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FIRST EFFECTS OF SECESSION.

407

XXVI.

THE UNION-THE CONFEDERACY.

IF Hudibras was right in his as- / apprehensive, and paralyzed, it was sumption, that there is and can be no noted that at Baltimore, though no fighting where one party gives all the formal celebration was had, people blows—the other being content with seemed relieved and cheerful; the meekly and patiently receiving them, streets were gayly crowded, and busithen it might be plausibly contended ness was better. At Washington, Mr. that our great Civil War was initia- Garnett, of Virginia, exultingly anted by the bombardment of Fort Sum- nounced the fact of South Carolina's ter, or by the attempt to supply its secession in the House; whereupon, famishing garrison, some weeks after three or four Southrons clapped their Mr. Lincoln's inauguration. But Wit hands. There was no further public stands opposed to Reason in this case, manifestation in Congress; and none as in many others. The first at- north of the Virginia line, save in tempt in the interest of Secession to Wilmington, as aforesaid. dispossess the Union, by force, of any A mere handful of Federal troops, property or position held by it, even under Maj. Robert Anderson, watchthough not seriously opposed, was as ed rather than garrisoned the forts in truly an act of war as though it had Charleston harbor. Of these, Fori been desperately resisted, at the cost Moultrie, though the older and weakof hundreds of lives.

er, was mainly tenanted by the solThe Secession of South Carolina' | diers, being the more convenient to was hailed with instant and general the city; but it could not have been exultation by the plotters of Disunion held a day against a serious assault. in nearly every Slave State. There Its garrison found themselves sudwere celebrations, with parades, mu- denly surrounded by scowling, deadsic, cannon-firing, speeches, etc., only foes, too numerous to be resisted. that evening or the following day, at During the night of the 26th, Maj. New Orleans, Mobile, Memphis, etc. Anderson properly and prudently Even at Wilmington, Del., where the transferred his entire command to Secessionists were few indeed, the Fort Sumter, taking with them, or event was honored by a salute of after them, all provisions, munitions, a hundred guns. Senator Andrew etc., that could conveniently be transJohnson was still more honored, on ported. The removal was effected by the 22d, by being burned in effigy by means of two schooners, which made the Secessionists of Memphis. While several trips during the night, passthe Northern cities were anxious, ing directly by the harbor guard-boat * December 20, 1860.

at this time and under present circumstances,

means coërcion--war. When the forts are de* The Charleston Mercury of the 22d said:

manded and refused to be delivered up to those in "The garrison in our harbor will not be whom is invested the title of eminent domain, strengthened. The reënforcement of the forts, I and for whose defense and protection alone they

Nina, and affecting no concealment. an extensive transfer of arms, espeA full moon was shining in a clear cially of heavy ordnance, from the sky. When all that could be had Alleghany Arsenal near that place to been removed, the remaining gun- the South and South-West. That carriages, etc., were burnt, so as to such transfers had been quietly going prevent their use in any future at on for months, did not reconcile the tack upon Sumter. No resistance stanch Republicans of our Ameriwas offered; perhaps none of a seri- can Birmingham to further operaous nature could have been; for Maj. tions of the kind, now palpably in Anderson's act was evidently unan- the interest of Southern treason. A ticipated in Charleston ; but it was public meeting was called ; dispatches gravely complained of as a breach of sent to Washington; and an order obfaith-President. Buchanan, it was tained suspending the meditated transimplied, rather than distinctly al- fer. The citizens' meeting was held leged, having promised that the mil- on the evening of the 27th; and its itary status should not be changed, resolves, while they deprecated any

| lawless resistance to official orders, Anderson's movement sent a thrill called urgently on the President to through the hearts of many, who felt purge his Cabinet of every one known that we were silently drifting toward to be in complicity with treason or a sea of fraternal blood.

rebellion against the Federal GovAlmost simultaneously with this ernment and Union. transfer, a popular excitement was John B. Floyd, Secretary of War, aroused in Pittsburgh, Pa., by infor- resigned his post on the 29th, alleging mation that an order had been re- the course of the President, in refusceived from the War Department for ing to order Major Anderson back to were ceded and built up; and when, the Fed garrison and military stores and supplies to Fort eral Government showing a hostile purpose, it Sumter.” shall become necessary and proper for us to ob And The Charleston Mercury said: tain possession, then it will be right for the

“Major Anderson alleges that the movement world and Black Republicanism to expect that the State, by her authorities, will move in the

sponsibility, and that he was not aware of such premises. The people will obey the call for war,

an understanding. He is a gentleman, and we and take the forts."

will not impugn his word or his motives. But it The Charleston Courier of December 4, 1860, is due to South Carolina and to good faith that has a speech by Mr. Edward M'Crady at a Se the act of this officer should be repudiated by

the Government, and that the troops be removed cession meeting in that city a few days pre

forthwith from Fort Sumter.” viously, which concludes as follows: "I do not counsel any precipitate action; nor

* The order was as follows: do I fear anything from the forts—they are

“Send immediately to Ship Island, near Balize, ours, not merely in part. They were placed

(mouth of Mississippi), 46 cannon, and to Galthere on our soil for our protection; and, when | veston 78 cannon,' naming the kinds. ever the separation comes, they must fall into The schedule was as follows: our possession. They will be ours as surely as 21 ten-inch Columbiads, 15,200 lbs.=319,200 lbs. we secede; and we will secede as surely as the 21 eight-inch ditto 9,240 " =194,040 “. sun will rise to-morrow.”

4 32-pounders (iron), 7,250 6 = 29,000"

46 to Ship Island. * The Charleston Courier of the 29th said:

Total weight of metal, 542,240 lbs. “Major Robert Anderson, United States Army, has achieved the unenviable distinction of opening

| 23 ten-inch Columbiads, 15,200 lbs.=349,600 lbs.

48 eight-inch ditto 9,240 16 =443.520 6 civil war between American citizens by an act of gross breach of faith. He has, under counsels

7 32-pounders (iron), 7,250.“ = 50, 750 “ of a panic, deserted his post at Fort Moultrie, 78 to Galveston. and, under false pretexts, has transferred his

Total weight of metal, 843,870 lbs. SOUTH CAROLINA ON THE OFFENSIVE.

409

Fort Moultrie, as his reason. He as remained but five hours in Charlesserted that he had promised South ton; having learned within that time Carolina that no change should be that the rulers of South Carolina made in the disposition of our forces would make no promises and enter in Charleston harbor—which is ex- into no arrangements which did not ceedingly probable. He asked per recognize or imply the independence mission to “vindicate our honor, and of their State. He returned directly prevent civil war” by “ withdrawing to Washington, where his report was the Federal garrison altogether from understood to have been the theme the harbor of Charleston.” This not of a stormy and protracted Cabinet being accorded, he declared that he meeting. could no longer hold his office, Directly after Major Anderson's “ under my convictions of patriotism, removal to Fort Sumter, the Federal nor with honor.” The President arsenal in Charleston, containing mildly accepted his resignation, and many thousand stand of arms and a appointed Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, considerable quantity of military to succeed him.

stores, was seized by the volunteers, By the middle of December, Hon. now flocking to that city by direcCaleb Cushing, of Mass., was dis- tion of the State authorities; Castle patched to Charleston by President Pinckney, Fort Moultrie, and Sulli. Buchanan as a Commissioner or con- van's Island, were likewise occupied fidential agent of the Executive. His by them, and their defenses vigorerrand was a secret one. But, so ously enlarged and improved. The far as its object was allowed to tran Custom-House, Post-Office, etc., were spire, he was understood to be the likewise appropriated, without resistbearer of a proffer from Mr. Buchanan ance or commotion; the Federal offithat he would not reënforce Major cers having them in charge being Anderson, nor initiate any hostilities original, active, and ardent Secessionagainst the Secessionists, provided ists. The lights in the light-houses they would evince a like pacific spi were extinguished, and the buoys in rit, by respecting the Federal author the intricate channel of the harbor ity down to the close of his Adminis- were removed, so that no ocean craft tration--now but a few weeks distant. could enter or depart without the Gen. Cushing had been in Charleston guidance of a special pilot. Addia few months earlier as an anti- tional fortifications, defending the Douglas delegate to, and President city and commanding the harbor apof, the Democratic National Conven- proaches, were commenced and pushtion, and then stood in high favor ed rapidly forward; some of them with her aristocracy: on this occa- having direct reference, offensive and sion, however, he was soon given to defensive, to Fort Sumter. And still understand that he had fallen from the volunteers came pouring in; grace; that his appearance in the nearly all from the interior of South character of an advocate or represent Carolina; though abundant proffers tative of Federal authority had cast of military aid were received from a sudden mildew on his popularity in all parts of the South. The first that stronghold of Secession. He company from another State, con

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sisting of eighty men, was organized. The firm of Russell, Majors & in Savannah, and reached Charleston Waddell held a very large contract December 23d. Capt. N. L. Coste, for the transportation of army supof the U. S. revenue service, in com- plies from Leavenworth and other mand of the cutter William Aiken, points on the Missouri river to the in Charleston harbor, turned her over army stationed at Camp Floyd, in to the State authorities, and enlisted, Utah; under which they were to rewith his crew, in the service of South ceive from the Treasury about one Carolina. This day, the Palmetto, million dollars per annum. The conor South Carolina, flag was formally tractors being pressed for funds, Mr. raised over the Custom-House and Floyd had been induced to accept the Post-Office at Charleston; and their drafts on his department, in anit was announced next morning that ticipation of future service, to the Gov. Pickens had been tendered the amount of nearly or quite a million services of volunteers from Georgia of dollars. These acceptances, being and Alabama, as well as from all manifestly irregular, could with diffiparts of South Carolina.

culty, and but to a moderate extent, Mr. Jacob Thompson, Secretary of be negotiated; so that the embarrassthe Interior, having left his post to ment of the contractors was thereby visit North Carolina in the character scarcely mitigated. Under these cir-. of a Secession Commissioner from cumstances, it appears, Mr. Russell Mississippi, a heavy defalcation was had been made acquainted with Mr. discovered in his Department. A Bailey, and had, by some means, inSouth Carolina clerk named Godard duced the latter to supply him with Bailey, who was custodian of a large a large amount of bonds from the amount of State bonds belonging to safe under his control, substituting the Indian Trust Fund, had abstract- therefor Mr. Floyd's acceptances ed therefrom bonds and coupons aforesaid. The bonds he had hypoamounting in the aggregate to $870,- thecated in Wall-street and raised 000, and had disappeared. Mr. money thereon. As our national sky Thompson was notified by letter of darkened, the bonds depreciated, and the fraud, and, returning, called at the lenders called on Mr. Russell for once upon the President to announce additional security, which he furit. An investigation was forthwith nished in the shape of more bonds, ordered; but neither the key of the supplied by Bailey; who, finding safe nor the clerk who had charge of himself inextricably involved, adit could be found. Mr. Bailey was dressed, on the 18th, a letter to Secreat length discovered, but could not tary Thompson, disclosing the more or would not produce the key. The material facts, and pleading that he Department was then surrounded by had taken the bonds only to save the a police force, which no clerk was honor of Secretary Floyd, which, he allowed to pass, the safe broken open, was assured, had been compromised and the extent of the robbery dis- *by his advances to Russell & Co. covered. An examination of Mr. He did this on the faith of promises Bailey elicited the following facts: that all should be made right in due

5 December 24th.

6 December 25th.

AN

THE UNION GOING TO WRECK.

411 season: but, being called upon by | tion that the course on which the the Indian Bureau for the coupons, President had decided was a fatally payable January 1st, on the abstracted mistaken one, and led directly to securities, he found himself unable to National subversion and ruin. Atrespond, and was driven to a confes- torney-General Black—a lifelong and sion. The Government being at intimate personal friend of the Presithat moment penniless, the revenue dent—took charge, by his direction, shrunk to less than half its ordinary of the State Department. dimensions by the stoppage of im- Messrs. R. W. Barnwell, James L. portations, and the necessity for bor- Orr, and ex-Gov. Adams, Commisrowing urgent, this development, sioners from the State of South Carocasting doubt on the integrity of lina, reached Washington on the men high in authority, gave a stag- 26th, under instructions to negotiate gering blow to the public credit. with the Federal Executive a partiThe Grand Jury at Washington in- tion of all the properties and interdicted' Floyd on two counts: first, ests of the sovereign and independent for malfeasance; second, for conspi- State of South Carolina in the Union racy with Bailey and Russell to de- from which she had seceded. Every fraud the Government; but he was one of them knew perfectly that the by this time far from that city, ab- President had no more constitutional sorbed in the work of luring Virginia power or right to enter upon such a into the toils of treason.

negotiation than he had to cede the The disintegration of the Cabinet country bodily to Russia, France, or had commenced so early as December Great Britain. They were, of course, 10th, when Mr. Howell Cobb, thor- received civilly, and treated respectoughly in the counsels of the seces- fully, but informed that the President sionists, resigned the control of the could only regard and meet them as Treasury, whereof the bankrupt and citizens of the United States. They hopeless condition supplied him with left, on their return, nine days afteran excuse, though not the reason, for ward; sending farewell letters to the his retirement. Mr. Philip Francis Thomas, of Md., previously Commis- samples of diplomatic suavity. sioner of Patents, was appointed in Georgia having given a large popuhis stead. Gen. Lewis Cass resigned lar majority for Secession, her authe post of Secretary of State on the thorities immediately took military 14th, directly after a long and ex- possession of the Federal arsenal at cited Cabinet session. He did so Augusta, as also of Forts Pulaski and because he could not consent to ren- | Jackson, commanding the approaches der himself responsible for, or be im- by sea to Savannah. plicated in, the President's refusal to North Carolina had not voted to reënforce, provision, and sustain Maj. secede, yet Gov. Ellis simultaneously Anderson and his little force, holding seized the U. S. Arsenal at Fayettethe forts in Charleston harbor. He ville, with Fort Macon, and other did not rush into the newspapers ; fortifications commanding the apyet he made no secret of his convic- proaches to Beaufort and Wilming

Y

On the 30th.

8 January 2, 1861.

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