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and scarcely erer in the Tuscan. Each column has twenty-four flutes, and each Aute is hollowed in exactly a quadrant of a circle: but the Doric has but twenty. Between the flutes are little spaces that separate them, which Vitruvius calls stria, and we lists: though, in the Doric, the flutes are frequently made to join to one another, without any intermediate space at all ; the list being sharpened off to a thin edge, which forms a part of each flute.
Flux, a general term, in chemistry, to denote any substance or mixture added to assist in the fusion of minerals. The fluxes made use of in experiments consist usually of alkalies, which render earthy mixtures fusible, by converting them into glass ; or by converting glass itself into powder. See GLASS.
FLUXIONS, a method of calculation invented by sir Isaac Newton. In this branch of mathematics, magnitudes of every kind are supposed to be gene rated by motion. This science is einployed in the investigation of curves, in finding the contents of solids, and computing their surfaces ; in finding the centres of gravities and oscillation of different bodies; the attractions of bodies under different forms; the direction of wind which has the greatest effect on an engine ; and in the solution of many other interesting and important problems.
Flyers, in architecture, such stairs as go straight, and do not wind round ; nor have the steps made tapering, but the fore and back part of each stair, and the ends, respectively parallel to one another ; so that if one flight do not carry you to your intended beight, there is a broad half spaçe, whence VOL. II.
you begin to fly again, with steps every where of the same length and breadth, as before.
FLYING, the progressive motion of a bird, or other winged animal, in the liquid air. The parts of birds chiefly concerned in flying are the wings, by which they are sustained or wafted along. The tail, WiHoughby, Ray, and many others, imagine to be principally employed in steering and turning the body in the air, as a rudder : but Borelli has put it beyond all doubt, that this is its least use, and that it is to assist the bird in its ascent and descent in the air, and to obviate the vacillations of the body and wings : for the turning to this or that side is performed by the wings, and inclinations of the body, and but very little by the help of the tail. The flying of a bird, in effect, is quite a different thing from the rowing of a vessel. Birds do not vibrate their wings towards the tail, as oars are struck towards the stern, but waft them down wards : nor does the tail of the bird cut the air at right angles, as the rudder does the water ; but is disposed horizontally, and preserves the same situation what way soever the bird turns.
In a word, as a vessel is turned about on its centre of gravity to the right, by a brisk application of the oars to the left, so a bird in beating the air with its right wing alone, towards the tail, will turn its fort part to the left. Thus pigeons, changing their course to the left, would labour with their right wing, keeping the other almost at rest. Birds of a long neck alter their course by the inclinations of their head and neck, which altering the course. of gravity, the bird will proceed in a new direction.
9. * The manner of Flying” is this the bird first bends his legs, and springs with a violent leap from the ground; then opens and expands the joints of bis wings, so as to make a right line perpendicular to the sides of his body: thus the wings, with all the feathers therein, constitute one continued ląmina. Being now raised a little above the horizon, and vibrating the wings with great force and velacity perpendicularly against the subject air, that Auid resists those successions, both from its natural inactivity and elasticity, by means of which the whole body of the bird is protruded. The resistance the air makes to the withdrawing of the wings, and consequently the progress of the bird, will be so much the greater, as the waft or stroke of the fan of the wing is longer :, but as the force of the wing is continually diminished by this resistance, when the two forces come to be in equilibrio, the bird will remain suspended in the same place ; for the bird only ascends so long as the arch of air the wing describes, makes a resistance equal to the excess of the specific gravity of the bird above the air. If the air, therefore, be so rare as to give way with the same velocity as it is struck withal, there will be no resistance, and consequently the bird can never mount. Birds never fly upwards in a per pendicular line, but always in a parabola. In a direct ascent, the natural and artificial tendency would oppose and destroy each other, so that the progress would be very slow. In a direct descent they would aid one another, so that the fall would be too precipitate.
FLYING, Artificiul, that attempted by men, by the assistance of mechanics. The art of flying has
been attempted by several persons in all ages. The Leucadians, out of superstition, are reported to have had a custom of precipitating a man from a high cliff into the sea, first fixing feathers, variously expanded, round his body, in order to break his fall. Friar Bacon, who lived nearly five hundred years ago, not only affirms the art of flying possible, but assures us, that he himself knew how to make an engine wherein a man sitting might be able to convey himself through the air, like a bird ; and farther adds, that there was then one who had tried it with success : but this method, which consisted of a couple of large, thin, hollow 'copper globes, exhausted of the air, and sustaining a person who sat thereon, Dr. Hook shows to be impracticable. The philosophers of Charles the Second's reign, were much busied about this art. The famous bishop Wilkins was so confident of success in it, that he says, he does not question but, in future ages, it will be as usual to hear a man call for his wings, when he is going a journey, as it is now to call for his boots.
FLYING-army, a small body under a lieutenant or major-general, sent to harrass the country, intercept convoys, prevent the enemy's incursions, cover its own garrisons, and keep the enemy in continual alarm.
FLYING-fish, a name given by English writers to several species of fish, which, by means of their long fins, have a method of keeping themselves out of the water a long time.
Focus, in geometry and conic sections, a point where the rays reflected from all parts of a curve eoncur and meet.
Fog, a meteor consisting of gross vapours, floating near the surface of the earth.
Foil, among jewellers, a thin leaf of metal placed under a precious stone, in order to make it look transparent, , and give it an agreeable different colour, either deep or pale : thus, if you want a stone to be of a pale colour, put a foil of that colour under it; or if you would have it deep, lay a dark one under it. These foils are made either of copper, gold, or gold and silver together : the copper foils are commonly known by the name of Nuremberg or German foils.
FOLIATING of looking-glasses, the spreading the plates over, after they are polished, with quicksilver, &c. in order to reflect the image. It is performed thus : a thin blotting paper is spread on the table, and sprinkled with fine chalk ; and then a fine laminą or leaf of tin, called foil, is laid over the paper ; upon this mercury is poured, which is to be distributed equally over the leaf with a hare's foot, or cotton: over this is ļaid a clean paper, and over that the glass-plate, which is pressed down with the right-hand, and the paper drawn gently qut with the left : this being done, the plate is covered with a thicker paper, and laden with a greater weight, that the superfluous mercury may be driven out, and the tin adhere more closely to the glass. When it is dried, the weight is removed, and the looking-glass is complete.
FOLKMOTE, was the commou council of all the inhabitants of a city or town, ar borough ; or according to Spelman the folkmote was a sort of annual parliament or convention of the bishops, thapes, aldermen, and freemen op every May.day.