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an effort will be made to observe latitude and azimuth continuously for a few years. A table of latitude stars has been very carefully prepared for this work, and a programme has been determined upon for the azimuth observations. Assistant Engineers Ripley and Dixon, who are employed upon the river and harbor works in the vicinity, have volunteered for this work, but so far have been too busy to accomplish very much.

Triangulation. A plan of triangulation connecting the triangulation of Lake Superior with that of the Straits of Mackinac was devised, but some reconnoitering is necessary to ascertain whether this plan or any other is practicable in order to make a complete connection between the two systems named above.

Eighteen primary and 12 secondary stations were built and the necessary lines of sight cut. The angles at 11 stations were measured; 20 measures each for 91 primary angles, and 8 measures each for 67 secondary angles were made.

Iu this work a direct connection was made with the river improve. ment tertiary triangulation at Stations Iroquois and South Gros Cap.

Topographical work.-In order to obtain the requisite topography for chart No. 3 of the adopted series of the new charts of the river in one season, two small topographical parties were placed in the field. These parties started at the lower end of the reach (just east of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., and Ontario) and worked westward. On the American side, 51.4 square miles of territory were covered, and on the Canadian side 40 square miles. The average cost was about $60 per square mile. The survey shows all the features of the ground, 20-foot contours, land survey lines, etc.

Hydrography.-In connection with the operations of improving the ship channel 20 and 21 feet in depth between Chicago, Duluth, and Buffalo, a hydrographic survey of a large portion of the river adjacent to the localities where improvements are in progress, or are contemplated, has been begun. This survey will cover the reaches of the river shown on charts 2 and 3 of the adopted series of new charts. As this work, like all the “river and harbor” surveys, will be done with great care and accuracy, the lake survey will not duplicate it, and the soundings obtained will be used for the new charts.

Office work. In addition to the computations for latitude, longitude, and azimuth, an adjustment of the completed triangulation was made, the geodetic coordinates of the various stations in the primary work and of the tertiary stations in the river improvement triangulation were made.

PROPOSED WORK, The work already done will enable chart No. 3 of the new series to be issued when the hydrography shall have been completed. The next allotment will be expended in extending the triangulation, and, if suffi. cient, in obtaining enough information to permit the publication of chart No. 2. This will require the topographical and hydrographical work to be carried down the river from Sault Ste. Marie. It would be very desirable to have some accurate magnetic observations made during the progress of the survey, and it is thought that this can be done at small cost. Everything is now in readiness to push the work as fast as the necessary funds become available.

The resurvey of St. Marys River has been uüder the local charge of First Lieut. Charles S. Riché, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, assisted by Assistant Engineers Morley, Haskell, Von Schon, Molitor, and Balch, and Mr. Thomas Russell. In Lieut. Riché's report and the subreports attached thereto can be found all the details connected with the prosecution of the work.

ANNUAL WATER LEVELS OF THE NORTHERN AND NORTIIWESTERN

LAKES.

Daily observations were made under my direction at Sand Beach, Mich., on Lake Huron, and at the head of St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

The following table embodies the results:

Monthly mean of water levels for the following-named stations below the planes of refer

ence adopted in 1876.

1893

1894.

Stations.

July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nor. Dec.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. 'June.

Sand Beach
Sault Ste Marie

Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet. Feet Feet. Feet.
3.50
3. 64
3, 93
4.14
4. 37 4. 57 4. 62 4.61 4. 46 4.23

3. 83

3. 53 2. 808 2. 724 2. 851 2. 913 2. 968 3.50+ 3, 725 3. 809 3. 919 3.528 2. 556 2 316

ESTIMATE.

The resurvey of St. Marys River is now in progress and the work is being pushed as rapidly as available funds will permit. The traffic through the river is already so great, that the publication of new charts is becoming more and more essential every day. These charts would show to the navigator the new channels upon which the Government has been expending so much money, together with all ranges and landmarks along the shores. They would show the best courses for his ves. sel to run and the dangers to be avoided in the difficult navigation of this portion of one of the great commercial waterways of the world.

Throughout the lake region larger and larger vessels are being built each season. Their value to the general public is increasing every year, and nothing should be left undone in efforts looking toward the safety of these,costly vessels and their cargoes.

The connecting channels of the lakes are now from 4 to 5 feet deeper than they were when the original surveys were made, and a still fur. ther increase in depth of 4 feet is approaching completion, When the new 20 and 21-foot channel.is finished the depth in many places will be more than double what it was orginally. The increased draft of the ves. sels using these channels, combined with the low water of recent years, las caused the larger and more expensive vessels to discover dangers previously unsuspected, and to discover them by the costly process of striking them. All dangers so discovered should at once be surveyed and located upon the charts in order to prevent the repetition of similar accidents at the same point. Localities deemed perfectly safe for navigation when smaller vessels were used are now regarded with suspicion by the larger vessels, and it is essential that certain special areas be reexamined.

Accurate knowledge of dangerous obstructions can be obtained in but one way, and that is from charts. When the Government sells charts to navigators these charts should embody the latest and most accurate information concerning the localities to which they refer. It is essential, therefore, that all the charts be kept constantly up to date. The organized districts, in connection with the river and harbor work of the Corps of Engineers now established at the chief cities on the lakes, will greatly facilitate this work, and will insure the maximum results with the minimum cost.

In the field work of the resurvey of St. Marys River alone $36,239.15 can be economically and profitably expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896. In addition, the new charts of the river must be drawn, engraved, and printed. At the same time other localities must not be neglected. New shoals should be resurveyed as promptly as discovered. New light-louses, buoys, landmarks, channel improvements, etc., must be located and marked upon existing charts. This work is accumulating, and it increases the longer it is postponed. In view of all these facts an estimate is submitted of $75,000 for "surveys and other expenses connected with the correcting and extending the charts of the Northern and Northwestern lakes, to be available until expended," in full confidence that the conditions actually existing amply warrant this expenditure.

Estimate for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896. For printing and issuing charts for use of navigators and electrotyping plates for chart priuting...

$3,000.00 For surveys and other expenses connected with correcting and extending

the charts, including resurvey of St. Marys River, to be available until expended...

75, 000.00

Total..

78, 000, 00

Money statement.

RESURVEY OF ST. MARYS RIVER. Allotted May 2, 1893, $20,000; February 17, 1894, $357.43.

$20, 357. 43 June 30, 1894, amount expended during fiscal year..

19, 704.86 July 1, 1891, balance unexpended

652.57 July 1, 1894, outstanding liabilities

652.57 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project...... 36, 239, 15 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1896...

36, 239. 15 Dates and amounts of appropriations for survey of Northern and Northwestern Lakes. March 3, 1811. $15, 000 July 20, 1868..

$75, 000 May 18, 1812. 20,000 March 3, 1869.

100, 000 March 1, 1843. 30,000 July 15, 1870.

100,000 June 17, 1844. 20, 000 March 3, 1871

175, 000 March 3, 1845. 20, 000 June 10, 1872.

175, 000 August 8, 1846.. 25, 000 March 3, 1873.

175, 000 August 12, 1848. 25, 000 Jme 23, 18741

175,000 March 3, 1849. 10,000! March 3, 1875.

150,000 September 28, 1850

25, 000 July 31, 1876 (not including March 3, 1851.

25, 000 $16,000 applied to survey August 30, 1852. 25,000 Mississippi River).

81,000 March 3, 1853.

50,000 March 3, 1877 (not including August 5, 1851.

50,000 $25,000 applied to survey March 3, 1855.

50,000 Mississippi River and includAugust 30, 1856.

50, 000 ing $9,500 received from sale March 3, 1857.

50,000
of steamers)

94, 500 June 12, 1858

75, 000 June 20, 1878 (not including March 3, 1859

75, 000 $19,500 applied to survey of June 21, 1860 75,000 Mississippi River).

49, 500 March 2, 1861 75, 100 | March 3, 1879.

85, 000 July 5, 1862

105, 000
June 16, 1880

40,000 February 9, 1863 106, 879 March 3, 1881.

18, 000 July 2, 1861 100,000 Augnst 7,1882

12, 000 February 28, 1865 125, COO March 3, 1883.

3.000 June 12, 1866

50,000 March 2, 1867

77, 500
Total

2, 942, 879 March 2, 1868.

77, 500

Dates and amounts of appropriations for surrey of Northern and Northwestern Lakes.

Printing and issue of charts for use of navigators and electrotyping copper plate for chart printing:

July 7, 1884.
March 3, 1885

$3,000 August 4, 1886

3,000 March 3, 1887.

2,00) October 2, 1888

2,00) March 2, 1889.

2,00) August 30, 1890

2,00) March 3, 1891

2,000 August 5, 1892

2,000 March 3, 1893

2,000

2,000 Total....

22,000 Dates and amounts of appropriations for surrey of Northern and Northwestern Lakes. Surveys and additions to and correcting engraved plates:

March 2, 1889..
August 30, 1890

$5, COO March 3, 1891.

10,000 August 5, 1892.

10,000 March 3, 1893.

5,000 25, 000

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Abstract of bids for supplies for survey of Northern and Northwestern Lakes, receired

and opened March 28, 1894, in accordance with advertisement dated March 8, 1894.

No.

Name and address of bidder.

Supplies.

Total.

Hardware, ship chandlery, etc...

....do Groceries.

do .do

.do

1 P. M. Church & Co., Sault Ste. Marie, Mich
2 Robert G. Ferguson, Sault Ste. Marie. Mich.
1 Prenzlauer Bros., Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..
2 Allan Bros., Detroit, Mich..
3 P. C. Keliher, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.
4 Peppard & McKinney, Sault Ste. Mario, Mich.
5 Royce & Reynolds, Saut Sto. Marie, Mich.
6 Otto Supe & Co., Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..
7 Jno. Blessed & Son, Detroit, Mich...
1 Peppard & McKinney, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.
2 P. C. Keliher, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..
3 Prenzlauer Bros., Sault Ste. Marie, Mich

Royce & Reynolds, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich
5 Otto Supe & Co., Sault Ste. Marie, Mich...
1 Andrew Hotton, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..
2 Donaldson & Hall, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.
1 J. B. Sweatt, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich..
2 E. D. Johnson, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

Emery I). Weimer, Ludington, Mich. 1 The Richmond & Bakus Co., Detroit, Mich.

do ...do

do Vegetables, etc..

.do

$1, 172. 67 1, 228. 61 *779.31 781. 06 812. 27 868. 30 914.49 914, 69

990. 80 * 586. 70

718. 83 1 455. 13

30 1. 53 1519,25 *635, 0) * 663. 00 * 120.00

150.00

200.00 + 391.31

[blocks in formation]

3

* Recominended for acceptance.

i Inconplete. No bid on milk.

REPORT O LIECT. CHARLES S. RICHÉ, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,

Sault Ste. Varie, Vich., July 4, 1891. Sir: I have the honor to transmit the following report of operations of the survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes, resurvey of St. Marys River for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894:

At the beginning of the fiscal year a small field observatory lal been crected at Sault Sto. Marie, Mich., observations for latitudes had been completed, and observations for longitude wero in progress. The triangulation had been planned from Whitefish Bay to about 10 miles north of Lako Huron. Ten triangulation stations had been crected. The “Soo” base had been measured and computed. A line of precise levels had been run from Sault Sto. Marie, Mich., to Waiska Bay and the computations nearly completed. A limited amount of hydrographic work had been done and considerable progress had been made towarl titting out field parties for subsequent work,

The allotment available for the fiscal year was $20,000, subsequently increased to $20,357.13. It was proposed to expend this amount in completing the essential astronomical work, in continuing the planning of tho triangulation, in building stations, measuring angles, and in obtaining topography for the reach covered by chart No. 3 of the adopted series of new cliarts of the river. The hydrographyit was proposed to take largely from the river and harbor surveys made and to be mado in connection with the improvement of the river, such additional hydrography as might prove necessary for this chart being obtained by sounding through the ice during the winter. It was not proposed to duplicate recent Government survers when doing so could be avoided.

The results accomplished during the fiscal year are as follows:

ASTRONOMICAL WORK.

Observatory. The “Soo Observatory" which was used for this work was built dur. ing the coldest part of the winter of 1892-'93. It forms an ell of the U. S. Engineer Oflice at Sault Sto. Marie, Mich., and is shown in ground plan in the accompanying drawing. Being on Government land, it was made moro substantial in structure than would otherwise have been the case, as it can remain permanently and will be a useful point for comparisons of longitude, etc., for future surveys of the Engineer Department. Tho observing piers are of masonry capped with a 21 by 24 inch block ot cut stono, and have proved very stable. A small masonry pier supports a 12 by 12 inch timber to which the astronomical clock is bolted, and a small concrete pier for holding a dish of mercury to act as an artifical horizon in azimuth observations, etc., stands to the north of tho west observing pier. The foundations of all these piers are independent of each other, and of the foundation of the building.

Latitude.-Observations for latitudo were inade on four nights, June 11, 14, 19, and 26, 1893. The manner of making them and their reduction is given in the report of Mr. Thomas Russell, appended, marked A, and attention is invitel thereto for details. The resulting latitude of the east pier is 46° 30' 06.25'' north, which, reduced to the west pier, gives 16° 30' 05.27" +0.03" as tho latitude used in the reduction of tho triangulation.

Longitude.-Observations for the difference of longitude between Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., and Ann Arbor, Mich., were made on ten nights, July 10, 15, 19, 20, and 26, and August 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12, 1893. On the first five nights Prof. Asaph Hall, jr., director of the Detroit Observatory at Ann Arbor, Mich., observed there, and I observed at the Soo O'yservatory. On the last five nights Prof. Hall observeil at Sault Ste. Marie anıl I observed at Ann Arbor. The manner of making the observations and their reduction is also given in the report of Mr. Thomas Russell, appended, marked A, and attention is invited there to for details.

At first considerable ditticulty was experienced, owing mainly to trouble with the electro-magnets in the Ann Arbor Observatory. Fifty-ohm relays were used at the start, and wbile they worked satisfactorily at Sault Ste. Mario they did not do so at Ann Arbor, and had to be differently aıljusted for receiving and sending signals. As it was desirable to avoid such changes in adjustment, more powerful relays were employed, with satisfactory results.

The scheme of wiring in the Soo Observatory is shown on the accompanying draw. ing. The operating switches there shown are for the purpose of passing almost instantly from the connections required for observing and talking to those for sending or receiving signals. The four “two-point" switches in each group were securely fastened side by side and their lovers were connected by a bar in such manner that by pushing the bar all four switches would move simultaneously. The necessary changes coull thus be made so rapidly that the deisred number of signals could be exchangel well within the short time generally available for the purpose, and the astronomical work could be conducted with more deliberation than would otherwise have been possible.

In this schemo of wiring the clock is kopt on an independent 1-cell circuit, to avoid injurytoits delicate break-circut mechanism. The chronograph is also operated on a localcircuit, in order that it may have a constant electric current through its magnet, to obviato as far as possiblo tho necessity for changing the a:ljustment of the pen armature. An inspection of the drawing will show that when the 159-ohm signal relay is thrown out of this local circuit into the main line, the 150-ohm talking relay is tlirown into the local in order to keep its current constant and avoid changes in adjustment of the chronograph penarmature. For this reason the two relays named should have practioally tho samo electrical resistance, or else, by means of it rheostat, or otherwise, ad litional resistance should be put in the circuit whero necessary to balance. A lightning arrester (not shown on drawing) is inserted in the main line where it enters the observatory.

The scheme of wiring at Ann Arbor was substantially similar to tho above, with the addition that a rheostat and galvanometer were inserted in the main line, with

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