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extraction. Twenty-five percent of our first graders can't understand English to the extent of following simple instructions. To many of them, English is a foreign language.

4. Alaska Native Service doctors to bring in film and take X-rays of all schoolchildren at least once a year. The Government to make arrangements to use the local hospital's X-ray machine.

5. Nome to receive $30,000 annually to assist the local community in maintaining a high standard school. At present, we are a member of the Northwest Association of Secondary and Higher Schools, but more and more Eskimos from the outlying villages are moving to Nome. Twelve years ago Nome's population was 1,300—today it is over 2,000. Over 25 percent of the 2,000 are in school. Respectfully submitted.

W. L. ANGELL, Superintendent of Schools. Mr. ANGELL. I was going to suggest that some member of the committee, when you are in Juneau, that Dr. Jackson in Seattle, or one of his assistants, come up to Nome and help us draft up the petition for moneys under 874. We get a lot of instructions. I get the names of these youngsters and the branch of the Federal Government that their parents are working for, and some cases where they are living in tax-exempt federally owned property, and we get them back. Now these men, Jackson and his personnel, go to Juneau, go to Fairbanks, go to Anchorage and give assistance, but there has never been one of those experts over here, and I believe we should have. In fact, Don Dafoe, the commissioner of education, has written down and suggested that, but that is as far as he got, and a recommendation coming from this committee might mean that we get Dr. Jackson or some of his assistants up here to give us some assistance on getting Federal moneys under 874.

Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Angell, I understand that you have a sheet of paper there with some names on it.

I might explain that this is not a recess, not a break, but it is a rather unique part of a public hearing by a committee of Congress, because for the next few minutes the most distinguished people in this room, with all due respect to the mayor and others, will be the younger generation. I think most of us are concerned with these problems up here mostly for the young people.

The Chair would direct that the names you have before you, which are the names of the youngsters who are here, be made a part of the formal record. I think it would be easier if you gave them to the official reporter rather than read them out.

(The list of names referred to follows:)

Sadie Bell, Joleyn Tucker, Margaret Willoya, William Willoya, Glen Tate, Ray Sectonoma, Sam Atuk, Stanley Senungutuk, Robert Dunbar, Helen Glavinovich, Paul Glavinovich, Chuck Fagerstrom, Tom Ipalook, Diane Boucher, Pearl Rotman, Anna Ailak, Madeline Mogg, Gladys Miller, Sigrid Olsen, accompanied by W. L. Angell, superintendent of schools and Mrs. Emma Cameron, English and Latin teacher and librarian.

Mr. O'BRIEN. I would like to explain briefly, if I may, to the young people just wbat this is all about.

(Discussion off the record.)
Mr. O'BRIEN. We will now return to the formal part of the hearing.
Mr. ABBOTT. Dr. Langsam?
(No response.)
Nr. ABBOTT. Mr. Walsh. Please state your full name and position.

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Mr. WALSH. My name is James M. Walsh. I represent Pan
American Airways.

Mr. O'BRIEN. You may proceed.

Mr. Walsh. Hon. Leo W. O'Brien, chairman, and members of the House Subcommittee on Territories and Insular Possessions, Delegate Bartlett, dignitaries, ladies and gentlemen, it has befallen me to bring to you today the problem we are experiencing with our airport. This airport was constructed in 1942 when it became necessary to fly aircraft from the United States to Soviet Russia to aid in the war effort.

Construction was carried on under the direction of the Civil Aeronautics Administration and that agency holds a lease on the ground from the United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. This lease will expire in 1980. Custody of the airport is vested in the Civil Aeronautics Administration.

With the construction of this airport it became possible for the Air Force and the commercial airlines to service Nome with multiengine equipment from Fairbanks, Anchorage, and Seattle. Today there are three commercial carriers serving Nome from outside points. Alaska Airlines serves it from Anchorage, Wien Alaska Airlines from Fairbanks, and Pan American World Airways from Seattle via Fairbanks.

That air service for Nome has become of vital importance can be attested to by the fact that there is no other means of transportation available. The exception to this is the fact that during approximately 5 months there is water transportation for cargo only from Seattle. Please note carefully that the service is for cargo only-no passengers may travel on these ships. Because of the fact that there are no railroads nor highways to connect Nome with Fairbanks or Anchorage where a connection could be made with the Alaska Highway travel by this means is out of the question.

This enforced isolation has been overcome by airplanes. However, the best air service is only as good as its airports. The air service to Nome is now in jeopardy through the fact that the Nome airport is in sore need of repairs. In fact, it has deteriorated to such an extent as to become a hazard.

Action of the permafrost, destroying the foundation surface, broken drains and fractured surfacing are the direct causes of the present condition of the runways. Undulations and broken surface make landings extremely rough. Yet it must be used because we have no alternate airport to which to turn.

An extensive survey was conducted by the Civil Aeronautics Administration during the past summer to determine the extent of this deterioration. This was completed only about 2 weeks ago and it is unfortunate that the data gleaned from this survey has not yet been compiled and is not available. However, from the survey it will be determined that:

1. The airport will be repaired; or

2. The cost of such repairs will be so great as to make it more economical to construct a new airport.

V.s. B

of cargo.

That the responsibility for building and maintaining such an airport rests with the Federal Government is obvious. The city of Nome could not finance or support such a project.

Since the Air Force employs the field to such a great extent it should be held responsible for a share of the burden of maintaining this facility. From this airport outposts on Bering Straits and St. Lawrence are serviced on a regular schedule. Unfortunately no figures are available to show the number of passengers, cargo, and mail tonnages which has been carried into Nome field on military aircraft.

The records maintained by the Civil Aeronautics Administration indicate that during 1954 there were 1,100 military and 832 civilian aircraft landings on this airport. As of September 1, 1955, there were 672 military and 653 civilian aircraft landings. These figures are for multiengine aircraft.

From what figures as are available we have learned that since January 1, 1954, 3,347 passengers, 650,554 pounds of mail, and 1,380,081 pounds of cargo were landed at Nome field in civilian aircraft. For the same period the commercial carriers took from Nome 4,061 passengers, 189,352 pounds of mail and 173,865 pounds

From the foregoing figures it is not at all difficult to realize the great importance of the airport to Nome and the Seward Peninsula. The lift necessary to accommodate such large numbers of passengers and amounts of cargo and mail demands larger aircraft. Such craft demand better airports. To answer this need one airline inaugurated a DC6B service to Nome in June of 1954, but due to the pronounced deterioration of the runways in the spring of the current year it was necessary to revert to the smaller, nonpressurized DC4 craft.

For quite some time the first 1,500 feet of the north runway has been closed to all aircraft because of the severe undulations. The west side of this runway is useless for the same reason. The south half of the west runway and the north half of the east runway became very soft this spring during the thaw and could not be used safely. Since these bad areas have not been repaired it is not difficult to imagine the deterioration which will take place next spring when the thaw commences. It will not be at all surprising if it becomes necessary to suspend the operations of the DC4 equipment from the airport.

Speaking in behalf of the people of Nome and the Seward Peninsula let it be clearly understood that because of our isolated position, and in the interests of safety, of the continued growth and development of our area and for the purposes of defense that it is mandatory that our airport be repaired to the extent that it will accommodate the most modern four-engine aircraft. Should this prove too expensive then a new airport must be constructed.

Mere repair or new construction will not be sufficient if adequate funds are not furnished afterward to maintain the facility in the best possible condition so that it will never again become a liability.

Therefore we earnestly entreat with your committee to take under the most serious consideration any request for funds which the Civil Aeronautics Administration might make for the repair of our present airport or the construction of a new one. Without such a facility we

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of this area are doomed to the isolation we experienced prior to the
advent of the airplane.

Thank you.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Any questions?

Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. Walsh, do you have any information as to how much a new field might cost?

Mr. Walsh. I am sorry, Mr. Bartlett, I could not answer that.

Mr. BARTLETT. The data as to costs and conditions of the field with respect to repair will be available, though, as soon as the CAA report is made?

Mr. Walsh. As soon as they compile the information; yes.

Mr. BARTLETT. Does the CAA have the maintenance costs of the present field, such as they are now? Mr. Walsh. Yes, I understand they do. That is correct.

; Mr. BARTLETT. And if you had to revert to a DC-3 operation here, what would be the end result of that? Would that be a satisfactory operation for this area?

Mr. Walsh. It wouldn't. No; it wouldn't be what is needed to Nome. With the increased activity and development, we need larger aircraft. We need DC-4 and DC-6 aircraft.

Mr. BARTLETT. How many months a year do you have to depend exclusively on air for transportation?

Mr. WALSH. In regard to passengers, it is the entire year. Insofar as freight is concerned or cargo, we can receive cargo for approximately 5 months during the summer months by water from Seattle. Insofar as the mail is concerned, the mail is no longer carried on the boat. It used to be at one time but it all moves by air now.

Mr. BARTLETT. Thank you, Mr. Walsh. Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Dawson? Mr. Dawson. If the airport were repaired, would Pan American be in a position to make any commitment in regard to carrying drugs and other cargo on a through basis?

Mr. Walsh. Oh, yes; Pan American would be delighted to resume the DC-6B service. I am sure of that. Mr. Dawson. Then you did formerly have through service?

Mr. WALSH. That is right. We maintain a through service from
Seattle now on a once-a-week frequency.

Mr. DAWSON. That is all.
Mr. O'BRIEN. Mr. Abbott.
Mr. ABBOTT. You have no quarrel with the presentation as it was
made by Mr. Harwood here?

Mr. Walsh. No; I have no quarrel with Mr. Harwood's presentation.

Mr. Abbott. I am speaking, of course, of the views as expressed by Mr. Harwood. But a decision has to be made, does it not, in view of the title to the land on the Air Force strip here, as to whether it would be feasible economically and timewise to rehabilitate that stripor whether you can extend or expand your civilian strip here? Is that correct?

Mr. Walsh. That is correct; yes.
Mr. O'Brien. Thank you, Mr. Walsh.

Mr. ABBOTT. Ben Young. Would you state your name, residence, and position, please?


STATEMENT OF BEN YOUNG, NOME, ALASKA Mr. Young. My name is Ben Young. I am in the oil business here.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, ladies and gentlemen, I am sorry that this particular subject on roads was not turned over to somebody who could really do it justice.

It is important to the second division. It is vital to the welfare of this part of the country, and I hope there will be some results from this hearing.

We are not asking for a handout from the Federal Government on roads. We are asking for a fair share in something that the rest of the Territory has been receiving for the past years. We are asking for a share proportionate with the needs of the second division.

The road system in the second division has been seriously retarded due to the lack of funds. The Territory has realized the necessity of

. increasing the road funds by an increase in the motor fuel tax, but the funds from this source are still inadequate. The cost of road construction is high-$15,000 to $100,000 per mile.

. The Territory' does not participate in the Federal Aid Highway Act as do the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Puerto Rico. There are several Federal agencies that do expend money for roads in the Territory. In the first and third divisions, the Bureau of Public Roads, the Forest Service have developed the road system to a great extent. They build no roads in the second division. They don't function here. They don't operate.

In the third and fourth divisions the military has spent vast sums building roads in the last 15 years. The military has built no roads in the second division, at least none to my knowledge.

The Alaska Road Commission does build roads in all four divisions. Out of $17 million appropriated for the Alaska Road Commission in 1954, the second received about $160,000. Out of the $17 million for road maintenance. Nothing for new construction.

We don't blame the Alaska Road Commission for this. When the Alaska Road Commission sets up their priorities in the program they must appear before Congress, as I understand it, and their program is passed on by Congress.

The total road mileage in the Territory is in the neighborhood of 4,000 miles. The mileage in the second division is under 250 miles.

Nome-Taylor Road should be completed. This road would tie Nome to Taylor and the tin-producing areas beyond.

A road from Unity to Kaltag would cut many miles off the river route up the Yukon.

But our No. 1 project now for the second division is the trunk highway from Nome to Fairbanks. This road would serve a highly mineralized area in the Seward Peninsula, an area served only by air now. It would serve the Hog River area, which is just coming into production and has a gold producing potential equal to or greater than the Nome and Fairbanks area. This road would be the northwestern link in the Pan American Highway, wbich extends from the southern tip of South America and, with a few exceptions in Central America, and possibly a spot or two in South America, is completed to Fairbanks. With these exceptions, one can drive from the Argentine to

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