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after having passed the preceding part of his life in eating and drinking without weight or measure, found himself, in the year 1964, and in the 45th year of his age, overwhelmed with a complication of the most painful and terrible disorders. In the catalogue were comprehended frequent sickness at the stomach, pains in the bowels, head-ach, and vertigo. He had almost á conftant thirst, a great lowness of spirits, fits of the gravel, violent rheumatism, and frequent fits of the gout; and had likewise had two epileptic fits. To this copious lift of distempers were added a formidable sense of suffocation, particularly after meals, and an extreme corpulence of person. On read ing the Life of Cornaro, recommended to his perusal by the Rev. Mr. Powley, a worthy clergyman in his neighbourhood, he immediately formed a resolution to follow the falutary precepts inculcated and exemplified in that performance. He prudently however did not make a total or sudden change in his manner of living ; but finding the good effects of his new regimen, after proper gradations both with respect to the quantity and quality of his meat and drink, he finally left off the use of all fermented liquors on the 4th of January 1765, when he commenced water drinker. He did not long however indulge himself even in this last-mentioned innocent beverage ; for on the 25th of the following October, having found himself easier and better on having accidentally dined that day without drinking, he finally took his leave of this and every other kind of drink; not having tasted a single drop of any liquor whatever (excepting only what he has occasionally taken in the form of medicine, and two glasses and a half of water drank on the gth of May 1766) from that date to the present time [Aug. 22, 1771.]
With respect to solid nutriment—the 31st of July, in the year 1767, was the last time of his eating any kind of animal food. In its room he substituted a Gingle dish, of which he made only two meals in the twenty-four hours; one at Four or Five in the morning, and the other at Noon. This confifted of a pudding, of which he eat a pound and half, made of three pints of skimmed milk poured boiling hot on a pound of seabiscuit over night, to which two eggs were added next morning, and the whole boiled in a cloth about the space of an hour. Finding this diet however too nutritious, and having grown fat during the use of it, he threw out the eggs and milk, and formed a new edition of pudding, consisting only of a pound of coarse flour and a pint of water boiled together. He was at first much delighted with this new receipt, and lived upon it three months ; but not finding it easily digestible, he finally formed a mess, which has ever since constituted the whole of bis nourishment, composed of a pound of the best Agur, boiled to a proper stiffness with a pint and a half of skimmed milk, witka out any other addition.
Such is the regimen of diet, as agreeable to his palate as his former food used to be, by means of which, together with a considerable share of exercise, Mr. Wood has got rid of the incum. brance of 10 or 11 stone weight of distempered Alesh and far, and, to use his own expresion, has been metamorphofed from a monster to a person of a moderate fize; from the condition of an unhealthy, decrepit, old man, to perfect health, and to the vigour and activity of youth :'-his spirits lively, his sleep undifturbed, and his strength of muscles so far imp oved, that he can now carry a quarter of a tun weight, which he in vain attempted to perform, when he was about the age of 30, and in perfect health.
We shall mention only two other circumstances in the case of this fingular pattern of temperance and resolution. The first is, the extreme flowness and fobriety of his pulse, which Dr. Baker at three different times found to beat only from 44 to 47 times in a minute. The next and still more remarkable fingularity, is, that, notwithstanding his total abstinence from drink, and that no liquid is received into his stomach, except that contained in his pudding, a part of which is neceffarily carried off through the intestines; yet he daily and regularly makes about a pint and a half of urine. It is here observed, that during the most laborious and long. Continued exercise, he has very little or no sensible perspiration. We think we may safety conclude that, instead of throwing in any of his perspirable matter to the commmon mass of air, he on the contrary rather spunges upon the atmosphere, and robs it of a portion of its humidity, which we may suppose to be greedily attracted by the mouths of the dry and thirsty absorbents on the surface of his skin. Article * XVIII. An Account of some uncommon Cafes. By Do
nald Monro, M. D. F.R.S. &c. In the first of these cases an account is given of a singular scorbutic disorder, which is succeeded by the detail of two inveterate venereal cases. The history of an obftinate intermitting fever or ague is related in the fourth ; and that of a tumour on the brain, which protruded through the Os frontis, in the fifth. The case of a hydrocephalus, and of some offifica. tions in the mesentery conclude the article. Article XIX. Observations on the modern Method of inoculating the
Small Pox. By Dr. Baker. Article * XIX. An Account of the Success of Inoculation for the
Small Pox at Jamaica. By Mr. John Quier, Practitioner of Phyfic in that Ifand. 7
The first of these articles contains a very judicious examen, or review, of the practice of our modern inoculators, in the difa ferent ftages of the process; in which the Author fupplies, from further obfervation and experience, what was defective in his former publications on this subject. At the fame time that he shews what parts of their method are liable to objection, or require some modification, he candidly points out the real and great improvements introduced by them into this falutary practice, by which the artificial diseafe has undoubtedly been ren dered much milder and safer than formerly, and which accord. ingly are highly worthy of being universally adopred. Some good observations on the introduction of this method into the iland of Jamaica are contained in the second of these articles. Article XX. Further Observations on the Poison of Lead. By Dr.
Baker. The observations contained in this paper tend to illustrate and confirm the Author's opinions concerning the noxious effects of this metal, and the various ways by which this poisonous fubftance may be received into the human body, unobserved, and without suspicion. [See our account of the firft volume of these Transactions, in our Number for July 1768, p. 37, &c.] Article XXI. An Account of two Instances of the true Scurvy. By
Francis Milman, M. B. &c. In these two instances many diftinguishing symptoms of the genuine or sea-scurvy, such as putrid gums, ferid breath, difficulty of respiration, ulcers of the legs, &c. were observed in two women, for which no oher cause could be assigned than the want of a sufficient quantity of proper food, to correct the natural putrescent disposition of the juices. Article XXII. A Case of Hydatids, discharged by Coughing. By
John Collet, M. D. Phyfician at Newbury, Berkthire. From September 1771 to January 1772 the patient, a female aged 37, has discharged, by coughing, 135 hydacids of different fizes ; from that of a pea, to that of a pullet's egg; which evidently have been expectorated from the trachea. Some observations on the case, and anatomical remarks on the nature of the disease are added to this hiftory.
Article XXIII. Queries. By Dr. William Heberden.
There are undoubtedly many doctrines and opinions, which daily pass current in physic, that require a revision, and which rest on no other foundation than that of authority. The medical cribe have long been a gregarious race, implicitly following their leaders, and in many instances wilfully, or at least indolently, thutting their eyes to the evidence of facts even daily presenting themselves to their observation; whenever they happened to clash with certain long established maxims. In the firft volume of these Transactions the Author proposed his doubts of the truth of some of these orthodox, or commonly received opinions. In the present article, he prosecutes the same laudable spirit of enquiry. The first of the present set of queries relates to a matter on which every practitioner, who thinks for himself, must at least have entertained doubts. The Author asks, whether the fizy covering which is often seen upon blood, is of any use in directing the method of cure’? In the discusion of this question he fews that this buff-coloured crust, which has been observed in inflammatory disorders, and has been considered as an indication to take away more blood, may likewise be observed in distempers of a totally different nature; in erysipelatous gangrenes, in dropfies, in the putrid sore throat, and has been drawn from exhausted and dying persons, where the physician juftly laments that any had been taken away. He Thews on what flight and frequently unknown circumstances this appearance depends; and how little stress ought to be laid on a sign that lies at the mercy of the most trivial accidents, He concludes that the more we know of the human body, the more reason we find to believe that the seat of diseases is not to be fought for in the blood; to the sensible qualities of which they seem to have very little relation;' and that in reality it is but in very few disorders that the blood affords a practitioner much useful information.
We have extended our account of this publication to so great a length, that we can do little more than relate the subjects of the three following queries. In the second, the Author questions whether the dangerous symptoms that attend what is called the incarcerated hernia, be really occasioned, as is pretty generally supposed, by any preternatural and extraordinary stricture of the tendinous opening in the external oblique muscle ? In the third, the Author attacks a prejudice, if it be one, of the most extensive and inveterate kind. We mean the opinion almost universally entertained of the dangers attending the sitting or lying in wet rooms, or in damp clothes or beds. With regard however to some of the instances, which he brings, of sailors, laundresses, &c. receiving no injury, though daily conversant in wet and moisture, it may reasonably be objected that he intirely overlooks the great power of habit, to which they probably owe their security. In the fourth and last query some fenfible reasons are offered against the common practice of taking away blood from the arm or foot, with a view to the stopping of violent hæmorrhages from other parts.
Air. II. Infitutes of Botany.' Part II. Containing an Analysis and
Examination of the TOURNSPORTIAN and LINNÆAN Methods of
of the two universal methods of arrangement, one acknowkedging the fruit, the other the Aower, for their basis: the writers upon the first method he dismissed, after a minute examination, with a general censure. The second method, whicha is founded on the Aower, he confiders as attended with far lue perior convenience and advantages. Rivinus, he observes, was the first who availed himself of those advantages to promote the purposes of science, but has not received, either from contemposary writers, or from posterity, that tribute of acknowledgment which was fo eminently his due.
The leading character in the plan pursued by Rivinus and his profeffed imitators, is the number of the Petals; the next method which here falls under examination is that founded on their figure: Tournefort, and after him Pontedera, the one a Frenchman, the other a native of Italy, have adopted the latter diftin&ion, which they considered as a more certain and infallible mark of difcrimination, than that derived from the number of petals. Our Author, in order to ascertain the comparative merits of these rival methods, immediately proposes the question, • Is figure in general, or that of the petals in particular, a more infallible mark of distinction than number? If not, upon what grounds is Tournefort's method so universally preferred to that of Rivinus ?' In answer to this enquiry he observes, ' that, were each distinction equally fixed and invariable, each were not therefore equally proper for the purpose of scientific arrangement.--In estimating the fitness of either distinction-we are not to confine ourselves to their supposed constancy. Another circumstance claims our attention. The terms for ex. pressing the several parts and modifications of number are fixed and definite;, those which respect figure must, from the very nature of things, be highly arbitrary and indefinite. Numerals have a certain dcterminate meaning affixed to them, which is always the same, and can never be so affected by circumstances as to create ambiguity or doubt. Terms of figure, on the other hand, are in the science of botany, extremely equivocal ; because, deriving their origin chiefy from fancied resemblances, they will convey different meanings of the same subject, as often as the Author and his Readers do not exactly coincide in Por an account of which, see Review, vol. xly, p. 255.