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Men. 47,554 .12,372
General Johnston has to account between April 30th joined the army about June 20th near Kenesaw, makand June roth for men available for battle at least: ing its available force on that line nearly 70,000 men. Present for duty at Dalton April 30th.. 52,992
The return of July roth gives the present for duty Mercer's brigade..
60,032, instead of 50,926, the loss since July ist being Cantey's division.. Loring's .May 10th, 11th, and izth.
1377 deserters, 526 dead, two regiments sent to SaFrench's detachment.
vannah, and prisoners and wounded. This with the French's division.
4,174 Jackson's cavalry::
Georgia militia (increased to about nine thousand when Jackson's cavalry increase before June 10th.
643 the army reached Atlanta) represents the force turned Quarles's brigade..
. May 26th. Two regiments Georgia State line.
over to General Hood July 18th, viz. : Furloughed men returned.
13,318 Returned deserters.
65,032 All these figures are official except for Mercer's bri. General Johnston asserts that the only affair worth gade and the two regiments of the Georgia State line.* mentioning, on his left at Resaca, was near the night of
The return of General Johnston's army June roth is May 14th, when “ 40 or 50 skirmishers in front of our the first on file in the War Department which includes extreme left were driven from the slight elevation they all these reënforcements. It shows “present for duty”: occupied, but no attempt was made to retake it.” In
his official report, made in October, 1864, he says that Officers. Infantry
at 9 o'clock at night of May 14th he “learned that Cavalry.
Lieutenant-General Polk's troops had lost a position Artillery, 187 pieces
commanding our bridges.” Comment upon the gen6538 64,340
eralship that would leave a position commanding the Or in round numbers...
line of retreat of an army in charge of 40 or 50 skirThe difference of over 13,000 is accounted for by losses mishers within gun-shot of a powerful enemy is unnecin battle, desertion, and increase in absent sick. The in- essary, for it was not done. The position was held by complete return of Medical Director Foard shows killed a line of men. It was carried on the evening of May and wounded May 7th to 20th, inclusive, 3384. The 14th by a gallant charge of two brigades of the Fifteenth return of June roth shows 1551 killed and died since May Corps of the Union army. Reënforced by another 20th, indicating fully 6000 wounded. The same return brigade, they held it against the repeated and desperate shows 569 deserters. The 1542 prisoners captured efforts of Polk's men to retake it. The battle lasted far from Hood and Hardee, shown by increase of absent into the night. General John A. Logan, in his official without leave in their corps, account for the remainder report of it, says that when at 10 o'clock at night "the without examining the returns of Polk's corps and the last body of the enemy retired broken and disheartened cavalry.
from the field, ... it was evident to the meanest General Johnston's army reached its maximum comprehension among the rebels that the men who strength on the New Hope Church line, where he must double-quicked across to their hills that afternoon had have had 75,000 for battle when the armies faced each come to stay.” General Logan also says that by the other May 27th. General Sherman's army 7 there num- capture of this position “ the railroad bridge and the bered, of all arms, for duty, 93,600 men, and several town were held entirely at our mercy.” brigades of this force were employed in guarding trains The Fifteenth Corps lost 628 killed and wounded at and watching roads in all directions, for Sherman's Resaca. The troops in its front, Loring's and Cantey's army had no rear. Odds of less than 5 to 4 against divisions and Vaughan's brigade, according to their him is “the great inequality of force” which General incomplete official reports lost 698. Much the greater Johnston complains compelled him “ to employ dis- part of this loss must have been on the evening of mounted cavalry” in holding this line.
May 14th, for there was no other line-of-battle enIn a footnote to his article General Johnston says: gagement on this part of the field. "I have two reports of the strength of the army besides
General Johnston characterizes the battle of May 28th that of April 30th, already given : 1. Of July 1st, 39,746 at Dallas as “a very small affair,” in which the Conintantry: 3855 artillery, and 10,484 cavalry ; total, 54,085. federates lost about 300 men and the Union troops 2. Of July 10th, 36,901 infantry, 3755 artillery, and 10,270 cavalry; total, 50,926."
“must have lost more than ten times as many.” This
was an assault made upon troops of the Fifteenth Corps The return of July 1st shows “ present for duty” all bytwo brigades of Bate's Confederate division and Armarms, officers and men, 64,578, instead of 54,085. (As strong's brigade of Jackson's cavalry dismounted, supin case of the return of April 30th, General Johnston ported by Smith's brigade of Bate's division and Fergives only the “effective total.”) The loss since guson's and Ross's brigades of Jackson's cavalry. LewJune roth is accounted for by 1114 dead, 711 deserters, is's Kentucky brigade attacked the front of Osterhaus's 1042 increase in absent without leave (prisoners), and division without success. Bullock's Florida brigade 3693 in increase of absent sick and wounded.
charged along the Marietta road and was driven back, None of the returns of this army, either under with heavy loss, by the fire of the 53d Ohio regiment. Johnston or Hood, make any account of the Georgia Armstrong assailed the position held by Walcutt's brimilitia, a division of which under General G. W. Smith gade across the Villa Rica road and met a bloody repulse. General Bate officially reported the loss in his (General Robertson). The accusation against which division as 450. General Walcutt in his official report I defended Stuart was, that by going into Pennsylvania says that“ 244 dead and wounded rebels were found around Hooker's rear with a portion of the cavalry in my front,” and many were doubtless removed. The he had taken away the eyes of the army, so that GenConfederate loss in this “ very small affair ” was, there. eral Lee, like a blind man, had stumbled into the fight. fore, over 700. The loss of the Fifteenth Corps was 379, I think I have shown that the fault was not in Stuart's or about one-half the Confederate loss, instead of “ more plan, but in the execution of the part assigned to a subthan ten times as many."
* For strength of Jackson's cavalry division, see General S. D. For strength of Quarles's brigade, see Johnston's narrative, Lee's return May roth, and the return of General Johnston's army June 10th, 1864.
# For Sherman's strength on the New Hope line, see his return For strength of General French's division, see his return of "ef- May zist and deduct Blair's Seventeenth Corps, which did not fectives when joined."
join the army until June 8th.
ordinate. If Booth plays “Othello" with a bad support, General Johnston assumes that General Sherman the performance as a whole will be a failure, no matused his entire army in the assault on Kenesaw Moun- ter what may be the merit of the chief actor. The com. tain, when, in fact, he employed less than 15,000 men, plaint against Robertson is, that having been placed The remainder of the army was not engaged, except in with a large force of cavalry in observation, with orders the continuous battle of the skirmish lines. The as- to follow on the right of the army next to the enemy, saulting column of the Army of the Cumberland, di- he gave General Lee no information of their moverected against Hardee's corps, was composed of 5 ments, but followed on the left, and never reached the brigades about 9000 strong. The formation was such battle-field. He says that he was ordered “ to cross the that each brigade presented a front of but two com- Potomac where Lee crossed,” and follow on the right panies. The leading regiments lost very heavily; those of the army. No such instructions were given him, as in the rear suffered few casualties. General Thomas they would have involved a physical impossibility, as reported the entire loss as 1580. The attack of the Lee crossed with Longstreet on the left at WilliamsArmy of the Tennessee was made upon the Confeder- port. So did General Robertson. His instructions ate intrenchments held by French's division and a part were: “ After the enemy has moved beyond your reach, of Walker's, by three brigades of the Fifteenth Corps, leave sufficient pickets in the mountains, and withdraw numbering 5500 men. Their formation was in two to the west side of the Shenandoah, and place a strong lines; their total loss 603, three-fourths of this falling and reliable picket to watch the enemy at Harper's Feron the regiments in the first line.
ry, cross the Potomac and follow the army, keeping on General Johnston expresses the belief that Northern its right and rear.” In his letter to Stuart of June 23d, soldiers could not be repulsed with casualties so small General Lee had directed that, if the cavalry passed as reported at Kenesaw. In this he, unwittingly per- through the Shenandoah Valley, it must cross on our haps, compliments Sherman's army at the expense of right at Shepherdstown (where A. P. Hill crossed) his own. On the 22d of June, five days before the bat- and move towards Frederick City. Stuart's instructions tle of Kenesaw, he tells us that the divisions of Steven- to Robertson indicated the same general direction for son and Hindman were repulsed, in an assault on the him to go, and, if they had been obeyed, would have Union line, with a loss of one thousand men. These put the cavalry in its proper position, between our indivisions, June roth, numbered over 11,000 for duty. fantry and the enemy. The Northern army moved into Their loss, therefore, was but 9 per cent., while that of Pennsylvania east of the Blue Ridge or South Moun. the troops of the Army of the Cumberland engaged at lain, while Robertson's command moved on a parallel Kenesaw was 17 per cent.; of the Army of the Tennes. line, about twenty miles to the west of it. This is the see, 11 per cent. In both cases the loss sustained was only example in war of the cavalry of an invading sufficient to demonstrate the futility of further effort. army marching in rear of the infantry. He says that, In neither case was it a fair test of the staying quali- as he was ordered to avoid pikes, he was compelled to ties of the troops who on many fields had shown their go by Martinsburg. But that could not have been the willingness to shed any amount of blood necessary
reason for selecting this route, as he actually traveled when there was reasonable hope of success.
along pikes nearly all the way; whereas, if he had gone E. C. Dawes,
by Shepherdstown, he might have avoided them altoLate Major 53d Ohio Regiment.
gether. The suggestion to keep off turnpikes, to save CINCINNATI, September 8th, 1887.
his horses' shoes, did not require him to change the
direction prescribed for him on the right of the army. A Rejoinder to General Robertson by Colonel Mosby. He says he hurried on from Virginia to join the army,
and by forced marches reached Chambersburg on the In The Century for August, General Beverly H. evening of July 2d, and Cashtown on the next mornRobertson defends himself against the charge of hav- ing — which was the last day of the battle. If he had ing disobeyed orders in the Gettysburg campaign, and kept on to Gettysburg, he might have reached there imputes to me the absurdity of trying to prove that in time to witness the last scene of the great tragedy. Stuart knew nothing about it, and also with defending He had marched from Berryville to Chambersburg in him against “an imaginary attack.” With equal pro- three days — which is exactly the time that it took Longpriety it might be said that General Robertson has street's infantry to march the same distance. But then defended himself against “an imaginary attack.” I Longstreet did not pretend to be in a hurry. If keepnever intimated that Stuart was ignorant of his default. ing behind the left wing is the same thing as being on Stuart fought at Gettysburg and knew that Robertson the right flank of the army, then there can be no doubt did not. The latter affects to be unaware of the fact that that General Robertson obeyed orders. At Cashtown, two of General Lee's staff have published accounts of he says that he heard that Pleasonton was moving to Gettysburg, in which they attribute the loss of the bat. capture our trains, so he turned off and went to meet tle to the want of cavalry to make the preliminary re- him. Pleasonton was then fighting Stuart at Gettysconnoissances ; and that in the memoir of his chief by burg. General Robertson made no report of his operStuart's adjutant, the blame of it is put upon himself ations in this campaign, but General Jones, who was
under him, says that at Cashtown an order came from ny! guess you got blown up.” “Well,” replied JohnGeneral Lee requiring a cavalry force to be sent to ny with an oath, “ I should just say so; but somehow I Fairfield, and that in the absence of General Robertson got the start of the other fellows, for when I was comhe determined to move in that direction at once, and ing down I met the regiment going up, and they all that near there he encountered and routed the 6th called me a blasted straggler ! United States Regulars. There was only one regiment
Henry R. Howland. of Federal cavalry there, which thus neutralized two
BUFFALO, September 7th, 1885. Confederate brigades with two batteries of artillery. If all of our cavalry had been at the front, Meade could
Ransom's Division at Fredericksburg. not have spared even this one regiment to send after Lee's trains; it would have been all he could do to take In the August, 1886, number of THE CENTURY care of his own. In the skirmish at Fairfield on July General James Longstreet published what he “saw of 3d was the first time Robertson's command had seen the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862.” the enemy since it disappeared from his front at The omissions in that article were so glaring and did Middleburg, Va., early on the morning of June 26th. such injustice, that I wrote to him and requested him Keeping eight days out of sight of the enemy was not to correct what would produce false impressions. His exactly the way to carry out Stuart's order to watch and answer was unsatisfactory, but promised that, “I harass him. It was his leadership preceding the battle [Longstreet] expect in the near future to make accounts that I criticised. In modern war the most important of all battles and put them in shape, in a form not service of cavalry is rendered before a battle begins. limited by words, but with full details, when there will General Robertson says that it was at Martinsburg, and be opportunity to elaborate upon all points of interest.” not at Ashby's Gap in the Blue Ridge, “as Colonel General Lee, in his report of the battle of FredericksMosby insinuates," that he received orders from Gen. burg, December 13th, 1862, writes as follows: eral Lee to join the army. In December, 1877, a letter of his was published in the Philadelphia “ Times,” in derson's division resting upon the river, and those of
· Longstreet's corps constituted our left, with Anwhich he justified his delay in Virginia, on the ground McLaws, Pickett, and Hood extending to the right in the that his instructions required him “ to await further order named. Ransom's division supported the batteries orders," and stated that on June 29th, at Ashby's Gap, brigade of McLaws's division and the 24th North
on Marye's and Willis's hills, at the foot of which Cobb's he received orders from General Lee to join the army, Carolina of Ransom's brigade were stationed, protected and started forth with. He fortified this statement by by a stone wall. The immediate care of this point was certificates of two members of his staff. The instructions committed to General Ransom." which I recently found among the Confederate ar
The italics in this paper are all mine. The positions chives direct him to hold the mountain gaps " as long
are stated by General Lee exactly as the troops were as the enemy remains in your [his] front in force.” He staid there three days after they had gone into posted. Lee's report continues, farther on : Pennsylvania, and now makes no explanation of the de "About II A. M., having massed his (the enemy's] lay, but raises an immaterial issue about the skirmish troops under cover of the houses of Fredericksburg, he at Fairfield, which simply proves that on the day of moved forward
in strong columns, to seize Marye's and
Willis's hills. General Ransom advanced Cooke's brigade battle he was in the rear with the wagon trains. Gen- to the top of the hill, and placed his own, with the eral Robertson says that he gave satisfaction to Gen- exception of the 24th North Carolina, a short distance eral Lee. Now, that General Lee was dissatisfied with in rear,"... "In the third assault." [his report continues] some one is shown by his report in which he complains R. Cobb fell at the head of his gallant troops, and al
"the brave and lamented Brigadier-General Thomas R. that “the movement of the army preceding the battle of most at the same moment Brigadier-General Cooke was Gettysburg had been much embarrassed by the absence borne from the field severely wounded. Fearing that of the cavalry.” I have elsewhere shown that this Cobb's brigade might exhaust its ammunition, General
Longstreet had directed General Kershaw to take two censure can only apply to the commander of the cav- regiments to its support. Arriving after the fall of Cobb, alry who was left with him to observe the enemy. As he assumed command, his troops taking position on the soon as the army returned to Virginia, General Rob- Ransom also advanced three other regiments.
crest and at the foot of the hill, to which point General ertson, at his own request, was relieved of command. No argument in favor of acquittal can be drawn from General Kershaw took command of Cobb's brigade, the leniency that was shown in this case. There was which I had had supplied with ammunition from my but little of the stern Agamemnon in the character of wagons, and I repeated the supply during the day. General Lee.
General Longstreet in his official report says:
Jno. S. Mosby. SAN FRANCISCO, August 24th, 1887.
“ General Ransom on Marye's Hill was charged with the immediate care of the point attacked, with orders to
send forward additional reënforcements, if it should beAn Anecdote of the Petersburg Crater.
come necessary, and to use Featherston's brigade of An
derson's division, if he should require it." And continuI was in Virginia in 1864, and the paragraph in Gen- ing: "I directed Major-General Pickett to send me two
of his brigades: one, K'emper's, was sent to General Ransom eral Grant's Vicksburg paper describing the mine ex
to be placed in some secure position to be ready in case plosion and the frightened negro who was lifted “'bout it should be wanted." And again, " I would also mention, t'ree mile" brings to my mind the mining of the Con- as particularly distinguished in the engagement of the federate works before Petersburg in the summer of
13th, Brigadier-Generals Ransom, Kershaw, and Cooke
(severely wounded)." 1864. Among the prisoners captured was one whose face was greatly begrimed, and as he marched by he General McLaws was not upon the part of the field was saluted by a blue-coat with the remark, “Say, John- in the vicinity of Marye's and Willis's hills during the battle, but his aide, Captain King, was killed on the front
“HEADQUARTERS KEMPER'S BRIGADE,
December 20th, 1862. slope of the hill near Marye's house.
“GENERAL: I inclose herewith the statement of the My own permanent command was a small division losses of my brigade on the 13th and 14th insts. while actof two brigades of infantry,—my own, containing the ing as part of your command. While a report of my losses 24th, 25th, 35th, and 49th ; and Cooke's, the 15th, 27th, has been called for by my permanent division commander, 46th, and 48th regiments,--all from North Carolina; and rendered to him, it has occurred to me that a similar
one rendered to yourself would be proper and acceptable. and attached to my brigade was Branch's battery, Permit me to add, general, that our brief service with you and to Cooke's brigade the battery of Cooper. was deeply gratifying to myself and to my entire comAt the time the fog began to list from the field, I was
mand. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully,
your obedient servant. with Generals Lee and Longstreet, on what has since
“ J. L. KEMPER, BRIGADIER-GENERAL. been known as Lee's Hill. Starting to join my com- "BRIG.-Gen. RANSOM, COMMANDING DIVISION." mand as the Federals began to emerge from the town, General Longstreet said to me, “Remember, general, As stated in my letter to General Longstreet dated I place that salient in your keeping. Do what is August 14th, 1886, when I brought to his attention his needed; and call on Anderson if you want help.” extraordinary omissions, it gave me unseigned pleasure
I brought up Cooke before the first assault to the to mention properly in my official report the meritoricrest of the hills, and before that assault ended, Cookeous conduct of those who were a part of my permanent took the 27th and 46th and part of the 15th North command and those others who that day fell under my Carolina into the sunken road in front. The 48th direction by reason of my“ immediate care of the point North Carolina fought on top of the hill all day. attacked.” My official report exhibits no self-seeking
At the third assault I brought up the 25th North nor partial discriminations. Carolina just in time to deliver a few deadly vol. Upon a letter from me (of the 17th of December, leys, and then it“ took position shoulder to shoulder with 1862) to General R. H. Chilton, assistant adjutantCobb's and Cooke's men in the road.”
general Army of Northern Virginia, wherein I protest During this third attack General Cobb was mortally againt the ignoring of my command in some telehit, and almost at the same instant, and within two graphic dispatches to the War Department at Richpaces of him, General Cooke was severely wounded mond relative to the battle of the 13th, General Longand borne from the field, Colonel E. D. Hall, 46th Street indorses these words: “ General Ransom's North Carolina, assuming command of Cooke's bri- division was engaged throughout the battle and was quite gade.
as distinguished as any troops upon the field"; and the At this juncture I sent my adjutant-general, Captain same day, the 19th of December, I received from both Thomas Rowland, to the sunken road to learn the con- him and General Chilton notes expressing the regret dition of affairs. “His report was most gratifying, felt by General Lee at the injustice of which I comrepresenting the troops in fine spirits and an abun- plained. Those original letters are now among the dance of ammunition. I had ordered Cobb's brigade “Official Records” in Washington. supplied from my wagons."
I may be pardoned for remembering with pride After this third attack I was bringing up the 35th that among the Confederate troops engaged on the and 49th North Carolina of my brigade, when General whole battle-field of Fredericksburg, Va., DecemKershaw, by a new road leading from the mill below, ber 13th, 1862, none were more honorably distincame up on horseback with his staff at the head of one guished than the sons of North Carolina, and those regiment, which he took in just at Marye's house. He of them who with brother soldiers from other States was followed by a second regiment, which halted be held the lines at Marye's Hill against almost ten times hind a brick-walled graveyard upon Willis's Hill. their number of as brave and determined foes as ever
About sundown Brigadier-General Kemper was did battle can well trust their fame to history when brought up, and relieved the 24th North Carolina with written from truthful official records.* two of his regiments and held the others in closer sup
R. Ransom. porting distance. On the 20th of December, 1862, he
* When credit is not given for quotations, they are from my offisent me a list of his casualties, with this note: cial report of the battle.-R. R.
THE BAGGAGE GUARD.
TOPICS OF THE TIME.
affronted by the action of his national party, in any of
its attempts to control the action of its minorities, I . T is always much easier to die for one's country while he gazes tranquilly above and beyond the grossate burst up the hill-side, guided by the colors that break Council spends months in a “dead-lock” over the apout again and again through the smoke; the duel-spirit pointment of three or four policemen, with “deals” and that yearns to lay the ship alongside an enemy, as if diplomatic negotiations enough for the management of that were more than half the battle,- are all sustained
an empire and hardly enough success for the manageand made easier by the sense of personal struggle, of ment of a kitchen; the Fire Department, the Health great sacrifices publicly recognized, and of that mag- Department, the Building Department, the Departnetic influence which is in the eyes of comrades-in-arms. ment of Public Works, the Police Department, and the You shall find ten men ready to assume the burdens Department of Education, which should be in active of war, with such incentives to sustain the war-spirit, and harmonious coöperation, spend the time and effort where one is ready to espouse and take to himself the which should be given to the city service in dealing homelier virtues and duties of good citizenship, — to one another vicious blows through the newspapers and study the institutions of his own country, to test for him- elsewhere; taxation results merely in providing a liveself the character and influence of candidates, the policies lihood for incompetent officials and in thrusting inand methods of parties, the dangers which beset the efficient public service upon the citizens; and still the State and the most hopeful remedies for them. Happy citizen refuses to learn the essential lesson that there is the man who can take contentedly the duties of citi- is such a thing as municipal patriotism, and that munici.. zenship as they are carved out for him and presented pal politics is its only practical mode of expression. to him by others; but more implicitly does he serve Why should the politics of the city be tied down to his country who looks on such duties as his personal the politics of the nation or the State ? Is there any service, never to be intrusted to another.
identity of interest between the two, such as would be It is quite too much the fashion, just now, to talk as apt to secure efficient city administration by a selection if good citizens, in this sense, were rarer than they of city officers based upon national party preferences ? really are; as if the mass of American citizens took Every one knows the contrary, from practice as well party as the primary object of their devotion, and looked as from theory: in a few of our cities, the lesson has' at the country only through the party. If this were already developed a strong and effective independtrue, it would be the most terrible indictment of demo- ent city vote; and yet, take the country through, the cratic institutions by their results that ever was framed; individual conscience seems to be almost as inert as and every one who is interested in the century's his- ever in this matter. The man who, moved by conscience, tory of the great American experiment ought to take takes up his own burden of battle against the abuses a pride in every indication that it is far from true
of his own city government, is pretty certain of the farther to-day than it ever was before. At no previous pity of those who know him personally and of the crittime have parties been so much like a bundle of nerves, icism of those who are strangers to him; he need not answering to the slightest touch of circumstance. The expect that which he deserves — the cordial sympathy smallest tendency to party tyranny is met no longer of his fellow-citizens, their consideration for his ineviby willing submission, but by mutterings of discontent, table errors, and their rejoicing in his successes. His or even by open revolt ;' and the apparent danger is fellow-citizens have not yet been educated up to that rather of party disintegration than of party despotism. point. We still lack that essential factor in political The man who grumbles about the “slow train,” which development - municipal patriotism. Thousands of makes but twenty miles an hour, is simply a personi- men have been found ready and willing to die for the fied proof that the day of the stage-coach has passed United States or even for the individual State. Where away; and the man who grumbles at the tyranny of are the men who would die for Brooklyn, or Chicago, party is merely a similar proof that the Essex Junto or San Francisco ? Where, indeed, are the men who and the Albany Regency no longer provide ready-made would live for them ? political opinions for a contented people, or pull Adams It is an indication of progress, at least, that this last down or Jackson up, but that party machines are, more question has every year a larger answer: the growth than ever before, the servants of those who support is not so large as it should be, but it is a growth, not a them.
degeneration. Every year sees an increased number It is mainly, however, on the larger and more state of men who find their most interesting field of investily and imposing boards of the national theater that this gation in the various problems of city government; tendency has thus far shown itself. The voter who has who study the American city, its methods of administracome to claim for his individual conscience the supreme tion, its methods of voting, its abuses and their remedies, power of private judgment in national politics is still far with all the intensity which once was peculiar to natoo apt to accept without hesitation the guidance of his tional politics. Men have even been found willing to party“ machine” in State politics, while he looks up- abandon wide fields of national usefulness to enter the on city politics as practically beneath his notice. He is new battle-ground of municipal administration. Are