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There is the same tendency to lower the blindly at the piping of catchwords and platistandard in the midst of a great fight to suit tudes. The best leaders have learned that a the purpose and needs first of the commissa- haughty class antagonism to measures for the riat and the camp-followers. There is a dis- social amelioration of the wage-earners of position to straddle and compromise, to blow America is as fatal to party success as it is to hot and to blow cold about Americanism. loyalty and patriotism. That was But this is the attitude only of a powerful significant paragraph in the recent remarkfragment of the board of control, of a group able and unexpected tribute of the well-known who have for a generation allied themselves Lemuel E. Quigg to Roosevelt when he said with the interests and the purposes of the “ There is no difference between Roosevelt ruling political oligarchy. These men bear and any other Republican on the fundamental the same relation to the politics and patriot- principles of the party, no difference at all, ism of the United States that those Russian except with regard to his social-call them, bureaucrats bear to the safety and progress if you please, Socialistic-ideas. But for the of Russia who were recently disclosed as moment these are in the background, and plotting for a separate peace with Germany even there they have been gaining strength ail on the ground that the war was advancing the time. Am I my brother's keeper? From liberalism in Russia, and that Russian duplic- Cain to Christ, and with increasing force ity or defeat was preferable to the granting after every Christmas, the answer is, · Yes, of liberal internal reforms. So our irrecon

you are. cilable Bourbons would rather see their party The Republican party is fighting within itself pass on its way to extinction and their coun- for its soul, for a policy and a leadership try rendered ignoble in the sight of the world of National altruism and powerful American than yield one jot or tittle to the demands of ism. Upon the outcome of the struggle progress or patriotism. And it is this ele- depends the question as to whether, as in the ment and this attitude which, above everything days of its origin, it can further aid the else, stand in the way of the sweeping success Nation to find its own soul. We have a of the Republicans, who are regarded gener- General Staff of Military Defense, but no ally by the country as more able than the staff of naval or industrial defense. In view Democrats in the handling particularly of of the real issue before the country, would it measures of foreign policy.

not be well if we had also a general staff of But these plotters against their party and spiritual defense ? O for an hour of Henry the common weal do not for a moment repre- Ward Beecher and Phillips Brooks, or of old sent the attitude of the rank and file nor the Bishop Simpson and Peter Cartwright! best leadership of the Republicans. The They were Americans through and through, Republican party has learned much in the and the Nation in other days listened to them last few years. It has learned that the day is gladly. past when the working class will follow it Washington, April 25, 1916.




The alder buds was jes' ready to sprout.
Thinks I, I'll git Brother Jonathan out.
Mebbe we'll git a mess o' trout,
The fishin' bein' fine.
So nex' day I sorter sauntered roun'
With my fishin' pole an' my p’inter houn'
Shufflin' along with his nose to the groun',
A-followin' up sum sign.

I foun' him motherin' a nevz-hatched brood
O’ Plymouth Rocks, a-fixin' their food.
I knowed right off it wa'n't no good
A-pesterin' him to go.
So I leant my pole ag'in the barn
Es ef 'twa’n't none o' my consarn,
Fer I didn't give a tinker's darn
Whether he went or no.

“ I'm passin' thro' a sea .o' trials.
The emptyin's o' the seven vials,”
Sez 'ee. “ Compared to me, Job's biles
Wa'n't nothin' but a rash.
I'm prosperin', my neighbors say.
Of course—I labor while 'tis day ;'
There's Scripter for it—and yit sumway
It seems like wuthless trash.

“ There's Willyum with them devil boats
A-sinkin' everythin' thet floats.
I've sent him heaps an' heaps o' notes
'Bout the freedom o' the seas ;
I've warned him it 'd cum ter blows.
He sticks his fingers to his nose
An' keeps on firin' them torpedoes
An' sayin', · Excuse me, please !'

" An' Monsoor an' George they wink an' scoff,
An' the other folks are a-standin' off
An' sayin', Ol' Jonathan's gittin' sof':
He can't pertect his own.'
Then that greaser-he's a-breakin' loose.
Watchful waitin' wa’n’t no use.
An' now I ain't got no excuse.
I'll have ter hunt him down.


"I tell ye I ain't had no fun
Sence this here 'tarnal war begun;




An' them fellers down to Washington
They skeer me wust uv all.
Sum say, W'y don't ye git prepared ?'
An' sum, Now, Jonathan, don' git skeered :
When this here furrin' war's declared
It's time enough to squall.'

They say :

Why don't ye show some spunk?
Them battle-ships o' yourn is junk,
Ye better run an' pack yer trunk,
It's gittin' wus an' wus.'
They sets and talks about my foes
An' votes the'r ayes an’ votes the'r noes,
A-hollerin' like a lot o' crows
Aroun' an ol dead hoss.'

“ Ther's them ther' robins a-callin' roun'.
I used to like to hear that soun'.
Sumtimes I'd git my fiddle down
An’ set ther' by the spring.
I know they're singin' jes' as clear,
But now it seems like I didn't keer
No more'n thet ol' sawbuck theer
To hear the robins sing.”

Ye know I ain't the preachin' kind,
Yit, sez I: “ Ye hev the double mind
Thet's tossed an' driven with the wind.
An', Jonathan, that's yer shame !
Now ye cuss an’ shake yer fist-
A roarin' lion ; then ye twist
To a suckin' dove—a paficist,
Ef thet's the critter's name.

“I say it ain't American,
This shufflin' roun’; ye oughter stan'
Fer somethin'--let 'em understan'
That ye know right from wrong.
An' ye oughter leave off bein' smart ;
Quit jinglin' coins, an' cleanse yer heart,
An' say yer say, an' take yer part
Fer the weak ag'in the strong.

"I guess ye know whose ships they be
Thet keeps the freedom o' the sea
An' helps keep these here shores fer ye
Against a threat'nin' foe.”
About that time th' old mother hen
Came cluckin'roun' ol' Jonathan
An' a perky little winter wren
Pipes out : “I told yer so."





HOSE who believe that President the real question remains, Has President

Wilson has been guided by his under- Wilson a Mexican policy of fine words only,

standing of what constitutes the best or have his principles marked out a consistent interests of Mexico, and that his purposes course of conduct ? are altruistic and idealistic, may gain a very This writer holds that there have been fair comprehension of his Mexican policy certain great decisions by the President at from his public utterances. The principles succeeding crises of our relations with Mexico which he claims have actuated him may be which will enable us to determine his policy, stated almost in his own words :

just as a series of judicial decisions mark out We are the champions of constitutional point by point Constitutional limitations. To government in America, and so cannot coun- understand the full significance of these detenance a inere military despotism originating cisions some knowledge of Mexican history in unjustifiable usurpation; with our passion and geography is necessary, some acquaintfor liberty, we must recognize the right of a ance with the character and temper of the people to reform, alter, or abolish a govern- Mexican people. It is held, further, that ment found inadequate or contrary to the each decision in its turn was logical, wise, and purposes for which governments are insti- just, and was the only one possible for Woodtuted ; liberty was never handed down from row Wilson to make. For those whose parabove, but is attained by forces working tisanship really stops at the border a study of among the people themselves; we should not the Mexican revolution is sufficient to conundertake to impose upon another nation an vince them of this ; while to those who feel order and government of our own choosing ; that whatever the President does is wrong we have peculiar obligations to Mexico as her the consideration of the alternative to each nearest friend, but all of Latin America also decision is commended. has an interest in the welfare of a sister 1. Refusal to recognize Huerta as President republic ; the liberties and permanent happi- of Mexico. ness of eighty per cent of the Mexican people Mexican history really began before the are of more importance than the prosperity 4th of March, 1913. The newly inaugurated of their former exploiters or the present President inherited the Mexican problem from opportunity to American citizens to do busi- his predecessor in office, not only unsolved, ness in Mexico; our National self-respect and but with all the conditions of solution made safety must be maintained at all costs, but we more difficult by the official attitude of the should not allow ourselves to be forced into Taft Administration toward Madero, the war with the Mexican people if that can pos- legally elected President of Mexico. Less sibly be avoided ; there must be a final reckon- than three months after Madero had assumed ing for damages and injuries inflicted, but a office President Taft, with only the excuse great nation should exercise patience and self- of sporadic brigandage for his action, ordered restraint in dealing with a country torn by all the regular troops in the United States civil strife; “ the United States will never and the National Guard, one hundred thouagain seek one additional foot of territory by sand men in all, to be prepared for field servconquest;" the steady pressure of moral force ice. The order could mean only one thing will break the barriers of pride and prejudice to the Mexican people-- American intervendown, and we shall triumph as Mexico's tion, the threat of which, skillfully used by friend sooner than we could triumph as her Diaz, had suppressed revolution against his enemies—and ... with how much higher and tyranny for decades. On March 2, 1912, finer satisfaction of conscience and honor." Americans were warned to leave Mexico.

Joyous jingoes, temperamental tories, par. On April 15 Acting Secretary of State Hunttisan politicians, and common commercialists ington Wilson, with Knox away on his dollar may quarrel with these principles, but the diplomacy tours, sent a brutal message of average American citizen accepts them. Yet warning to Madero, which proved to be a

1 See editorial elsewhere in this issue.- The Editors. pure bluff but had its part in deepening the




impression made by Taft's military order. goes have wanted the army to “go in and Nevertheless, with the beginning of the year clean up Mexico." Americans with Mexican 1913 Madero seemed to have won his fight, investments from which they were receiving despite the hostility of the American Govern- no profit have contended that the maintement, when the Cientificos, grown desperate, nance of order was the first duty of the formed a conspiracy against him, carried United States. Banished ecclesiastics have out by military officers turned traitors. On sought American intervention as the alternaFebruary 18, 1913, after a series of sham tive to a native government hostile to the battles in Mexico City between Huerta, put Church. The commercial press has been clamin charge of Madero's forces, and Felix Diaz, orous for intervention, and partisan politicians at the head of the conspiracy, these two have rung the changes on the lack of proworthies met and signed an agreement at the tection to American citizens and property and American Embassy, following the arrest of the failure to avenge the outrages committed President Madero and Vice-President Suarez. against the lives and persons of our countryThe next day the President and the Vice-Preși- men and countrywomen. dent resigned under duress; Pedro Lascurain, But armed intervention would infallibly of the Madero Cabinet, became President for have meant war upon the whole Mexican fifteen minutes and appointed Huerta to the people. Even an alliance with ConstitutionCabinet post next in order of succession, then alist leaders against Huerta would have sent resigned himself

, leaving Huerta Provisional the Constitutionalist armies into Huerta's President, barring such trifling irregularities camp. We must remember that we have as forced resignations and their acceptance had one war with Mexico, at the time revoltand the confirmation of successors by a ter- ing to the New England conscience, though rorized Congress minus a quorum. Febru- yielding us a gratifyingly large slice of territory ary 21, Ambassador Wilson accorded de stretching from the lower Rio Grande to the facto recognition on behalf of the United California coast, a consequence still rememStates Government to Huerta ; and on the bered in Mexico. Intervention would have 22d, while Wilson and Huerta were cele- meant the probable sacrifice of all the Amerbrating Washington's birthday at the Ameri- icans remaining in Mexico, would have recan Embassy, Madero and Suarez were sulted in much shedding of blood, both of assassinated.

American and Mexican soldiers, and would The American Ambassador cheerfully ac- have postponed for another generation the cepted the “official version" of the murder, development of the people along the lines of and rejoiced that a "winked despotism had self-government. fallen."

The mere reading of the list of Americans To have recogn erta, therefore, killed, as published by the Secretary of State would have been to treachery, usur-, with the attendant circumstances, is enough pation, assassination, and the destruction of to convince one of the impossibility of holdconstitutional government not only, but to ing any faction responsible for wrongs comhave indorsed the part played in the over- mitted outside its varying sphere of jurisdicthrow of the constitutional President by the tion. Investigations have been made of every American Government, acting through the case, with proper representations to the State Department and the American Ambas. nearest authority, damages to be assessed and sador. The question was further complicated collected when an orderly government is by the immediate revolt against Huerta of established. Many of the murderers have ten of the elected Governors of Mexican become themselves the victims of the revoStates, headed by Carranza, Governor of lution. President Wilson has consistently Coahuila, calling themselves “ Constitution- refused to hold a disorganized country, in the alists," and chvenanting among themselves to throes of civil strife, responsible for the restore constitutional government in Mexico. crimes of individuals which it was unable to To have thrown the weight of influence of the prevent or to punish, to the extent of making American Administration into the scale against war upon Mexico. those who resisted ursurpation and despotism 3. The Occupation of Vera Cruz. was also impossible for Woodrow Wilson. As early as the summer of 1913 President

2. Resistance of Appeals for Intervention. Wilson tendered his good offices to the con

Appeals for armed intervention have come tending factions, proposing an armistice, a from numerous sources. Irresponsible jin. free election with the stipulation that Huerta

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