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tons burthen, to be fully plated, and were ex-
Russia (southern ports)..... none of them are yet completed. The second
(ports without the Baltic). class, of which the Warrior, Achilles, and the Prussia...
$75 Black Prince are completed, are partially plated, Hanover. and have a speed of 14 knots. The third class Hamburg. are 4,060 tons burthed, with a speed of 12 knots. Holland......... They are fully plated. *The fourth class are Belgium.... 3,668 tons, fully plated, and will have a speed France (ports without the Mediterranean of 11.45 knots. The fifth class were begun as
(ports within ditto)...... wooden line-of-battle ships, but are to be fully
Azores... plated. Their tonnage is 4,045 tons. Two of Spain (ports within the Mediterranean).. them have engines of 1,000 horse-power, and Italy --Sicily...
1.23 are expected to make 12.41 knots an hour; the Myria, Croatia, and Dalmatia. other two have engines of 800 horse-power, and
Greece... will have a speed of 113 knots.
Turkish dominions-European Turkey. The Railways of Great Britain.-The fol- Natolia, or Asia Minor.. lowing statistics of British railways give some Syria and Palestine.... idea of the magnitude of the railway interest.
Egypt (ports on the Mediterranean).. 865,779 The number of miles of rail track is, in round Western Coast of Africa (not particularly
British possessions on the Gold Coast...
T numbers, 10,000; the number of employées
designated).... 100,000, the capital invested, $1,750,000,000; St. Helena. the annual revenue, $140,000,000. The num- British possessions in South Africaber of locomotives is 6,000; of passenger cars,
Cape of Good Hope...
Natal. 15,000; of freight cars and trucks, 180,000. Mauritius. The number of miles run in 1861, 195,000,000; India (British possessions)—Bombay.. 3,277 the number of cattle and other animals con
176, veyed, 12,600,000; the amount of freight, 90,
Bengal... 000,000 tons, for the carriage of which $75,
Ceylon 000,000 was paid.
India-French possessions.. Factory Statistics of Great Britain and Ire- Philippine and Ladrone Islands.. land.-In 1861, there were in the United King- New South Wales.... dom 6,378 factories, containing 36,450,000 spin, Nova Scotia and Cape Breton..
19.575 dles, and 490,866 power looms, which required Bermudas.... the services of 230,564 hand-loom weavers. Bahamas and Turk's Islands. The whole number of hands employed in these St. Christopher..
Montserrat... factories was 775,534, of whom 308,273 were
St. Vincent.. males, and 407,201 females; an average of 121
Barbadoes. hands to each factory. The aggregate power Grenada....
6.1 required for driving the machinery was 404,- Tobago... 633 horse-power. In England and Wales there Trinidad
Demerara and Essequibo.. were 5,652 factories, employing 642,607 hands;
Cuba in Ireland, 158 factories, employing 37,872 per- Porto Rico....
10 sons; in Scotland, 568 factories, with 95,055 St. Thomas... operatives. Lancashire is the great manufac- Dutch Guiana.. turing hive of England, having 2,144 fac- Hayti and the Dominican Republic..
United States of America on ibe Atlantic tories, 22,067,703 spindles, and 863,531, power.
Northern States... looms.
Southern States.. Newspaper Statistics of the British Isles.-At New Granada–ports in the Atlantic. the close of the year 1861, there were published Peru..... in the United Kingdom 1,165 newspapers, &
States of the Argentine Confederation.... little more than double the number published
Total imported during the year, cwts.....13,-*-? in 1851. Of these, 845 were issued in Eng. land; 33 in Wales; 139 in Scotland; 134 in GREAT EASTERN, STEAMER. This stepIreland ; 14 in the islands of the British Seas. er was built at London and launched in the sest In England there were 43 daily papers ; 1 in 1859. She is estimated at 20,000 tons burti Wales; 9 in Scotland ; 16 in Ireland; and 2 in and is propelled by paddles on her sides and a the British Islands. Beside these, there are 516 screw at her stern. Her hull is made of int: magazines and reviews, of which 213 are of a her masts are iron cylinders, and her tsa decidedly religious character.
shrouds are composed of iron wire. Importation of Cotton in 1861.—The following length is 680 feet, and the breadth of beans table gives the entire importation of cotton into feet. the United Kingdom during the year 1861, dis- This great ship, after leaving the lens. tinguishing the countries from which it was England, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon € imported. The whole quantity was equivalent Tuesday the 10th of September, bound to Ne to 2,809,277 American bales :
York, proceeded all well until the afternoon
the following Thursday, by which time she was tons, and instead of being attached to the ship about 280 miles westward of Cape Clear. Then in the ordinary way, by pintles, it is supported she was met by a fresh breeze, which speedily by a collar resting upon friction rollers, the swelled into a hurricane of most destructive lower end being stepped in a shoe which exviolence, yet seemingly but partial in its range. tends backwards from the bottom of the vessel.
At this time one of the forward boats broke The arrangement is represented in the accomfrom one of her davits, and hung suspended panying engravings, a being the rudder post of from the other. Efforts were made to secure wrought iron, 10 inches in diameter, and c the the boat, but these proving unavailing, the cap- supporting collar. This collar is of cast iron, tain ordered it to be cut away, at the same time and consists of a central sleeve fitting upon the directing the paddles to be stopped and the rudder-post; a flat bottom plate, with a groove helm to be put down, to bring the ship up in for the rollers, and six radiating flanges, 2 inches the wind, in order that the boat might drift in thickness. It is 18 inches in height, of coniclear of the wheel. The vessel did not answer cal form, pretty closely resembling in shape A her helm, but the boat fortunately went clear. church bell
. This conical collar is keyed to the The captain then directed several of the head rudder stem and secured by a massive nut, 15 sails to be hoisted for the purpose of bringing inches in diameter and 12 inches in length, her head up, but they had hardly been set which is screwed on the post above the collar. when they were blown to ribbons. Very It was just above this nut that the rudder stem shortly after that a terrific noise was heard in was broken, the fracture extending downward the engine-room, and on looking down, several into the nut. The idea occurred to Mr. Towle, large sheets of lead were seen knocking about that a large chain-cable might be wrapped with great violence from side to side. Just around the collar and connected with pulleys, then a heavy sea struck the ship as she was and in this way the rudder might be controlled. lurching, and almost immediately after a grating The objection to this plan was the small size noise was heard in the paddles. On examina- of the collar, (2 feet 9 inches in diameter at the tion, it was found that they were bent from base and 15 inches at the top,) giving a very their true position, and were scraping against short lever to resist the tremendous power the sides of the vessel. They, however, still of the waves against the broad rudder. This continued to revolve, but the captain, fearing difficulty he proposed to overcome by wrapping that they would tear holes in the sides of the successive coils of cable around the collar until ship, ordered them to be stopped, and trusted he had obtained a diameter sufficient to give entirely to the screw to get the vessel on. him the leverage required. He examined the During the whole of the remainder of the day collar to see if the cable could be secured to it, the gale blew fearfully, the sea running moun- and fortunately found holes some 3 inches in tains bigh, and the ship, not being able to head diameter through the bottom plate—a hole beto, rolling frightfully. Things thus continued tween each pair of the radial flanges. The until the following morning, when it was found plan formed was to place one end of each alterthat the paddles had been broken clean away. nate link of a heavy cable between each pair It was at the same time discovered that the top of the radial flanges of the collar, and secure of the rudder-post, a piece of iron 10 inches in the link in place by lashing it with a smaller diameter, had been smashed. The ship now chain passed repeatedly through the holes and lay quite helpless, like a log on the water, and around the flange and link. He measured the tossing and rolling in the most alarming man. several parts and then went down into the hold ner. On many occasions her decks were at an and measured the largest cable. The tiller was angle of 45 degrees. Crockery and culinary 18 feet long, and the chain provided to operate utensils went crashing about in all directions, it was ; the size of the main cable, requiring & chairs and tables were broken to pieces, chan- drum 4 feet in diameter, in order to give a deliers and mirrors were smashed to fragments, length of lever proportioned to the strength of and the whole interior of the vessel presented the cable. A drawing of the plan was preone scene of utter confusion. Six of her boats pared and submitted to the officers of the ship, were swept away, and two of those remaining and although opposed by the engineer, he was were stove so as to be rendered completely use. authorized by Capt. Walker to proceed with less. On Friday an attempt was made to turn his efforts. the ship's head by the well-known device of It was 5 o'clock in the evening when his throwing overboard a heavy spar with a haw- operations commenced, the awful scenes on ser attached to each end, the two hawsers be- board the wallowing ship having continued for ing brought up on opposite sides of the vessel. more than two days and nights. The first step This was found to be entirely useless. On was to screw back the nut to its place, which Saturday, after a thorough examination of the the engineer had attempted to remove for the working parts of the rudder and the fracture purpose of securing the lower tiller to the rud. of the post, Mr. Hamilton E. Towle, a civil en. der-post in its place. There was a wrench ou gineer of Boston, Mass., a passenger, suggested board fitted to the nut, having projections for & plan for working the rudder and controlling entering holes drilled in the periphery of the the vessel.
nut. In conformity with all the proportions The rudder of the Great Eastern weighs 30 of the great ship, so massive was this wrenob
that, in order to handle it, it had to be slung Besides the rolling of the ship, the radder wiss by ropes from a timber overhead. Mr. Towle constantly beaten by the waves, turning the had the wrench swung in a proper position, collar back and forth with resistless power, with its outer end firmly lashed in place, and and thrashing the massive cable about the iron then as the rudder was turning the proper way deck. The chain, too, was enormously beavy, the wrench was pushed into its hold on the each link weighing some 60 pounds. But the nut, when the onward turning of the rudder strength, courage, and devotion of the men, screwed the post up through the nut. As the overcame all obstacles. The first coil around
rudder started to turn back in the opposite the collar was secured by lashings of smaller • direction the wrench was removed. By three chains, these being passed through the boles in
hours' labor in this manner the nut was screwed the bottom plate and around the flanges till the back to its place, the last turn carrying away holes were filled with the chains. The second the lashings, and sending the wrench rattling coil was secured in the same thorough manner along the iron deck. Meantime, Capt. Walker to the first, and the third to the second, till a had accomplished the great task of moving the mass of chain, about 4 feet in diameter, was massive cable back to the stern. A hole was bound around the radder. The ends of the cut in the upper deck, the cable passed down, cable were now carried around the two stout and then commenced the difficult labor of wind posts or bits, 6 b, figs. 1 and 2, which were proing it upon the collar.
vided for holding the stern cable in mooring Fig. 1.
TEMPORARY STEERING APPARATUS OF THE GREAT EASTERN. the ship, and connected with tackle for taking perfect control of her commander's will. She up the slack, while smaller chains attached to swept around in a graceful circle, and then took the two parts of the cable leading from the up her course for Queenstown. rudder-post were connected through the tackle, The paddle wheels being destroyed by the dd, with the steering gear of the lower tiller. waves, the vessel was propelled by the screw
At 3 A. M., Mr. Towle informed the engineer alone, but she moved steadily on her course, that he was ready to steer the ship, and re- and made nine knots an hour. During the quested that steam might be put on, and the voyage the steering apparatus required conscrew turned. But all of the next day was lost stant attention, great care being needed, espe in waiting for the engineer to test another plan cially to take up the slack in the main cable. of his own. This was a failure and all the la- If this became loose, a sudden turn of the rodbor was lost. It was then 5 o'clock in the af, der would snap off the smaller chain connected ternoon, and the captain was again requested with the steering tackle, as if it were a piece by Mr. Towle to order a few turns at least to of pack thread. The vessel arrived off Queensbe given to the screw. The order was given, town on Tuesday afternoon at 4 o'clock. De and the great ship moved off, again under the the arrival of the vessel, a meeting of the pas
acting a part of the time as quartermaster and commissary till Dec. 1856, when he was appointed acting-assistant professor of Ethics in the Military Academy, the duties of which professorship he performed with credit and success till Oct. 1860, when, at his own request, he was detailed for active duty at Fortress Monroe. There he rendered efficient service in preventing the seizure of the fortress. On the 26th of May, 1861, he was sent to Newport News as master of ordnance, superintended the fortification of that point, and trained the volunteers to artillery practice. When the disastrous expedition to Great Bethel was planned, he was anexpectedly detailed to accompany it with two guns, and though in his own judgment it was ill-advised, and would probably prove fatal to him, he did not hesitate, but took an active part in its duties, and when the Federal troops were repulsed, by his admirable management of his guns, protected them from pursuit and utter annihilation. Just at the close of the action, when he had given the order to withdraw from the field he was struck by a cannon ball on the right temple and instantly killed.
GREENBRIER RIVER. On this river, in Pocahontas Co., Western Virginia, 13 miles from Cheat Mountain summit, and the same distance from Monterey, at the point where the Staunton turnpike ascends the Alleghany Mountains, the Confederates had an advanced camp after their flight from Tygart's Valley. Their force was said to be about 9,000, with about 5,000 near by as a reserve. Brig.-Gen. J. J. Reynolds, with a force of about 5,000 Federal troops, left his camp on Cheat Mountain summit at midnight of Oct. 2, to make an armed reconnoissance of this camp. They reached it shortly after daylight, drove in the Confederate pickets, and advanced regiments approached to within 700 yards of his intrenchments, and opened fire. A battle followed of about 4 hours' duration. The Confederate force
at the camp were driven from their guns, threo sengers was held, and resolutions passed com- of which were disabled, and lost heavily in plimentary to Mr. Towle, to whom also a gold killed and wounded; their reserve came up watch was presented.
after the action had continued about two hours, GREBLE, JOHN Trout, an officer of the U. and, thus reënforced, they maintained their S. army, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1834, position behind their fortifications, but did not and killed in the battle of Great Bethel, Virgi- sally ont to attack the Federal troops. Gen. nia, June 10, 1861. He acquired his early edu. Reynolds, finding his ammunition exhausted, cation at the Ringgold Grammar School and and baving accomplished his purpose, withdrew the Central High School of his native city, re- in perfect order, without being pursued, and receiving his bachelor's degree at the latter in turned the same night to his camp. The Fed1850, and immediately entered the U. S. Mili- eral loss was 8 killed and 32 wounded. The tary Academy at West Point, where he gradu- Confederate loss was much larger, and was ated in 1854, with high rank in his class. On estimated by Gen. Reynolds as at least 300. his graduation he was immediately cominis- Gen. Reynolds brought away 13 prisoners, and sioned as brevet second-lieutenant in the second completely disabled 3 of the Confederate guns. artillery, and stationed at Newport, R. I. In GUYANDOTTE is a village in Cabell CounSeptember of the same year he was made sec- ty, Virginia, situated on the Ohio River, at tho ond-lieutenant and sent to Tampa, Florida, mouth of the Guyandotte, 228 miles below where he served in the Indian troubles for two Wheeling, and 360 miles west by north from years, when he was compelled, in consequence Richmond. It contains from 1,000 to 1,500 of a severe fever, to return home on sick leave; inhabitants. A small body of Federal troops but in the beginning of 1856 resumed his duties, occupying the place were attacked by a considerable Confederate force on the night of nals were displayed from the houses in which Nov. 10th. The Federal force consisted of 250 were the Federal soldiers, who were inme men, belonging to a Western Virginia regi- diately. attacked and killed. Many of these ment, and a few of Col. Zeigler's Fifth Virgi- friends of the Confederate troops seized their nia Volunteers. A plot was contrived between arms and aided in the slaughter. Most of those the Confederate force in the vicinity and some who were killed were the unarmd men. Only of the inhabitants of the town, who were their 50 of the Federal force escaped, the remainder friends, to capture or destroy the Federal force. were either killed or taken prisoners. Call Accordingly, the latter were kindly received by Zeigler, with a Federal force, arrived soon af. these citizens, and invited to their houses on ter, and upon learning the facts, ordered the various pretexts. Those not on duty accepted town to be set on fire. Between 15 and 20 of the invitations. Meanwhile a body of Confed- the most valuable stores and dwellings were erate cavalry made a dash upon the town. Sig. burned.
preme Court :
H HABEAS CORPUS. This is the title given To the Hon. Roger B. Taney, Chief-Justice of the Suto a writ issued out of the bigher courts of a State, or of the United States, directed to some and State of Maryland, respectfully shows that, being
The petition of John Merryman, of Baltimore County, person who holds, or is supposed to hold in his at home in his own domicile, he was, about the hour of custody or possession, the body of another per- two o'clock A. M. on the 25th of May, A. D. 1-6), aroased son, and commanding him to produce the body from his bed by an armed force, pretending to act of such prisoner, with the day and cause of his litioner
unknown: that he was by the said armed force
under military orders, from some person to your pe capture and detention, to do, submit to, and deprived of his liberty by being taken into custods and receive whatsoever the Judge or Court award- removed from his said house to Fort McHenry, near ing such writ shall consider in that behalf. The to the City of Baltimore, and in the district aforesaid, privilege of the writ of habeas corpus consists in and where your petitioner now is in close custody.
That he has been so imprisoned without any process the advantage or privilege to the prisoner of or color of law whatsoever, and that none such is prebeing brought at once before a competent tri- tended by those who are thus detaining him, and that bunal, and having the cause of his detention in- po warrant from any court, magistrate, or other person quired into. If such imprisonment is without having legal authority to issue the same erists to jus sufficient legal cause, he is at once set at liberty. tify such arrest, but, to the contrary, the same as
above is stated, hath been done without color of la The eloquence and learning of the legal profes- and in violation of the Constitution and laws of the sion have been lavished upon this process, as United States, of which he is a citizen. constituting the great bulwark of individual That since his arrest he has been informed that by freedom. During the year, a large number of some order purporting to come from one Gegera citizens were arrested and imprisoned by order directing the arrest of the captain of some companyia
Keim, of Pennsylvania, to the petitioner urkdowa, of the Federal Government, without the usual Baltimore County, of which company the pei.ciones process of law, and whenever the bodies of never was and is not captain, was the preterded these prisoners were demanded under a writ ground, as he believes, on which he is now detared
That the person now so detaining him and bolding of habeas corpus, the delivery of them was re
him at said 'fort is Brigadier-General George Cadware fused. It is the province of this volume to der, military commander of said fort
, professing to state the action of the Government and the act in the premises under or by order of the Cated principles which it avowed, leaving to technic States. cal works the discussions of the questions in. habeas corpus may issue, to be directed to the sa!
The petitioner, therefore, prays that the writ of volved.
George Cadwalader, commanding him to produce roer The Constitution of the United States pro- petitioner before you, Judge as aforesaid, with the vides that "the privilege of the writ of habeas cause, if any, for bis arrest and detention, to the end corpus shall not be suspended unless when, in that your petitioner be discharged and restored to be
JOHN MERRYMAN cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety erts, and as in duty, &c;
Foet Mollexey, May 25, 1861. may require it." Which department of the Governinent has the power to suspend this the affidavits of the prisoner's counsel and be
This was laid before Chief-Justice Taney with privilege, is the question at issue. What was following writ was issued on Sunday and served done is hereafter stated.
on General Cadwalader: On the 25th of May, John Merryman, a most
Tue U'NITED STATES OF AMERICA! respectable citizen of the State of Maryland,
Department of Maryland, to wil was arrested at his residence, at Hayfields, Bal- To General George Cadrralader, greeting: timore County, and conveyed to Fort McHenry, the Hon. Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice of the same
You are hereby commanded to be and appear before near Baltimore, and imprisoned. On the saine Court of the United States, at the United states (uens day he prepared a petition to the Chief-Justice room, in the Masonic Hall, in the City of Baltimore, of the United States, Roger B. Taney, who re- Monday, the 27th day of May, 1M6), ai 11 o'clock in the sides at Baltimore, praying that a writ of habeas morning, and that you have with you the body of Jota corpus might issue, &c. The petition, briefly tody, and ibat you certify and make known the day
man, of Baltimore County, and now in your stating all the details of the arrest, was as fol. and 'cause of the capture and detention of the new lows:
John Merryman; and that you, then and there,