematize the 6th. That in the high school coöperation school, teach the pupils order and system, of principal and faculty is the great reand are very important means of rounding quisite for success. out the education of the pupils. The prin- 7th. Finally a plea for helpfulness and cipal must exercise wise supervision over kindness and sympathy for the weaker ones the assignment of lessons to see that good among our pupils. judgment is used so that the pupils are not overworked. This overloading of pupils is
THE HIGH SCHOOL-ITS GOVERNMENT. much more likely to occur in the high
This branch of the discussion of the school than below it, because in the lower High School question had been assigned grades all the work is assigned by one to Principal Walter L. Philips, of West teacher, while in the high school with Chester, who read the following paper: special teachers each one in his “enthusiasm of knowledge” is likely to assign
GOVERNMENT IN THE HIGH SCHOOL. what might be a very fair lesson if the There are two forms of high school gove pupil had nothing else to do. With a like ernment which I shall aim to discuss in the assignment by two or three other enthu- time allotted to me: (1) Student Co-operasiastic teachers we see how easily the over- tion, and (2) the so-called Monarchical plan. work occurs, leading to indifference on the In the first, student organizations of various part of the pupils, complaints from the kinds are formed to share the responsibility home, and lending color to many attacks for the management of the school; in the made on our common schools.
second, no responsibility for the government Another difficulty with departmental of the school is vested in any student orteachers is that they feel that their special ganization. Most of the early experiments work is the only work of any importance in this newer form of government, student connected with the school, and general co-operation through organizations, were regulations are made for the principal and made in the colleges; hence, reference to the the pupils. The resulting indifference to various steps by which it has come down to the general welfare reacts strongly on the us through these institutions will help us to school and weakens it, or must be offset by understand better the nature of this form of the earnest teachers whose conception of government. their work is sufficiently broad to help to Soon after the words “all men are created make up for the indifference of the recluse. equal” had been written and Independence In such cases the individual should be made had been declared, Thomas Jefferson recomto feel, if possible, that class room work is mended a plan of self-government for the only part of the usefulness of the ideal student body of the University of Virginia. member of a high school faculty.
Six discreet students were chosen, whose There are many other matters that fall to duty it was, sitting as a court of inquiry, to examine the facts of offences, propose minor brought in new policies and consequently punishments they thought proportioned to changes in discipline. Student Officials the offense, and make a report to the profes- over-estimated their importance and became sors, who commuted the offense. While this intoxicated with governmental powers. plan lasted but a year, it had its effect in Eventually, government became irksome. bringing about the recognition of the stu- There became a laxity in the enforcement dent as a responsible individual, and of of laws. The Attorney-General of Illinois modifying the iniquitous system of espion- decided that student officials had no right age. Other institutions were influenced by to assess taxes and collect fines. Finally, the experiment and the honor system is one in 1883, seventy-eight per cent. of the stuof the permanent results. During the first dents voted to discontinue the plan. two-thirds of the past century, most of the In 1873, a council of students in the Uniattempts at student co-operation were made versity of Maine was chosen to act as an in colleges and universities with doubtful intermediary body between faculty and studegrees of success. The court established dents. The historian of the council states by ihe students of Trinity College, Hartford, that better relations have been established Cont., about 1840, was not serious and was, between faculty and students, discipline has therefore, ineffectual. Its trials, however, become more effective and misdemeanors were the occasion of much wit and elo- have in large part been prevented. Atquence. A more serious tribunal existed tempts at Student Government in Univerfor a short time at Amherst. Laws supple-sity of South Carolina and of Indiana were menting the statutes of the college were marked with success for a few years only. authorized as the good of the institution Amherst established a College Senate in demanded. A House of Students and a 1883. It gave evidence of great success in Court of Justice were organized. The deci. controlling matters of discipline. A new sions of the judge were so just and the con- college administration was effected in 1894, duct of the officers so commendable, that the which was not in sympathy with the sysfaculty and students alike were pleased with tem, and a letter from the president states the innovation. Yale and Union College, 'The College Senate ceased to exist in of New York, had similar organizations for 1895." the suppression of rowdyism and general There are in general at least five distinct indecorum.
self governing plans discernible in colleges These experiments did not establish the and universities, (1) student courts for those efficiency of student organization for good cheating in examinations, (2) advisory comgovernment. Neither faculty nor student mittees to the faculty, (3) committees havbody was prepared for this innovation into ing more or less discipliuary power, (4) school effairs. Parents, as well as school committees for the maintenance of order in officials in general, could not comprehend dormitories, (5) student associations having any form of government for schools except nothing to do with discipline. the in loco parentis plan, which seemed the Letters were received from various instimost rational for youths who had just left tutions relative to the success of student the parental roof. The faculties could not government in examinations and other put implicit trust in their students. The phases of work. The attempts have been students knew that sympathy with the successful in those cases in which student movement was wanting on the part of the committees have been zealous in carrying faculty, and one after another the schemes out the details of the plan fearlessly and were abandoned.
with wisdom and tact, and when cordial Later attempts date from 1868, when a support is given by the faculty and decivery comprehensive scheme was inaugurated sions and penalties are sustained by it; and in the University of Illinois. The plan of when it is insisted that the best and most government was based on the Constitution reliable students only are elected to places of the United States. The legislative branch in the senates. It has by no means solved comprised the whole student body; the ex- the problem of successful college governecutive department was complete with its ment, neither has it reformed student bodies various officials. There were judges and to the extent that their government is not a courts; laws for preserving order, for regu- source of anxiety. Many of the best instilating gambling, drinking, destruction of tutions are without the plan. It is not property, etc. Fines ranged from a few esseniial to American colleges and universicents to several dollars. Officers were chosen ties, but rather incidental. from the students whose scholarship, wis- Let us now turn our attention to the dom and power of self.control were conspic- newer fields where experiments in pupil couous. Seriousness attended all the deliber- operation in government are being made, ations and good order was established and viz., the secondary schools. Being desirous maintained with little difficulty. Unsym. of learning the details of this plan of governpathetic students were in the minority and ment, how general its adoption has been, their influence had no appreciable effect on and with what degree of success it has been the success of the new movement. Defects, operated, the writer sent inquiry blanks to however, soon became apparent; new gov- the principals and superintendents of one erning boards, resulting from elections, hundred schools, requesting information