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This first section concludes with meteorological observations made at Philadelphia in December, 1770, and in January, and part of February, 1771. By Thomas Coombes, Esq;
AGRICULTURE and AMERICAN İMPROVEMENTS, An Esay on the Cultivation of the Vine, and the making and preserv
ing of Wine, suited to the different Climates in North America, By the Hon. EDWARD ANTILL, Elg; of New Jersey.
This essay contains near 80 quarto pages, and furnishes ample instructions for the culture of the vine, and the manufacture of its produce. The Author seems attentive to the minutest circumstances that might be conducive to the improvement of this branch of agriculture in North America; and his death, which happened soon after the communication of this essay, is justly lamented. His directions are delivered with that honest and af fectionate spirit, which cannot fail to recommend them to his countrymen; and he discovers a very extensive aud accurate acquaintance with the subject of which he writes. After an enumeration of the advantages attending the cultivation of vines to individuals in particular, and to the public in general, he proceeds to direct the choice of a proper soil for a vineyard, which should be a rich warm foil, mixed with gravel, or a sandy mould interspersed with large stones, or with small loole rocks; and the method of manuring and fencing vineyards. He then shews the neceflity of providing a nursery, and the way of managing it to the greatest advantage. He cautions against plantįng too many sorts of vines in the same vineyard; and enumerates the several vines suited to the different climates in North America. He gives directions with respect to the parts of a vine proper for cuttings, and the method of planting these or young vines out of the nursery to the greatest advantage. He then teaches the proper culture of a vine for the firit, fecond, and third year, till it arrives at its bearing state. He next gives general directions about trimming and transplanting vines, and for preserving them from every kind of injury. After every instruction neceifary to the culture of vines, he shews how the vintage is to be gathered; how to make wine both of the white and black grapes; how to improve weak wines, and how to preserve wines when actually made. He subjoins instructions in order to cure grapes for raisins; and concludes with the following declaration, which we cannot forbear tranfcribing ; " And now, my dear children, countrymen, and fellow-citizens, I have faithfully led you by the hand throughout this new undertaking; take my blesling and cordial advice along with it. Be not drunken with wine, wherein there is excess; but be ye rather filled with the spirit of wisdom, for too much wine, like treacherous sin, ruins and destroys the true happiness of the soul. And may the God of wisdom crown all your honeft labours with success, and give you a right underá fanding in all things."
The two next articles are by the same gentleman ; the one is a recipe for curing figs; the other contains observations on the raising and dressing of hemp. Olfervations concerning the Fly-Wevil, that destroys the Wbeat , with some useful Discoveries and Conclufions concerning the Propagation and Progress of that pernicious Infect, and the Metbeds to be used to prevent the Destruction of the Grain by it. By Coa Jonel Landon Carter, of Sabine Hall, Virginia.
The design of these observations is sufficiently obvious from The title of this paper. The same subject is farther pursued in a fubsequent article, by the Committee of Husbandry. Obfervations on the Native SILK-WORMS of NORTH AMERICA,
By Mr. Mofes Bartram. The Author of these observations was desirous of knowing whether the wild filk-worms of North America could, with due care, be propagated to advantage. After successful trials he is persuaded they might, in time, become no contemptible branch of commerce : « They appear (says he) to me, much cafier raised than the Italian or foreign lilk-worms. I did not lose one by sickness. They hatch so late in the spring, that they are not subject to be hurt by the frost. Neither lightening nor thunder hurt them, as they are said to do foreign worms. And as they lie so long in their chrysalis state, the cocoons (or pods, in which they spin themselves up and lie concealed in winter) may be unwinded at leisure hours in the ensuing winter. One thing more in their favour is, that one of their cocoons will weigh more than four of the foreign worms; and, of consequence, it may be prefumed, will yield a proportion ably greater quantity of filk.' A Memoir on the DISTILLATION OF PERSIMONS. By Mr. Isaac
Bartram. The Author of this article, at the request of the Society, purchased half a bushel of the fruit of this tree ; caused it to be well malhed, then put the mass into a five gallon keg, and added two gallons of water, and two pennyworth of yes, in order to promote a fermentation. He committed the whole to the fill, and drew from it near half a gallon of proof spirit, of very agreeable flavour. The perfinon-tree, he observes, may be rendered very beneficial to those who have them growing on their plantations, and is a very important object of Cultivation. The tree itself is of a quick growth, and yields great quantities of fruit in a few years after it is planted. The wood is hard, has a fine close grain, and may be applied to many mechanical purpotes : it burns well, and its alhes contain a very large proportion of salt. A farmer who rents fifty acres of
land might plant three hundred trees round his fields; these, on an average, would each produce two bufbels of fruit, and each bushel a gallon of spirit : such a farm then might be made to produce fix bundred gallons of liquor as good as rum. The expences might be allowed half the value of the liquor when diftilled, and this might be rated at two fillings per gallon; there would, therefore, be a clear profit of thirty pounds per anoum; a sum equal to the interest of a farm that would cost five. bundred pounds.
This tree discharges a very valuable gum, and beer is made of perfimons in some of the southern provinces.
The two next articles give an account of an oil, extracted from the seeds of the sun-flower : which oil, it is conjectured, may answer the like good purpose with the sallad and medicinal oil, now in use.
Mr. John Morel's Letter, with a Keg of BENE SEED. This seed makes oil equal in quality to Florence, and some fay preferable. One hundred weight of seed will produce ninety pounds of oil; it is therefore recommended to be cultivated in Philadelphia, where the Letter-writer imagines it will grow : and he gives directions for that purpose. A Letter from Mr. Henry Holling
sworth to the American Philofo
phical Society. This letter lays before the Society such experiments as had been found effectual for destroying the wild garlic, with which that country is very much infested, and which is very pernicious to the grain. By sowing oats in the garlicky lands designed for wheat, the lands may be fallowed, and sown with wheat in the asual manner, without any danger from this noxious plant.
The next article contains directions with respect to the proper time for sowing pease, so as to preserve the crop from being worm-eaten ; viz. about the roth of June, New Style. A Letter from Bethlebem ; with a Receipt for making CURRANT
This letter directs to plant the currant bushes round the quarters in gardens, that they may have the benefit of the dung and culture annually bestowed thereon, which will consequently make the berries large, and the juice rich. The receipt is as follows:
• Gather. your currants when full ripe, break them well in a tub or vat; press and measure your juice; add two-thirds water, and io each gallon of that mixture, put 3 lb. of Murcovado sugar; stir it well till the sugar is quite diffolved, and, then cún it up. The juice should not be left to stand over night, as it lould not ferment before mixture.'
NATURAL HISTORY and BOTANY: An casy Method of preserving Subjects in SPIRITS. By Mro
Lewis Nicola. The Author is not fatisfied with Mr. de Reaumur's directions for this purpose ; and he therefore proposes two other methods, free from the inconveniences to which his practice is liable. The first is as follows: :. When the subject and spirits are put into the bottle, carefully wipe the inside of the neck and edge till quite dry; prepare fome thin putty of the consistence of a soft ointment, and put a coat of it about a line or two thick on the side of the bladder or leather, which is to be next to the bottles and tie it tightly about the neck; place the bottle with the mouth downward in a small wooden cup, and fill it with melted tallow, or tallow mixed with wax, till all the bladder or leather cover is buried in it, and the tallow adheres to the sides of the neck; this will effectually prevent the fine parts of the spirits from flying off. Great care must be taken to have the edge of the bottle very dry, and if rubbed with a feather dipt in oil, it will be better, and in filling the cup, to have the tallow no hotter than is barely neceflary to make it Auid.
• The second method is, after the specimen and spirits are put into the bottle, dry the inside of the neck and edge thoroughly, and anoint them with a feather dipt in oil; stop the bottle with a cork well fitted and steeped in oil till it has imbibed as much as it can contain ; cover the cork and edge of the bottle with a layer of putty prepared as above directed, and tie a piece of soft leather or bladder over the whole.' Extracts of a Letter from Dr. Lorimer, of West Florida, to Hugb
Williamson, M. D. There extracts are intended to evince the similarity between the east side of the old continent and the east side of the new, in vegetable productions, &c. and vice versa. At the conclu. sion, Dr. Lorimer promises a description of an universal Magnetic Needle, which shall give the variation and dip at the same time; and the latter, he presumes, with more accuracy than any yet extant.
The next article contains a catalogue of such foreign plants as are worthy of being encouraged in our American colonies, for the purposes of medicine, agriculture, and commerce. (From a pamphlet by John Ellis, F.R.S. Presented by the Hon. Thomas Penn, Esq; to the American Philosophical Society, thro' the hands of Samuel Powel, Esq.]
The Society has subjoined to the forementioned catalogue, Mr. Ellis's directions for bringing over feeds and plants from distant countries, in a state of vegetation : see Review, vol. xliii. p. 217, & seq.
An Attempt to account for the Change of Climate, which has been
observed in the middle Colonies in North America. By Hugh Williamson, M. D.
This remarkable change of climate which has taken place in Pennsylvania, and the neighbouring colonies, in the last forty or fifty years, in refpect of the lels cold of winter, and less heat of summer, is ascribed principally to the cultivation of the country in that time.
The third and fourth sections of this volume contain a few mechanical and medical papers, together with two or three milcellaneous articles, which our limits will not allow us to abridge, and for which we must refer to the book itself.
As friends to mankind, in general, as well as of our native country, we cannot take leave of this publication without exs pressing the satisfaction with which we view fo promising an apa pearance of the growing prosperity of our brethren and friends in the western world. The present collection of Philofophical Essays affords an unquestionable proof that our industrious colonifts are not less solicitous to improve in the liberal arts, than in those which are more immediately confined to the common concerns of life, the interests of trade, and the extension of commerce. Here we see the fair dawning of future greatness ; and may the prospect ftill open " wide and more wide," unins terrupted by idle fears, and little jealousies of imaginary rivalfhip ; till Science and every species of useful knowledge, uni. versally obtain,--wherever the Almighty hath destined our fels low-creatures to fubfilt: wherever there are rational minds to inform, wherever there are human virtues to cultivate, where ever there is human happiness to promote !
ART. II. An Enquiry into the Principles of Toleration, the Degree in
which they are admitted by our Laws, and the Reasonableness of the late Application made by the Disenters to Parliament for an Enlargement of their Religious Liberties. 8vo. 2 s. T would be great injustice to the Author of this Enquiry
not to acknowledge that he is an able and judicious advocate for religious liberty, and that his performance is strongly marked, throughout, with candour and moderation. Though the subject on which he writes has been often treated with great ability, yet it can never be improper, and is, at this time; peculiarly feasonable, to establish the principles of toleration, and to endeavour to engage the attention of the public to a subject extremely interesting to every friend of Christianity, vire tue, and religion.
He sets out with observing that, antecedently to the confideration of being formed into civil societies, there are certain