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ference in a distribution to the several towns now in the General Treasury, ten thousand If made in proportion to the population to be dollars be set apart and exclusively appropribenefited (say between the ages of five and ated, in the manner hereinafter mentioned, sixteen years) and although taken from the as a fund for the support of public schools, census of 1820. Since then the north part of and to be denominated the school fund. the state has increased its population and “Sec. 2. That the governor and secretary wealth, whereas the south part, including the for the time being, be and are hereby consticounties of Newport, Washington, and Brisa tuted commissioners of said fund; whose tol, has probably not increased in the same duty it shall be to invest in bank stock of the ratio. Yet I would not have it understood banks of this state, the sum hereby approprithat any rule of estimate, either of popula-ated, together with the interest thereon as the tion or valuation, made several years ago, same shall accrue, and such further appropria pught to be adhered to, but the population or ations as the general assembly may hereafter valuation, at or near the time of making the make, or such donations as may be made by distribution, ought to be the rule established.” individuals or corporations, for the same pur# # she

pose. - This (second) section compels the town3 " Sec. 3. That said commissioners shall to provide school houses, and to make taxes, keep a regular account, in a book to be pro&c., and they must swallow it, whether they vided for that purpose, and to remain in the like it or not it must go down, or they will secretary's office, of all moneys by them renot be entitled to any benefit from the appro-ceived, of whom, on what account, and how priation made by the state for the support of invested, and report annually to the general free schools. Now, sir, can any man in his assembly on the first Wednesday of May, or right senses (I do not appeal to any one whose oftener if required, a particular statement and senses are inflated with vanity), suppose, for account of said fund, and their proceedings a moment, that the provisions of the first and generally in relation to the same. second sections of this bill, are calculated to " Sec. 4. That the interest of said fund induce the people of this state to enter heart shall be applied to the support of public and soul into the support of free schools ? I schools whenever the general assembly shall will leave the question for the advocates of direct the same, and shall be distributed this bill to answer.

among the several towns in the state in pro: “ The other sections of the bill may be con- portion to the free white population in each sidered as necessary, with some few excep-town between the ages of five and sixteen tions, for carrying into operation the provis- years." {on of the first and second. I will not, however, take up any more of the time of the “Sir, in concluding my remarks, I would house in considering this bill, but will proceed say to those who are in favor of establishing to the consideration of a substitute. I shall free schools immediately, be patient a little in due time move to amend the bill, by strik- while and you will have your wishes, whereing out the whole of it, after the enacting as if you push the subject imprudently, declause in the first section, with the view of feat will follow as a matter of course." substituting the following:

" Sec. 1. Be it enacted, That of the money' LIght things will agitate little minds.

Hymn of the Marseillaise.

blies, and in the stormy street convocation.

De Lisle's mother heard it, and said to her The Marseillaise was inspired by genius, son, " What is this revolutionary hynm, sung patriotism, youth, beauty, and champagne. by bands of brigands, and with which your Rouget de Lisle was an officer of the garrison name is mingled?” De Lisle heard it and at Strasburg, and a native of Mount Jura. shuddered as it sounded through the streets He was an unknown poet and composer. He of Paris, rung from the Alpine passes, while had a peasant friend named Dietrick, whose he, a royalist, fled from the infuriated people, wife and daughters were the only critics and frenzied by his own words. France was a admirers of the soldier poet's song. One great amphitheater of anarchy and blood, and night he was at supper with his friend's fami- De Lisle's song was the battle cry. ly, and they had only coarse bread and slices. There is no national air that will compare of ham. Dietrick, looking sorrowfully at De with the Marseillaise in sublimity and power; Lisle, said, “ Plenty is not our feast, but we it embraces the soft cadences full of the peashave the courage of a soldier's heart; I have ant's home, and the stormy clangor of silver still one bottle left in the cellar — bring it, and steel when an empire is overthrown ; it my daughter, and let us drink to liberty and endears the memory of the wine dressers cotour country!”

tage, and makes the Frenchman in his exile, The young girl brought the bottle ; it was cry “La belle Frar

cry “ La belle France !” forgetful of the torch, soon exhausted, and De Lisle went stagger and sword, and guillotine, which have made ing to bed. He could not sleep for the cold, his country a specter of blood in the eyes of but his heart was warm and full of the beat the nations. Nor can the foreigner listen to it, ing of genius and patriotism. He took a

sung by a company of exiles, or executed by small clavicord and tried to compose a song:

a band of musicians, without feeling that it is sometimes the words were composed first the pibroch of battle and war. sometimes the air. Directly he fell asleep over the instrument, and waking at daylight,

MARSEILLES HYMX. wrote down what he had conceived in the Ye sons of France, awake to glory! delirium of the night. Then he waked the Hark! hark, what myriads bid you rise ! family, and sang his production : at first the Your children, wives, and grandsires hoary, woman turned pale, then wept, then burst Behold their tears and hear their cries! forth in a cry of enthusiasm. It was the song Behold their tears and hear their cries ! of the nation and of terror.

Shall hateful tyrants, mischiefs breedings

With hireling hosts, a ruffian band, Two months afterwards, Dietrick went to | Affright and desolate the land, the scaffold listening to the self same music, While peace and liberty lie bleeding? composed under his own roof and under the To arms! to arms, ye brave! Inspiration of his last bottle of wine. The peo- Th’avenging sword unsheath! ple sang it everywhere; it flew from city to city, March on! march on! all hearts resolved to every public orchestra. Marseilles adopted ! On victory or death! the song at the opening and close of its clubs,

'|Now, now the dangerous storm is rolling, – hence the name, “Hymn of the Marseil

Which treacherous kings confederate raise laise.” Then it sped all over France.

The dogs of war, let loose, are howling They sung it in their houses, in public assem-! And lo! our walls and cities blaze!

And shall we basely view the ruin,

For the Schoolmaster. While lawl ss force, with guilty stride,

Phonetics and its Objectors. Spreads desolation far and wide, With crimes and blood his hands embruing? | Ar the teachers' institute which was apTo arms, &c.

pointed and superintended by our respected With luxury and pride surrounded,

and efficient Commissioner of Public Schools, The vile, insatiate despots dare,

and ending on the 8th ultimo, the subject of Their thirst of gold and power unbounded, phonetics was considered in the course of inTo mete and vend the light and air.

structive lectures and drill exercises. BelierLike beasts of buren would they load us ing that our esteemed and edifying lecturer Like gods would bid their slaves adore

spoke in sincerity and unbiased by prejudice, But man is man - and who is more?

we pen the following in a kindred spirit, not Then shall they longer lash and goad us?

so much to extenuate his objections to the To arms, &c.

phonetic reform, or to advocate any “inovaOh, liberty! can man resign thee,

tion,” as to show the other side of the ques. Once having felt thy generous flame?

tion. Judging, however, from the nature of Can dungeons, bolts, and bars confine thee?

his objections, we conclude that they were the Or whips thy noble spirit tame?

result of a limited knowledge of the subjectToo long the world has wept, bewailing That falsehood's dagger tyrants wield

matter. We reported his lecture, but as space But freedom is our sword and shield,

will not admit of an elaborate reply, it is neAnd all their arts are unavailing.

cessary to consider the principal parts of his To arms, &c.

remarks, which, being condensed, represent

| him to say, substantially, that Indestructibility of Enjoyment.

First. We should do away with silent letMANKIND are always happier for having ters, the keys to the origin of words; lose been happy; so that if you make them happy the history wrapped up in them and destroy now, you make them happy twenty years their relationship to other languages, which is hence, by the memory of it. A childhood indicated by their orthography. passed with a due mixture of rational indul- This will be considered as an etymological gence, under fond and wise parents, diffuses objection. It must be conceded that all primover the whole of life a feeling of calm pleas-itive languages were originally, more or less ure; and, in extreme old age, is the very last phonetic. If they had been constructed on a remembrance which time can erase from the purely phonetic basis their pronunciation mind of man. No enjoyment, however in- could be more easily determined now. The considerable, is confined to the present mo- labors of the etymologists are in vain, unless ment. A man is the happier for life, from they possess a knowledge of pronunciation, having made once an agreeable tour, or lived and as the science of etymology is founded for any length of time with pleasant people, upon the science of phonetics, it follows that or enjoyed any considerable interval of inno- phonetic spelling, instead of being a barrier cent pleasure ; which contributes to render to the praiseworthy researches of etymologists, old men so inattentive to the scenes before is a sure and safe guide. them, and carries them back to a world that The crowning invention of human intellect is past, and to scenes never to be renewed is language, a collection of significant sounds again. - SYDNEY SMITH.

| which should be represented by significant

symbols. Until these sounds are known and Wheedon says, “ Etymology is a luxury exhibited, their etymological changes can not for the few ; phonotypy a necessity for the even become the subject of serious etymologi- many." cal investigation.

| Second. “We should have a southern, The use of silent letters increase the bulk eastern, and western language; we could not of books by one tenth part, consequently, use each others books, and the pronunciation their cost is enhanced millions of dollars per would be fixed, because certain signs would annum. Al derivative words do not contain stand for certain sounds.” silent letters to show their origin, nor do they In many words the short sound of o, in not, always retain their primitive meaning. is made to have a distinct and different sound

Dr. Franklin pertinently said that “ Ety for the south, east and west. Had this letter, mologies, at present, are very uncertain, and and.all others of the same class, a character such as they are old books would still pre- to represent its sound in one word, and anserve, and we don't look to etymology for other different sign to represent its sound in present meanings. If I call a man a nave or another and different word, it would be propvilla in, he would hardly be satisfied with my erly used. Therefore, it is easy to see that telling him that one of the words originally sig- the very objection raised in the first two nified only a lad or servant, and the other an members of the accusation, are obviated by under-plovoman or an inhabitant of a village. having one sign for one sound, no more, no It is from present usage only, the meanings of less. words are to be determined."

A phonetic representation of the elementaIf silent letters, in too many of our words, ry sounds in our language, or any other, would. indicate their relationship to other languages, not tend to fix pronunciation, as that is why don't the b in plumb, thumb, ni umb, dumb, an impossibility, for the English language has and climb appear in the etymons of these been changing and growing in strength and words in other languages. The h, in rhyme, beauty, ever since its Saxon birth, and it will has caused some to refer this to the Greek, continue to do so, so long as it exists. Phobut it is the Anglo-Saxon, which means num- notypy would keep pace with the slow changes. bers. Heteric spelling, not unfrequently, mis- in language and yet remain one and the same leads the etymologist, as in island, the s refers system. Its object is not, as many suppose, this word to the same origin as isle ; namely, to change or interfere with language, but to the Latin insula, through the Italian insola, represent it correctly and scientifically. while it is in fact pure Anglo-Saxon, and That we have at present, a southern, eastmeans water-land. Bough and bow have the ern and western medley of dialects, which is same root.

growing no better; that this will be the case, To say that phonetic spelling often proves while based on our orthographic quagmire, a trustworthy guide to the roots of words is not one who is well read, or has visited difno utopian assertion. Ice, phonetically, is, ferent parts of the Union, will essay to palliagrees with the original Saxon is. Doubt, ate or ignore; and that this cacophonic lingo and all its derivatives, comes from the French will characterize our glorious language so long douté, therefore, the 6 is improper. Poultice, as no certain sign stands for one and the same from the Latin pultis, phonetically pultis. sound, is too evident. Whence are all our These examples might be increased. Dr, provincialisms which painfully remind one of

English shires? Do they not arise from dif- " Or else be written down a fool, ferent people assigning various powers to let By the great orthographic rule; ters and combinations of letters to express That, 'tis the spelling that gires the sense.” simple articulate sounds ? Books in phonetic

A rule of shallowest pretense." dress would be read alike the world over.

And by the spelling, of course, we compreThird. “We have a large number of words

hend the stanza — which are spelled differently though pronounce

“Of course a race course isn't coarse,

A fine is far from fine ; ed alike. If we spell such as they are pronounced we shoull not know what they

To see a sad sight, is to see

A noble pine tree pine." meant."

| In fine this fine homonymical objection vanOn the one 'hand, there is no need of this :

of this ishes into fine air. distinction, while on the other, there is great

Fourth. ~ All vast libraries. would, in the disadvantage, for, in the Romanic method,

course of a generation, be closed books. Our the spelling and pronunciation of every word

descendants would not be able to read them. in our language has to be mastered individu

All the books in the Redwood Library would ally. If we speak of “ Fannie dancing at a

be locked up to future generations.” ball,or “ Willie kicking at a ball," the itali

This, to those who are unfortunately not cized words, in letter and sound, are alike, lan

€, thoroughly acquainted with phonotypy and the meaning is widely different, yet unmistak

its mission, would appear to be a most forable. Who would think of stopping, while

midable as well as an unanswerable objection. reading or speaking, to explain that the mean

To render the vast amount of inestimable ing was rite not write, or right, or Wright, and

property in books, which adorn private, pubyet reader, would you not comprehend the

lic, and national libraries, useless and obsomeaning under all circumstances ?

lete, or by, some ó innovation " " lock up to " 'Tis plain you would, and thus 'tis found future generations” the precious store of You're guided by the sense and sound.”

knowledge that in them is, would indeed, be This distinction, from spelling differently, I wanton and preposterous. But, to suppose is lost more on the ear of the hearer, where it that phonotypy would cause this havoc, is a is most needed, than on the eye of the speak- mere figment of a visionary imagination. A er, who has the context before him. The or- | knowledge of phonetic, and then of Romanic thoepy of a word does not naturally indicate orthography, is now acquired in less than half to the ear its Romanic orthography, a fortiori the time it takes to learn the Romanic alone. the eye is not benefited. By our factious or- Were it decreed by a higher law than of conthography, we argue ad hominem, that con- gress, the law of necessity, that from to-day fusion is produced ; polynyms are as numer-forth, all books should be printed in phonetic ous as homonyms.

orthography, not a single person would, from Mr. Pare, prepare to repair to the pear tree

necessity, cease to be familiar with the print to pare a pear with a pair of schiesourrhce, * is a

of the present day. Were our language exsentence we must understand by its orthog

empt from change in orthography and pro

nunciation, this book objection would be far raphy,

more weighty against any reform in the mode * Justified by schism, sieve, as, honour, myrrh, of representing it. But such as already ansacrifice.

I ticipated is not the case.

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