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that, this Writer remarks, upon just and scientific principles. Linnæus, however, it is added, is the first, who regarding the ftamina and pistils as organs effentially receflary to generation, and corisequently the most constant in every species, has rendered their supposed function, and ascertained constancy, useful, by making thein furnith the generical and classical chasacters of a plan of arrangement.
It is for this reason, that the first investigators of the sexes of plants have so generally been overlooked, and the doctrine itfef confidered as of modera invention. In this respect, the Swedish botanist refembles the celebrated Harvey, who, by firit demonftrating the circulation of the blood, has obtained the honour of that important dircovery, although the circulation in question had been suspected, and in some initances recognized, long before the æra in which Harvey flourished.
Our confined limits will not admit of giving any accurate and complete idea of the Linnæan fyftein, founded upon the above sexual principle, as its leading character. Many of our Readers are already, no doubt, in fome degree acquainted with it; but to others the following quotations from this work may be acceptable:
• In establifing his method Linnæus has observed the following order. The ita'nina or male parts ferve to discriminate the clalles; the pistils or female parts generally discriminate the orders which are the first fubdivifion, and correspond to the sections of Tournefort. All the parts of fructification, and none other, are employed in distinguishing the genera. The remaining parts of plants, particularly the stems, leaves and roots, serve to characterize the species. Specific differences are, however, some:imes.derived from circumstances connected with the parts of fructification, when those circumstances are not neceffary for distinguishing the genera.
• Flowers which are scarcely visible, and cannot be distinctly described, occupy the twenty-fourth class, the last of the method, which has therefore obtained the name of cryptogamia or the clandeltine marriage; the parts of generation being either entirely hid or obscurely visible. The class in question contains all the submarine plants, mushrooms, mofles and ferns.
« Of flowers which are distinctly visible, some are hermaphrodite, that is, have the organs of the two fexes within the la me calix and petals; others are male and feinale, that is, have the stamina and piltils in different flowers. These last are contained in three classes, the twenty-first, twenty-second, and twenty-third of the method. They are thus distinguished. In the twenty-first class, the male flowers are reparated from the female upon the same individual plant. In the twenty-second the flowers of different lexes are separated from each other U 3
upon distinct plants. In the twenty-third there is a commixture of male, female or hermaphrodite Aowers upon one or more individuals. The first mentioned class is termed Monoecia, which fignifies one house, the fructification being perfected in one and the same plant. It is exemplified in box, mulberry, arrow-head, walnut, oak, pine, and palma-christi. The name Disecia, which signifies two houses, is given to the twenty-second class, because the fru&ification to be perfected, requires the agency of two distinct plants. Willow, hemp, hop, mercury, juniper, and butcher's broom afford examples of the class in question. The intercommunication of sexes that obtains in the twenty-third class has procured it the name of Polygamia, polygamy, or many marriages. It is exemplified in pellitory, crosswort, orach, ash, maple, and white hellebore.
The first twenty classes contain plants with hermaphrodite flowers only. These are primarily subdivided from the situation of the stamina, which either stand round the pistil, or are attached to it. One class only, the twentieth of the method, is occupied by hermaphrodite flowers in which the stamina are inserted into the pistil. It is termed Gynandria, which signifying wife-husband, seems expressive of the fingular union of the male and female organs within the same covers. Pallion flower, orchis, lady's flipper, and arum furnish examples.'
Dr. Milne, after several other observations, proceeds to il. lustrate the Linnæan method of arrangement as he had done others, by a familiar example, leaving the Reader to judge, from the ease or difficulty of his reference, whether facility, or the contrary be its distinguishing characteristic. We observe that he had pretty freely delivered his sentiments, in regard to the other systems that fell under his reyiew, but as to this, he,, in great measure, after laying the account before us, leaves every one to form his own judgment.
Immediately after the fixth fection follows, a synopsis, exhibiting the effential or striking characters which serve to discriminate genera of the fame class and order : likewise the secondary characters of each genus, or those derived from the port, habit, or general appearance of the plants which compose it. Froin the twenty-four classes of the Linnæan method, the four which are here specified bear the names of Minandria, Diandria, Triandria and Tetandria.
ART. III. Memoirs of the Year Tivo Thousand Five Hundred. Tranh
lated from the French, by W. Hooper, M.D.
it appears obvious that their manners are always progresfive, and never remain fixed at a certain point, during any con
liderable time. Even the steps of their progress may be ascer tained with a tolerable degree of precision, though it is no easy talk to follow nations from their rise to their declension, to cola lect the different aspects under which they have presented themfelves, and to ascertain the causes of the changes they have undergone. To advance from weakness to strength, and to decline from strength to weakness, seems to be the order which nature has prescribed to her works. Man, like other animals, helpless, at first, and feeble, attains by much care and flow de grees, the perfection and the force of which he is capable. The best half of his days is then over, and the remainder is wasted in receding from the point he had reached. Nations also have their youth, their maturity, and their old age: they emerge out of barbarism; become glorious by conquest or by industry; and are again immerged in obscurity.
But historians and moralists, while treating of human affairs, have too frequently confined their attention to the more fining periods in the annals of nations, and have neglected to observe, that communities are carried to degeneracy by no less powerful an impulse than to civilization. They have been led to conceive, that the state of refinement to which they may arrive is not confined and limited ; and, in their zeal for humanity, they have fancied a condition absolutely perfect, in which nations might be preserved. Political stability and moral rectitude characterize this fortunate condition of men ; and, though the records of history offer no example to confirm their speculations, they seem assured of their force. They rest, however, on a merely ideal foundation, and can only be considered as romantic
In this class of writers is the Author of the work before us. He conceives that in the year two thousand five hundred the golden age will be realized. No oppreffions will tben take place; perfection will have infused itself into laws, customs, and usages; every art and science will be known and unfolded ; eloquence will not plead the cause of injustice; the arts will not be perverted to flatter the senfes ; follies will be banished; and the pasions will submit to the pure lights of reason.
Concerning the means by which thefe alterations are to be produced, he is altogether filent The wonders of the august and venerable year two thousand five hundred were revealed to him in a dreani; and it is this dream which he lays before bis readers. Nor could he have found a form in which he might with more propriety have conveyed his whimsical descriptions, Having heated
' his imagination with the ideas of a fancied and unnatural perfection, he accommodates to them the arrangements of society; and in the Utopian theory he has depicted, there is no circumítance so striking as his total ignorance of
the principles of human conduct. In the state of felicity he describes, if it were poflible it could exist, men would be plunged into a fullen apathy. Roused by no objects of ambition or interelt, and not impelled to action, they would lose their vigour and their powers. It is in scenes of activity and enterprize that they are destined to find satisfaction and enjoyment, and not in the languors of indifference and repose.
But while we censure this Writer as deftitute of penetration, and as unacquainted with mankind, and with history, we acknowledge, with pleasure, that his imagination is vigorous and lively; that he discovers a warm spirit of liberty; and that his heart appears susceptible of the finest feelings.
From the following extracts our Readers will be enabled to form an opinion of the merits and the defects of his production:
I am feven hundred and sixty years old.— I dreamt that ages had passed since I laid down to rest, and that I was awake. I sole, and found a weight oppress me to which I was not accustomed; my hands trembled, and my feet stumbled; when I looked in the glass, I could scarce recollect my visage ; I went to bed with black hair and a fiorid complexion ; but when I rose, my forehead was ferrowed with wrinkles, and my hair was white ; I saw !wo prominent bones under my eyes, and a long nose; a colour pale and wan was spread over all my countenance; when I attempted to walk, I was
forced to support myself by my cane; I did not find, however, that · I had any ill.rature, the too common companion of old age,
As I went out, I saw a public place, which to me was unknown; they had just erected a pyramidical column, which attracted the reşard of the curicus. I advanced towards it, and read distinctly, The year of grace MMD. ; the characters were engraved on marble, in letters of goid. At first, I imagined that my eyes deceived me, or rather, that it was an error of the artist's; but I had scarce made the reticction, when the surprize became fill greater ; for, directing my looks towards two or three edicts of the sovereign fixed to the wall, which I have always been curious to read, I saw the same date, MMD, fairly printed on all of them. Ha! I said to myself, I am then become old indeed, without perceiving it. What! have I slept feven hundred and thirty-two years ?
All things were changed; all those places that were fo well known to me presented a different face, and appeared to be recently embelli hed; i loft myself amidst grand and beautiful streets, that were built in firait lities; I cntered a spacious square, formed by the terminations of four freets, where there reigned such perfect order, that I found not the least embarrassment, nor heard any of thote confused and whimsical cries that formerly rent my ears; I saw no carriages ready to cruth me; the gouty might have walked there commodioully; the city had an animated aspect, but without trouble or confufion.
This work was begun in 1768.'
I was so amazed, that I did not at first observe the passengers fiop and regard me from head to foot with the utmost astonishment. They thrugged the shoulder and smiled, as we use to do, when we. meet a mais ; in fact, my dress might well appear original and gro. tesque, when compared with theirs.
A citizen (whom I after found to be a man of learning) ap. proached me, and said politely, but with a fixed gravity, “ Good old man, to what purpose is this disguise? Do you intend to remind us of the ridiculous cuítoms of a whimsical age? We have no inclination to imitate them. Lay aside this idle frolic.” What mean you ?
I replied; I am not disguised ; 1 wear the same dress that I wore to yesterday; it is your columns and your edicts that counterfeit. You
ícem to acknowledge another sovereign than Lewis the XVth. I know not what is your design; but I efteem it dangerous; and so I tell you : masquerades of this sort are not to be countenanced ; men mult not carry their folly to such extent. You are, however, very free impoitors : for you cannot imagine that any thing can convince a man against the evidence of his own mind.
• Whether he thought that I was delirious, or that my great age made me dote, or whatever other suspicion he might have, he asked me in what year I was born. In 1740, I replied." Indeed! why then you are seven hundred and fixty years of age. We thould be atonished at nothing,” he said to the crowd thac surrounded me; “ Enoch and Elias are not yet dead; Mathusalem and some others bave lived nine hundred years ; Nicolas Flamel traverses the earth like a wandering Jew; and perhaps this gentleman has found the immortal elixir, or the philosopher's itone.” On pronouncing the lait words he smiled; and every one pressed toward me with a very particular complacency and respect. They seemed all eager to interrogate me; but discretion held them mute; they contented themSelves with saying, in a low voice, “ A man of the age of Lewis XV. Oh! what a curiosity!"
· The Hall of Audience. My insatiable curiosity, that would leave nothing unseen, carried me into the center of the city. I saw a great multitude, composed of each sex, and of every age, that flocked with precipitation toward a portal that was magnificently decorated. I heard from different parts, ". Let us make halte ! our good king has, perhaps, already mounted his throne; we hall scarce see him aícend it today.”—I followed the crowd, but was much astonished to find that there were no ferocious guards to beat back the thronging people. I came to a most spacious hall, supported by many columns; I ad
vanced, and at lait came near to the monarch's throne. No; it is * imposible to conceive an idea of royal majesty more pleasing,
more august, more graceful and engaging. I was melted, even to tears. I saw no thundering Jupiter, no terrible apparatus, no infruments of vengeance. Four figures of white marble, representing Fortitude, Temperance, Justice, and Clemency, supported a plain armed chair of white ivory, which was elevated merely to extend the voice.
The chair was crowned with a canopy, supported by a hand, the arm of which seemed to come out of the vaulted roof, On each side of the throne there were two tables ; on one side was