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more she requires to produce ; new for a long time evinced an earnest
markets are perpetually required desire to devise some mode of ame-
by her. She every day sees Eu- liorating the hard condition of the
rope and America disputing some persons employed in the factories.
of them with her ; in order to keep He thinks that the condition of that
the whole of them, and, if possible, class of individuals may be greatly
to procure new ones, she takes up ameliorated, and the country at
fresh positions in Africa and the same time much benefited, by
America ; she extends her Indian attaining the following three re-
possessions ; and, finally, she goes sults:—first, by maintaining and
to war with China. After having augmenting the amount of labour ;
kept up the most rigorous protect- secondly, by lowering the price of
ive system for many ages, after the necessaries of life of the labour-
having derived from that system ing classes ; and lastly, by dimi-
all the advantages possible, Eng- nishing the terrible oscillations to
land skilfully, and under pretext of which those prices are exposed.
being driven to it by a scarcity of Such is the triple end proposed by
corn, enters upon the system of Sir R. Peel, and which has pro-
free exchange, and at the same duced the principal measures at
time calls upon the other Powers present being discussed in the
to do the same. In order that English Parliament, particularly
her example be good to imitate, we that which relates to the Corn
should be in the condition in which Laws. I think that all friends of
England is. We should not enter humanity, all friends of social order
the lists except upon equal terms. ought ardently to desire the suc-
But what nation possesses so much cess of the measures proposed by
capital, such manufactures, such Sir R. Peel. I feel convinced
machinery, such manufacturing re- that the Chamber desires the ac-
sources, or so many ships as Eng- complishment of those measures
land ? What people rules over so which have for their object the
many countries as England, and strengthening social order by ame-
over such a numerous colonial peo- liorating and consolidating the con-
ple? England is liberal only where dition of a large portion of the
she has nothing to apprehend from population.
pursuing a system of liberality. M. Grandin.-—"Very well ; if

But still greater interest at- not at our expense.
taches to what fell from M. Gui- M. Guizot.-"I do not propose to
zot in the course of the same attack the side of the question to
discussion, when he directly re- which the interpolation of the ho-
ferred to the great measure of nourable member seems to refer.
Corn Law repeal, brought forward I think it is evident to every one,
in the British Parliament by Sir that the measures which are being
R. Peel. It will be seen that the discussed in the British Parliament
language of the first statesman in contain nothing to our prejudice.
France, when commenting on the No person, gentlemen, can be more
policy of England, is entirely free friendly than myself to, I will say,
from the invidious tone which the preponderance of agricultural
marked the speech of the Minister interest in a great country. I am
of Commerce.

convinced that it is upon that interM. Guizot said: “Sir R. Peel has est that mainly repose the pro

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sperity and the security of the social the object of commercial treaties ?' state. No person can be ignorant Did you not say yourself that it that (in England in particular) it was much better not to conclude is to the uence of the landed them, and to confine oneself to reproprietors, to the influence of what ciprocal tariff modifications ? I is usually tormed the territorial have stated such to be my opinion, aristocracy, that England owes her and I am far from altering it.” power, and a great portion of her During a discussion on the estiliberties and of her prosperity. I mates, which took place on the am persuaded that Sir R. Peel 27th of May and two following never entertained an idea of taking days, M. Thiers seized the opporfrom the landed interest the as- tunity of making a long and enercendancy which it so happily pos- getic attack upon the policy of Misesses in England. He thought nisters ; and he was ably replied to that he would be enabled to im- by M. Guizot. These two speeches prove the condition of the manu- were the most interesting that ocfacturing classes without altering curred during the Session, and we, the institutions of his country. I therefore, give them at greater hope that he will succeed in this length than usual. The immedidouble end. Now let us turn to ate occasion of the debate was an France : The first of these mea- amendment proposed by M. Odillon sures, the social reform which in- Barrot, to reduce, by 10,000 francs, terests the manufacturing popula- the item in the budget of the tion, I do not hesitate to say is not Minister of the Interior for the applicable to this country. Not payment of the Secret Police. that the condition of the manufac- M. Thiers said, that it was in turing classes is not capable of order not to interrupt the discusmany ameliorations ; but there is sion of the Chapters that he adno comparison in that respect be- dressed the Chamber at that motween England and France. With ment. He stood there to support us the agricultural population do- by anticipation the amendment of minates ; the manufacturing po- M. Odillon Barrot. The Chamber pulation is very inferior in point of would comprehend that it was not numbers, and it is not subject to a vote that he came forward to sothose violent oscillations from which licit, nor did he want, on the eve the manufacturing population of of an election, to excite men's England suffer so severely. I con- minds by a highly coloured picture ceive that we ought to proceed of grievances. His only design with more moderation, more pru- was to expose to all impartial and dence, more reserve, than the Eng- enlightened men the motives of his lish Minister, in our reforms, in opposition. In his opinion a rethis respect. When we look nar- action had been for some years rowly into the reforms proposed by going on, not of a violent character, Sir R. Peel and their motives, it for such could not take place in will be seen that those great re- the present times, but a moderate forms are not in anywise applicable reaction, such as had been manito France. I will but make one fested at the Revolution of 1830. more observation, and which will He had contributed to found and answer a question proposed to me consolidate the present Governby M. Lestiboudois :- What is ment, and he now attacked it, not in its essence-God forbid ! tion, the Government of the counbut in some of its acts --in the acts try was not to be rendered subject of its servants, the present Minis- to them; and that, if they were ters, who, in following their own hostile, it would be maintained tastes, imagined they were serving with a firm hand; the church should its interests.

Some months back be made to see that in preservhe said that all Governments com- ing to it its dotation and honours, menced by being right, and finished no principle was to be sacrificed. by being in the

wrong. He cited In fine, an able and prudent adthe Revolution, the Empire, and the ministration was required—an adRestoration ; the Revolution, hu- ministration, placing on a strong mane at first, and cruel afterwards; basis the navy, army, and finances. the Empire at first sage and well On these two conditions, of a peaceordered, and then despotic and mad ful and firm policy, and of a pruafter senseless conquests ; and, dent administration, the new Golastly, the Restoration, which came vernment could have arrived at the in 1815, as it declared, to preserve destiny of those officers of fortune, all lawful rights, and yet violated who, having become Catinats and in 1830 all the rights of the na- Vaubans, marched on an equality tion. Was the present Govern- with the Condes and Montmorencis. ment following the example of the He might be told that this was three preceding ones ? He should what it had been, and what it now say, what it ought to have been, was ; he would reply, "No, it is what it had been, and what it now what it commenced by being, but was, and then a judgment could be what it is no longer.” What was formed on the subject. He should seen at the origin of the Governfirst examine what its conduct ment ? A liberal alliance with ought to have been at its birth. England, which upheld the influThere were two courses open to ence of France in Europe. All it-a warlike or a pacific one. A the statesmen of the day were in government young and ardent, accordin endeavouring to put taking advantage of the enthusiasm down disorders without effusion of which prevailed in France, and the blood ; and when the Government agitation which pervaded Europe, demanded 100,000,000f. to commight endeavour to take a glorious plete the public monuments and vengeance for the events of 1815, public works, the Chamber gave but the result of such a course was it them, great as the sum was, doubtful, and that was sufficient to with confidence. The conduct of condemn it. The new Govern- the Government was then proper and ment beheld Europe, the higher prudent-such, in fact, as suited classes of society, and the church, their situation. But afterwards withdrawing from it. In such a that prudence was changed into position, the policy of the Govern- a desire to preserve their posiment should have been pacific and tions : it became mere inertness : moderate, but firm. Europe should and complete immovability appearhave been made to feel that France ed to govern all their acts. The wished for peace, not from fear, honourable deputy then proceeded but from calculation ; the upper to sketch the various circumstances classes of society should compre- in which this unwillingness to move hend that, in respecting their posi- was manifested. He instanced

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Spain, where France refused to States, her fundamental ally, and interfere; he referred to Belgium, France took the part of England. which, from the refusal of France The very utmost that the Governto act, had lost Luxembourg, and ment ought to have done, was to the French troops were obliged to have observed a kindly neutrality. evacuate Ancona. This last cir- But from all these concessions, had cumstance appeared so heinous France, at least, reaped any adthat then was formed the coalition, vantage ? No. In Syria, where in which M. Guizot, M. Duchatel, she asked for a little humanity to and the Duke de Broglie had united the Christian populations, her voice to overthrow the Molé ministry. was unheard ; and in Greece, Afterwards came the coolness be- where she only desired to see sound tween France and England. In policy established, her wishes were consequence of the checks which thwarted. It was said that peace arose from it, France desired to had been observed. He allowed take her revenge, and went to seek that peace was a great blessing ; it in the East. He had not placed but let the Chamber not forget, credit 'in the illusions which were that on the occasion of the miserentertained on this point; and, in able affair of the Marquesas, and fine, it came to pass that the eastern at the moment of the Pritchard question was lost like the others. amendment, France was nearer war What was the proper course to be than she had been for fifteen years pursued at the period just alluded before. The hon. Deputy here to ? Evidently to keep apart—in again referred to the state of a state of isolation, completely re- Spain, and accused the Governmoved from hostility; but it was ment of wishing to appear to exerdesired to renew the alliance, and cise an influence there, which, in for that purpose an extension of reality, it did not possess. He re. the right of search was conceded. ferred to the cases of Espartero The country became greatly agi- and Narvaez, both of whom were tated in consequence, and the Go- at first supported by the French vernment was obliged to demand Government, and then utterly negback the concessions that were lected. How, he would ask, was made. Then, to turn the atten- Spain situated at present ? Queen tion of the public mind in another Christina, whom he had been direction, a lure was thrown out, anxious to succour in her distress, and the expedition to the Marquesas and whom he had not flattered in was devised. Here, again, it was her prosperity, had admitted into found necessary to recoil, but this her heart à most unjustifiable time it was not before the country, hatred for the sons of her sister, but before England, that the with- and, under the influence of that drawal took place. Admiral Du- most lamentable sentiment, had petit-Thouars was disavowed, and sought in Naples a husband for an indemnity was granted to the her daughter in the Count de arrogant missionary who had caused Trapani. He had no intention to the blood of their soldiers to be give any opinion relative to that shed. But this was not all. Worse candidate, but every one well knew than this was done. A difference that the choice was impossible; he arose between England (the chance was opposed by all parties in Spain, ally of France) and the United and was particularly odious to the VOL. LXXXVIII.

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Moderado party. By that unhappy moderate, that of the Government selection, that Queen, whom France became more violent. But that could not devise the means of effec- only proved that the Opposition tually succouring, and whom she press was in the right. In 1830 had flattered beyond measure, had the moderate press belonged to the divided that party, and at present Opposition, the violent one to the that was the greatest difficulty in Government, and every one knew Spain. But to return to the policy what had taken place. The pursued in France. For some hon. deputy then reproached the years a change had been gradually Cabinet with departing from the going on in the majority. Whilst national party to draw closer to some men, and his own party the legitimist and religious one. amongst others, had separated He said that, though the journey from it, others had joined it. He to London to see the Duke of Borwas convinced that the greater deaux was attacked so violently by number had been influenced by the Government in the Chamber, honourable motives. But he must yet it showed itself very accombe permitted to say, that to many modating afterwards with the legithe attraction of power had been a timist party when the great quespredominant reason.

What was

tion of national education was at the consequence of this change? stake. The hon. deputy then Formerly the Government confined referred to the state of the navy, itself to defending itself against army, and finances. He accused parties ; it was, in fact, with hesi- the Government of allowing the tation that it ventured to avow a navy to fall to ruin, and said that candidate at the elections. At had not the Chambers interfered present the Government, far from it would have done nothing. The limiting its action to self-defence, army, he allowed, was active, assumed the offensive, and the re- ardent, and intelligent, but he sult of this conduct would be that denied that it was properly orin a short time the administration ganized ; the recruitment regulawould be nothing else than a poli- tions were insufficient, and the tical instrument. He admitted, cavalry was not certain of procurhowever, the right of the Govern- ing horses. In allusion to the ment to defend itself, but it ought state of the finances, he comto do so with some reserve—it plained of the loans that the ought to impose some reserve on State had been forced to contract, its defenders.

and adducing the example of the M. Guizot.—The Government father of Frederick the Great, who could not answer for newspaper had left his son an army and treaarticles.

sures which enabled him to conM. Thiers was glad to find quer Silesia, he declared that he that the hon. Minister understood could pardon the Government their his allusion. But though the Go- faults, if they left treasure suffivernment could not answer in all cient for a similar purpose. things for its defenders, yet there Next day M. Guizot ascended was between a Ministry and the the tribune, and said that, in rejournals which defended it a cer- plying to the observations of the tain common bond. Whilst of late hon. M. Thiers, he should enthe Opposition press became more deavour to avoid all personal re

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